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monocytes subset

Chung-Sheng Shi, Tzu-Hsiung Huang, Chin-Kuo Lin, Jhy-Ming Li, Mei-Hsin Chen, Mei-Ling Tsai, Chih-Ching Chang
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation is a life-saving procedure for patients with acute respiratory failure, although it may cause pulmonary vascular inflammation and leakage, leading to ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI). Ly6C+high monocytes are involved in the pathogenesis of VILI. In this study, we investigated whether pulmonary infiltrated Ly6C+high monocytes produce vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and contribute to VILI. METHODS: A clinically relevant two-hit mouse model of VILI, with intravenous lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 20 ng/mouse) immediately before high tidal volume (HTV, 20 mL/kg) ventilation (LPS+HTV), was established...
2016: PloS One
Alexander Mildner, Goran Marinkovic, Steffen Jung
Monocytes are short-lived mononuclear phagocytes that circulate in the bloodstream and comprise two main subpopulations that in the mouse are best defined by the Ly6C marker. Intravascular functions of "classical" Ly6C+ monocytes and their interactions with other lymphoid and myeloid leukocytes in the circulation remain poorly understood. Rather, these cells are known to efficiently extravasate into tissues. Indeed, Ly6C+ monocytes and their descendants have emerged as a third, highly plastic and dynamic cellular system that complements the two classical, tissue-resident mononuclear phagocyte compartments, i...
October 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Christophe von Garnier, Fabian Blank, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Joachim R Goethert, Patrick G Holt, Philip A Stumbles, Deborah H Strickland
The pulmonary parenchymal and mucosal microenvironments are constantly exposed to the external environment and thus require continuous surveillance to maintain steady-state immunological homeostasis. This is achieved by a mobile network of pulmonary dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (mø) that constantly sample and process microenvironmental antigens into signals that can initiate or dampen inflammation, either locally or after onward migration to draining lymph nodes. The constant steady-state turnover of pulmonary DC and mø requires replenishment from bone-marrow precursors, however the nature of the pulmonary precursor cell remains unclear, although recent studies suggest that subsets of pulmonary DC may derive from circulating monocytic precursors...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Marzena Lenart, Magdalena Rutkowska-Zapała, Rafał Szatanek, Kazimierz Węglarczyk, Małgorzata Stec, Karolina Bukowska-Strakova, Anna Gruca, Jarosław Czyż, Maciej Siedlar
Tripartite motif-containing protein 21 (TRIM21) play a dual role in the cytoplasm of the cells where it facilitates destruction of some antibody-coated viruses and some bacteria, and initiates synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines. Macrophages and CD16(+) monocyte subset can particularly participate in a proinflammatory response caused by viral infection, however, the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to determine the level of TRIM21-mRNA expression in monocyte subsets including: classical (CD14(++)CD16(-)), intermediate (CD14(++)CD16(+)) and non-classical (CD14(+)CD16(++)) monocytes, as well as during in vitro differentiation of the isolated monocytes towards dendritic cells or macrophages...
October 18, 2016: Immunobiology
Daniela Damasceno, Martín Pérez Andrés, Wouter Bl van den Bossche, Juan Flores-Montero, Sandra de Bruin, Cristina Teodosio, Jacques Jm van Dongen, Alberto Orfao, Julia Almeida
Although major steps have been recently made in understanding the role of the distinct subsets of dendritic cells (DC)/antigen-presenting cells (APC), further studies are required to unravel their precise role, including in-depth immunophenotypic characterisation of these cells. Here, we used eight-colour flow cytometry to investigate the reactivity of a panel of 72 monoclonal antibodies (including those clustered in seven new Cluster of Differentiation, CD) on different subsets of APC in peripheral blood (PB) samples from five healthy adults...
September 2016: Clinical & Translational Immunology
Rachel M Kratofil, Paul Kubes, Justin F Deniset
Monocytes are circulating leukocytes important in both innate and adaptive immunity, primarily functioning in immune defense, inflammation, and tissue remodeling. There are 2 subsets of monocytes in mice (3 subsets in humans) that are mobilized from the bone marrow and recruited to sites of inflammation, where they carry out their respective functions in promoting inflammation or facilitating tissue repair. Our understanding of the fate of these monocyte subsets at the site of inflammation is constantly evolving...
October 20, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Kun Taek Park, Mahmoud M ElNaggar, Gaber S Abdellrazeq, John P Bannantine, Victoria Mack, Lindsay M Fry, William C Davis
Phylogenic comparisons of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) of humans and mice demonstrate phenotypic divergence of dendritic cell (DC) subsets that play similar roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Although differing in phenotype, DC can be classified into four groups according to ontogeny and function: conventional DC (cDC1 and cDC2), plasmacytoid DC (pDC), and monocyte derived DC (MoDC). DC of Artiodactyla (pigs and ruminants) can also be sub-classified using this system, allowing direct functional and phenotypic comparison of MoDC and other DC subsets trafficking in blood (bDC)...
2016: PloS One
Alicia Martinez-Varea, Roberto Romero, Yi Xu, Derek Miller, Ahmed I Ahmed, Piya Chaemsaithong, Noppadol Chaiyasit, Lami Yeo, Majid Shaman, Kia Lannaman, Benjamin Cher, Sonia S Hassan, Nardhy Gomez-Lopez
OBJECTIVES: 1) To characterize the cellular composition of the amniotic fluid of patients diagnosed with clinical chorioamnionitis at term, as a function of the presence or absence of microorganisms determined by cultivation techniques, and 2) to characterize the cytokine production by white blood cells present in the amniotic fluid using flow cytometry-based techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Amniotic fluid samples from 20 women who had the diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis at term were analyzed using cultivation techniques (for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as genital Mycoplasmas)...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Enrico Ammirati, Francesco Moroni, Marco Magnoni, Simona Di Terlizzi, Chiara Villa, Federico Sizzano, Alessio Palini, Katia Garlaschelli, Fernanda Tripiciano, Isabella Scotti, Alberico Luigi Catapano, Angelo A Manfredi, Giuseppe Danilo Norata, Paolo G Camici
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Monocytes are known to play a key role in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis and contribute to plaque destabilization through the generation of signals that promote inflammation and neoangiogenesis. In humans, studies investigating the features of circulating monocytes in advanced atherosclerotic lesions are lacking. METHODS: Patients (mean age 69 years, 56% males) with intermediate asymptomatic carotid stenosis (40-70% in diameter) were evaluated for maximal stenosis in common carotid artery, carotid bulb and internal carotid artery, overall disease burden as estimated with total plaque area (TPA), greyscale and neovascularization in 244 advanced carotid plaques...
October 6, 2016: Atherosclerosis
Jingwei Jiang, Qingmin Gao, Tian Wang, Hao Lin, Qiong Zhan, Zhaohui Chu, Ruofan Huang, Xinli Zhou, Xiaohua Liang, Weijian Guo
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a group of heterogeneous myeloid cells that can suppress antitumor immunity. MDSCs are divided into granulocytic (G‑MDSCs) and monocytic subsets. In the present study, the microRNA profiles of the G‑MDSCs were determined and the differential expression of microRNAs between G‑MDSCs from tumor‑bearing mice and tumor‑free mice was examined. The number of G‑MDSCs in spleens of Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC)‑bearing mice was ~6‑fold higher than in spleens of normal mice (13...
October 13, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Kevin V Chow, Robyn M Sutherland, Yifan Zhan, Andrew M Lew
Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen presenting cells that consist of functionally and phenotypically heterogeneous populations. Monocyte derived dendritic cells (moDCs) are a DC subset that have been attracting increasing interest due to their potent influence on adaptive immune function and their rapid accumulation upon an inflammatory stimulus. Whilst early studies on moDCs mainly addressed infection, their emergence and function in other settings such as autoimmunity and allogeneic organ transplantation are now being increasingly appreciated...
October 17, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
Yosuke Kameda, Motoki Hanayama, Atsushi Kishimoto, Masahiko Kume, Kazuo Yamamoto, Naoki Matsumoto
Dendritic cell inhibitory receptor 4 (DCIR4, Clec4a1) is a lectin receptor and a member of mouse dendritic cell immunoreceptor family. Due to the lack of antibodies against DCIR4, expression of DCIR4 protein remains unknown. In this study, we established a specific monoclonal antibody against DCIR4 and investigated the expression of DCIR4 among immune cells. We found that DCIR4 was expressed on non-granulocytic subsets of CD11b(+) cells in various immune organs including bone marrow, peripheral blood, spleen, skin-associated lymph nodes and mesenteric lymph nodes...
October 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Jennifer Jurkin, Corinna Krump, René Köffel, Christina Fieber, Christopher Schuster, Patrick M Brunner, Izabela Borek, Gregor Eisenwort, Clarice Lim, Jörg Mages, Roland Lang, Wolfgang Bauer, Diana Mechtcheriakova, Anastasia Meshcheryakova, Adelheid Elbe-Bürger, Georg Stingl, Herbert Strobl
BACKGROUND: Langerhans cell (LC) networks play key roles in immunity and tolerance at body surfaces. LCs are established prenatally and can be replenished from blood monocytes. Unlike skin-resident dermal/interstitial-type DCs (d/intDCs) and inflammatory dendritic epidermal cells (IDECs) appearing in dermatitis/eczema lesions, LCs lack key monocyte-affiliated markers. Inversely, LCs express various epithelial genes critical for their long-term peripheral tissue residency. OBJECTIVE: DCs are functionally involved in inflammatory diseases; however, mechanisms remained poorly understood...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Filip K Swirski, Matthias Nahrendorf, Peter Libby
Inflammation furnishes a series of pathogenic pathways that couple the risk factors for atherosclerosis with altered behavior of the intrinsic cells of the arterial wall, endothelium, and smooth muscle and promote the disease and its complications. Myeloid cells participate critically in all phases of atherosclerosis from initiation through progression, and ultimately the thrombotic consequences of this disease. Foam cells, lipid-laden macrophages, constitute the hallmark of atheromata. Much of the recent expansion in knowledge of the roles of myeloid cells in atherosclerosis revolves around the functional contributions of subsets of monocytes, precursors of macrophages, the most abundant myeloid cells in the atheroma...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
Henry Hui, Kathy A Fuller, Wendy N Erber, Matthew D Linden
Platelets are subcellular blood elements with a well-established role in haemostasis. Upon activation platelets undergo granule exocytosis, resulting in α-granule P-Selectin being expressed on the cell membrane. This allows binding of activated platelets to P-Selectin glycoprotein ligand 1 (PSGL-1) expressing leukocytes, forming leukocyte-platelet aggregates (LPAs). Whole blood flow cytometry (FCM) has demonstrated that elevated circulating LPAs (especially monocyte LPAs) are linked to atherothrombosis in high risk patients, and that activated platelet binding influences monocytes towards a pro-adhesive and pro-atherogenic phenotype...
October 5, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
Priyanka Gaur, Arpita Myles, Ramnath Misra, Amita Aggarwal
Microarray of peripheral blood (PB) and synovial fluid mononuclear cells (PBMC, SFMC) of patients with Enthesitis-related-arthritis (JIA-ERA) has shown the involvement of monocytes. On basis of CD14 and CD16 expression monocytes are classified as classical, intermediate and non-classical. In response to Toll-like Receptor (TLR) stimulation intermediate-monocytes produce pro-inflammatory cytokines and play a role in inflammatory diseases. Thus we have studied the microarray profile of monocytes, frequency of their subsets and cytokine production...
October 5, 2016: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Aurélie Gabrion, Isabelle Hmitou, Despina Moshous, Bénédicte Neven, Alain Lefèvre-Utile, Jean-Sébastien Diana, Félipe Suarez, Capucine Picard, Stéphane Blanche, Alain Fischer, Marina Cavazzana, Fabien Touzot
BACKGROUND: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is primary immunodeficiency caused by defective production of reactive oxygen species in phagocytic cells that results in life-threatening infections and severe inflammatory manifestations. The treatment of inflammatory manifestations remains challenging, as it can be associated with an increased risk of infections. Previous studies have shown that CGD phagocytes display a defect in autophagy and a reactive oxygen species-independent activation of the inflammasome...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Katharine M Irvine, Xuan Banh, Victoria L Gadd, Kyle K Wojcik, Juliana K Ariffin, Sara Jose, Samuel Lukowski, Gregory J Baillie, Matthew J Sweet, Elizabeth E Powell
Infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with decompensated cirrhosis and ascites. Hypothesizing that innate immune dysfunction contributes to susceptibility to infection, we assessed ascitic fluid macrophage phenotype and function. The expression of complement receptor of the immunoglobulin superfamily (CRIg) and CCR2 defined two phenotypically and functionally distinct peritoneal macrophage subpopulations. The proportion of CRIg(hi) macrophages differed between patients and in the same patient over time, and a high proportion of CRIg(hi) macrophages was associated with reduced disease severity (model for end-stage liver disease) score...
June 2, 2016: JCI Insight
Genki Suenaga, Tokunori Ikeda, Yoshihiro Komohara, Koutaro Takamatsu, Tatsuyuki Kakuma, Masayoshi Tasaki, Yohei Misumi, Mitsuharu Ueda, Takaaki Ito, Satoru Senju, Yukio Ando
We hypothesized that tissue-resident macrophages in familial amyloid polyneuropathy (FAP) patients will exhibit qualitative or quantitative abnormalities, that may accelerate transthyretin (TTR)-derived amyloid deposition. To evaluate this, we examined the number and subset of tissue-resident macrophages in heart tissue from amyloid-deposited FAP and control patients. In both FAP and control patients, tissue-resident macrophages in heart tissue were all Iba+/CD163+/CD206+ macrophages. However, the number of macrophages was significantly decreased in FAP patients compared with control patients...
2016: PloS One
Delgertsetseg Chuluundorj, Scott A Harding, David Abernethy, Anne Camille La Flamme
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the CNS, and monocytes contribute to MS-associated neuroinflammation. While classically-activated monocytes promote inflammation, type II-activated monocytes improve the course of MS. This study investigated type II activation of monocytes and their two main subsets, namely CD14(+) (CD14(++)CD16(-)subset) and CD16(+) monocytes (CD14(+)CD16(+)subset), by glatiramer acetate (GA) or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG)-associated immune complexes (IC), both of which are known MS treatments...
October 3, 2016: Immunology and Cell Biology
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