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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332538/role-of-infiltrating-monocytes-in-the-development-of-radiation-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#1
Angela M Groves, Carl J Johnston, Jacqueline P Williams, Jacob N Finkelstein
Lung exposure to radiation induces an injury response that includes the release of cytokines and chemotactic mediators; these signals recruit immune cells to execute inflammatory and wound-healing processes. However, radiation alters the pulmonary microenvironment, dysregulating the immune responses and preventing a return to homeostasis. Importantly, dysregulation is observed as a chronic inflammation, which can progress into pneumonitis and promote pulmonary fibrosis; inflammatory monocytes, which are bone marrow derived and express CCR2, have been shown to migrate into the lung after radiation exposure...
January 13, 2018: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331029/characterization-of-cd34-hematopoietic-cells-in-systemic-mastocytosis-potential-role-in-disease-dissemination
#2
Andrea Mayado, Cristina Teodosio, Noelia Dasilva Freire, Maria Jara-Acevedo, Andrés C Garcia-Montero, Ivan Álvarez-Twose, Laura Sánchez-Muñoz, Almudena Matito, Carolina Caldas, Javier I Muñoz-González, Ana Henriques, José I Sánchez-Gallego, Luis Escribano, Alberto Orfao
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that most systemic mastocytosis (SM) patients, including indolent SM (ISM) with (ISMs+) and without skin lesions (ISMs-), carry the KIT D816V mutation in PB leukocytes. We investigated the potential association between the degree of involvement of BM hematopoiesis by the KIT D816V mutation and the distribution of different maturation-associated compartments of bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) CD34+ hematopoietic precursors (HPC) in ISM, and identified the specific PB cell compartments that carry this mutation...
January 13, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323337/regulatory-t-cells-as-a-new-therapeutic-target-for-atherosclerosis
#3
REVIEW
Han-Xiao Ou, Bing-Bing Guo, Qi Liu, Yu-Kun Li, Zhen Yang, Wen-Jie Feng, Zhong-Cheng Mo
Atherosclerosis is an autoimmune disease caused by self- and non-self-antigens contributing to excessive activation of T and B cell immune responses. These responses further aggravate vascular inflammation and promote progression of atherosclerosis and vulnerability to plaques via releasing pro-inflammatory cytokines. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) as the major immunoregulatory cells, in particular, induce and maintain immune homeostasis and tolerance by suppressing the immune responses of various cells such as T and B cells, natural killer (NK) cells, monocytes, and dendritic cells (DCs), as well as by secreting inhibitory cytokines interleukin (IL)-10, IL-35 and transcription growth factor β (TGF-β) in both physiological and pathological states...
January 11, 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321062/notch-signaling-triggered-via-the-ligand-dll4-impedes-m2-macrophage-differentiation-and-promotes-their-apoptosis
#4
Sylvain Pagie, Nathalie Gérard, Béatrice Charreau
BACKGROUND: Notch signaling controls many cellular processes, including cell fate determination, cell differentiation, proliferation and apoptosis. In mammals, four Notch receptors (Notch 1-4) can interact with five distinct ligands [Jagged1, Jagged2, Delta-like 1 (DLL1), DLL3, and DLL4]. We previously reported that Notch activation is modulated in endothelial cells and monocytes during inflammation and showed that inflammation upregulates DLL4 on endothelial cells. DLL4 promotes differentiation of blood monocytes into proinflammatory M1 macrophages...
January 10, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320502/impaired-ifn-%C3%AE-mediated-signal-in-dendritic-cells-differentiates-active-from-latent-tuberculosis
#5
Stefania Parlato, Teresa Chiacchio, Debora Salerno, Linda Petrone, Luciano Castiello, Giulia Romagnoli, Irene Canini, Delia Goletti, Lucia Gabriele
Individuals exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may be infected and remain for the entire life in this condition defined as latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) or develop active tuberculosis (TB). Among the multiple factors governing the outcome of the infection, dendritic cells (DCs) play a major role in dictating antibacterial immunity. However, current knowledge on the role of the diverse components of human DCs in shaping specific T-cell response during Mtb infection is limited. In this study, we performed a comparative evaluation of peripheral blood circulating DC subsets as well as of monocyte-derived Interferon-α DCs (IFN-DCs) from patients with active TB, subjects with LTBI and healthy donors (HD)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314605/transcriptome-profiling-of-peripheral-blood-immune-cell-populations-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-before-and-during-treatment-with-a-sphingosine-1-phosphate-receptor-modulator
#6
Ines C Angerer, Michael Hecker, Dirk Koczan, Luisa Roch, Jörg Friess, Annelen Rüge, Brit Fitzner, Nina Boxberger, Ina Schröder, Kristin Flechtner, Hans-Jürgen Thiesen, Alexander Winkelmann, Stefanie Meister, Uwe K Zettl
AIMS: Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulator approved for the treatment of the relapsing form of multiple sclerosis (MS). It prevents the egress of lymphocyte subpopulations from lymphoid tissues into the circulation. Here, we explored the broad effects of fingolimod on gene expression in different immune cell subsets. METHODS: Utilizing 150 high-resolution microarrays from Affymetrix, we obtained the transcriptome profiles of 5 cell populations, which were separated from the peripheral blood of MS patients prior to and following oral administration of fingolimod...
January 3, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313948/human-dendritic-cell-subsets-an-update
#7
REVIEW
Matthew Collin, Venetia Bigley
Dendritic cells (DC) are a class of bone marrow derived cells arising from lympho-myeloid haematopoiesis that form an essential interface between the innate sensing of pathogens and the activation of adaptive immunity. This task requires a wide range of mechanisms and responses, which are divided between three major DC subsets: plasmacytoid DC (pDC), myeloid/conventional DC1 (cDC1) and myeloid/conventional DC2 (cDC2). Each DC subset develops under the control of a specific repertoire of transcription factors involving differential levels of IRF8 and IRF4 in collaboration with PU...
January 3, 2018: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313809/parp1-facilitates-ep300-recruitment-to-the-promoters-of-the-subset-of-rbl2-dependent-genes
#8
Agnieszka Robaszkiewicz, Ewelina Wiśnik, Zsolt Regdon, Kinga Chmielewska, László Virág
Differentiation of human monocytes is associated with proliferation arrest resulting from activation of the inter alia retinoblastoma protein family of gene repressors, which target gene promoters in an E2F-dependent manner. To investigate RBL2 contribution to defining monocyte phenotype and function, we used primer libraries. We identified genes encoding two surface receptors (CXCR1 and IL17RE) and two TLR signaling mediators (CD86 and NFKB2) that are repressed by the RBL2-E2F4-HDAC1-BRM complex. Surprisingly, PARP1 co-regulated 24 out of the 28 identified genes controlled by RBL2...
December 4, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313268/trajectories-of-circulating-monocyte-subsets-after-st-elevation-myocardial-infarction-during-hospitalization-latent-class-growth-modeling-for-high-risk-patient-identification
#9
Shan Zeng, Li-Fang Yan, Yan-Wei Luo, Xin-Lin Liu, Jun-Xiang Liu, Zhao-Zeng Guo, Zhong-Wei Xu, Yu-Ming Li, Wen-Jie Ji, Xin Zhou
It remains unclear if the developmental trajectories of a specific inflammatory biomarker during the acute phase of ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) provide outcome prediction. By applying latent class growth modeling (LCGM), we identified three distinctive trajectories of CD14++CD16+ monocytes using serial flow cytometry assays from day 1 to day 7 of symptom onset in 96 de novo STEMI patients underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Membership in the high-hump-shaped trajectory (16.8%) independently predicted adverse cardiovascular outcomes during a median follow-up of 2...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306950/immune-consequences-of-in-vitro-infection-of-human-peripheral-blood-leukocytes-with-vesicular-stomatitis-virus
#10
Tomasz Tomczyk, Grażyna Wróbel, Radosław Chaber, Iwona Siemieniec, Egbert Piasecki, Małgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka, Beata U Orzechowska
BACKGROUND: Oncolytic vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) can be delivered intravenously to target primary and metastatic lesions, but the interaction between human peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and VSV remains poorly understood. Our study aimed to assess the overall immunological consequences of ex vivo infection of PBLs with VSV. METHODS: Phenotypic analysis of lymphocyte subsets and apoptosis were evaluated with flow cytometry. Caspase 3/7 activity was detected by luminescence assay...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306019/sirt1-and-hif1%C3%AE-signaling-in-metabolism-and-immune-responses
#11
Qing Yu, Lin Dong, Yan Li, Gaungwei Liu
SIRT1 and HIF1α are regarded as two key metabolic sensors in cellular metabolism pathways and play vital roles in influencing immune responses. SIRT1 and HIF1α regulate immune responses in metabolism-dependent and -independent ways. Here, we summarized the recent knowledge of SIRT1 and HIF1α signaling in metabolism and immune responses. HIF1α is a direct target of SIRT1. Sometimes, SIRT1 and HIF1α cooperate or act separately to mediate immune responses. In innate immune responses, SIRT1 can regulate the glycolytic activity of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and influence MDSC functional differentiation...
January 3, 2018: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304863/gm-csf-overexpression-after-influenza-a-virus-infection-prevents-mortality-and-moderates-m1-like-airway-monocyte-macrophage-polarization
#12
E Scott Halstead, Todd M Umstead, Michael L Davies, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Patricia Silveyra, Judie Howyrlak, Linlin Yang, Weichao Guo, Sanmei Hu, Eranda Kurundu Hewage, Zissis C Chroneos
BACKGROUND: Influenza A viruses cause life-threatening pneumonia and lung injury in the lower respiratory tract. Application of high GM-CSF levels prior to infection has been shown to reduce morbidity and mortality from pathogenic influenza infection in mice, but the mechanisms of protection and treatment efficacy have not been established. METHODS: Mice were infected intranasally with influenza A virus (PR8 strain). Supra-physiologic levels of GM-CSF were induced in the airways using the double transgenic GM-CSF (DTGM) or littermate control mice starting on 3 days post-infection (dpi)...
January 5, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301830/activation-of-4-1bb-on-liver-myeloid-cells-triggers-hepatitis-via-an-interleukin-27-dependent-pathway
#13
Todd Bartkowiak, Ashvin R Jaiswal, Casey R Ager, Renee Chin, Chao-Hsien Chen, Pratha Budhani, Midan Ai, Matthew J Reilley, Manu M Sebastian, David S Hong, Michael A Curran
PURPOSE: Agonist antibodies targeting the T cell co-stimulatory receptor 4-1BB (CD137) are among the most effective immunotherapeutic agents across pre-clinical cancer models. In the clinic, however, development of these agents has been hampered by dose-limiting liver toxicity. Lack of knowledge of the mechanisms underlying this toxicity has limited the potential to separate 4-1BB agonist driven tumor immunity from hepatotoxicity. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: The capacity of 4-1BB agonist antibodies to induce liver toxicity was investigated in immunocompetent mice, with or without co-administration of checkpoint blockade, via 1) measurement of serum transaminase levels, 2) imaging of liver immune infiltrates, and 3) qualitative and quantitative assessment of liver myeloid and T cells via flow cytometry...
January 4, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300724/a-novel-prospective-isolation-of-murine-fetal-liver-progenitors-to-study-in-utero-hematopoietic-defects
#14
Julia E Draper, Patrycja Sroczynska, Muhammad Z H Fadlullah, Rahima Patel, Gillian Newton, Wolfgang Breitwieser, Valerie Kouskoff, Georges Lacaud
In recent years, highly detailed characterization of adult bone marrow (BM) myeloid progenitors has been achieved and, as a result, the impact of somatic defects on different hematopoietic lineage fate decisions can be precisely determined. Fetal liver (FL) hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) are poorly characterized in comparison, potentially hindering the study of the impact of genetic alterations on midgestation hematopoiesis. Numerous disorders, for example infant acute leukemias, have in utero origins and their study would therefore benefit from the ability to isolate highly purified progenitor subsets...
January 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29298810/highly-angiogenic-non-thrombogenic-bone-marrow-mononuclear-cells-derived-spheroids-in-intraportal-islet-transplantation
#15
Bae Jun Oh, Sang-Man Jin, Yoonha Hwang, Jin Myung Choi, Han-Sin Lee, Gyuri Kim, Geunsoo Kim, Hyo Jun Park, Pilhan Kim, Sung Joo Kim, Jae Hyeon Kim
Highly angiogenic bone marrow mononuclear cells-derived spheroids (BM-spheroids), formed by selective proliferation of the CD31+CD14+CD34+ monocyte subset via 3D culture, had robust angiogenetic capacity in rodent syngeneic renal subcapsular islet transplantation. We wondered whether the efficacy of BM-spheroids could be demonstrated in clinically-relevant intraportal islet transplantation models without increasing the risk of portal thrombosis. The thrombogenic potential of intraportally infused BM-spheroids was compared with that of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MSC-spheroids...
January 3, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295520/the-origin-of-skin-dendritic-cell-network-and-its-role-in-psoriasis
#16
REVIEW
Tae-Gyun Kim, Sung Hee Kim, Min-Geol Lee
Dendritic cells (DCs) are heterogeneous groups of innate immune cells, which orchestrate immune responses by presenting antigens to cognate T cells and stimulating other types of immune cells. Although the term 'DCs' generally represent highly mixed subsets with functional heterogeneity, the classical definition of DCs usually denotes conventional DCs (cDCs). Skin contains a unique DC network mainly composed of embryo precursor-derived epidermal Langerhans cells (LCs) and bone marrow-derived dermal cDCs, which can be further classified into type 1 (cDC1) and type 2 (cDC2) subsets...
December 23, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284508/inflammatory-dysregulation-of-monocytes-in-pediatric-patients-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
Natalia Rodríguez, Astrid Morer, E Azucena González-Navarro, Carles Serra-Pages, Daniel Boloc, Teresa Torres, Susana García-Cerro, Sergi Mas, Patricia Gassó, Luisa Lázaro
BACKGROUND: Although the exact etiology of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is unknown, there is growing evidence of a role for immune dysregulation in the pathophysiology of the disease, especially in the innate immune system including the microglia. To test this hypothesis, we studied inflammatory markers in monocytes from pediatric patients with OCD and from healthy controls. METHODS: We determined the percentages of total monocytes, CD16+ monocytes, and classical (CD14highCD16-), intermediate (CD14highCD16low), and non-classical (CD14lowCD16high) monocyte subsets in 102 patients with early-onset OCD and in 47 healthy controls...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282309/identification-of-a-multipotent-progenitor-population-in-the-spleen-that-is-regulated-by-nr4a1
#18
Melanie D Mumau, Ashley N Vanderbeck, Elizabeth D Lynch, Sophia B Golec, Stephen G Emerson, Jennifer A Punt
The developmental fate of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells is influenced by their physiological context. Although most hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells are found in the bone marrow of the adult, some are found in other tissues, including the spleen. The extent to which the fate of stem cells is determined by the tissue in which they reside is not clear. In this study, we identify a new progenitor population, which is enriched in the mouse spleen, defined by cKit+CD71lowCD24high expression. This previously uncharacterized population generates exclusively myeloid lineage cells, including erythrocytes, platelets, monocytes, and neutrophils...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280055/sirtuin-1-chromatin-binding-dynamics-points-to-a-common-mechanism-regulating-inflammatory-targets-in-siv-infection-and-in-the-aging-brain
#19
Nikki Bortell, Liana Basova, Julia A Najera, Brenda Morsey, Howard S Fox, Maria Cecilia Garibaldi Marcondes
Microglia and macrophages are the main non-neuronal subsets of myeloid origin in the brain, and are critical regulators in neurodegenerative disorders, where inflammation is a key factor. Since HIV infection results in neurological perturbations that are similar to those in aging, we examined microglial and infiltrating myeloid subsets in the search for changes that might resemble the ones in aging. For that, we used the SIV infection in rhesus macaques to model neuroAIDS. We found that Sirt-1, a molecule that impacts survival and health in many models, was decreased in cell preparations containing a majority of microglia and myeloid cells from the brain of infected macaques...
December 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274730/type-i-interferon-receptor-signaling-delays-kupffer-cell-replenishment-during-acute-fulminant-viral-hepatitis
#20
Katharina Borst, Theresa Frenz, Julia Spanier, Pia-Katharina Tegtmeyer, Chintan Chhatbar, Jennifer Skerra, Luca Ghita, Sukumar Namineni, Stefan Lienenklaus, Mario Köster, Mathias Heikenwaelder, Gerd Sutter, Ulrich Kalinke
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Virus-induced fulminant hepatitis is a major cause of acute liver failure. During acute viral hepatitis the impact of type I interferon (IFN-I) on myeloid cells, including liver-resident Kupffer cells (KC), is only partially understood. Here we dissected the impact of locally induced IFN-I responses on myeloid cell function and hepatocytes during acute liver inflammation. METHODS: Two different DNA-encoded viruses, vaccinia virus (VACV) and murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV), were studied...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
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