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chemotherapy toxicity probiotic

Antoine Bruneau, Minh-Tam Baylatry, Anne Christine Joly, Harry Sokol
The gut microbiota, composed of 1014 microorganisms, is now considered as a "hidden organ", regarding to its digestive, metabolic and immune functions, which are helpful to its host. For the last 15 years, advances in molecular biology have highlighted the association of gut microbiota dysbiosis with several diseases, including colorectal cancer. An increased abundance of some bacteria (including Fusobacterium nucleatum, Bacteroides fragilis, Escherichia coli) is associated with cancer, whereas others seem to be protective (Faecalibacterium prausnitzii)...
January 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
Giuseppe L Banna, Francesco Torino, Francesco Marletta, Maria Santagati, Rossella Salemi, Elisa Cannarozzo, Luca Falzone, Francesco Ferraù, Massimo Libra
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the western world. In the era of precision medicine, a significant number of cancer patients can be cured with several anti-cancer therapeutic regimens. However, therapy failure may be caused by treatment side effects, such as diarrhea, especially occurring in patients with gastrointestinal or pelvic malignancies. In particular, diarrhea is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal toxicity during cancer treatment and it can result from nearly bot chemo- and radio-therapeutic strategies currently used...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Anshul Sharma, Malika Arora, Amit K Goyal, Goutam Rath
The present study is utilizing the targeted therapeutic approach and antioxidant potential of selected probiotic biomass in mitigating toxic side effects of chemotherapeutic agents. Multicomponent carrier system consisting of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and selected probiotic strain with higher free radical scavenging activity was prepared using spray drying technique. Prepared spray dried microparticles were characterized for various physical, pharmaceutical, and biopharmaceutical properties including particle size, moisture content, entrapment efficiency, in vitro drug release, DSC, XRD, cell uptake, histopathology, and pharmacokinetic studies...
September 2017: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Mridul Sharma, Geeta Shukla
Colorectal cancer is closely associated with environment, diet and lifestyle. Normally it is treated with surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy but increasing systemic toxicity, resistance and recurrence is prompting scientists to devise new potent and safer alternate prophylactic or therapeutic strategies. Among these, probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, and metabiotics are being considered as the promising candidates. Metabiotics or probiotic derived factors can optimize various physiological functions of the host and offer an additional advantage to be utilized even in immunosuppressed individuals...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Michal Mego, Jozef Chovanec, Iveta Vochyanova-Andrezalova, Peter Konkolovsky, Milada Mikulova, Maria Reckova, Vera Miskovska, Branislav Bystricky, Juraj Beniak, Lenka Medvecova, Adela Lagin, Daniela Svetlovska, Stanislav Spanik, Vladimir Zajac, Jozef Mardiak, Lubos Drgona
PURPOSE: Diarrhea is one of the dose limiting toxicity of irinotecan. SN-38 is main irinotecan metabolite responsible for diarrhea development, which is excreted in glucuronidated form into the intestine. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of the probiotics in the prevention of irinotecan induced diarrhea due to reduction of intestinal beta-d-glucuronidase activity. METHODS: Between January 2011 and December 2013, 46 patients with colorectal cancer starting a new line of irinotecan based therapy were included...
June 2015: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Matthew A Ciorba, Christopher L Hallemeier, William F Stenson, Parag J Parikh
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: There is currently an unmet need for agents that can prevent the gastrointestinal toxicity (mucositis and enteritis) associated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy of abdominal and pelvic cancers. Herein we provide an overview of how manipulation of the gut microbiota by probiotic administration affects these gastrointestinal symptoms. We focus this review on published human trials and also provide suggestions on how the field can move forward. RECENT FINDINGS: Several clinical trials of varying design, patient populations and probiotic products have been reported...
June 2015: Current Opinion in Supportive and Palliative Care
K-T Yuan, H-L Yu, W-D Feng, P Chong, T Yang, C-L Xue, M Yu, H-P Shi
Intestinal mucositis is a common toxic side effect in cancer patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy. This study aimed to evaluate the beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium infantis in a rat model of intestinal mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: control, 5-FU, and 5-FU + B. infantis. A single intraperitoneal injection of 5-FU (150 mg/kg) was used to induce intestinal mucositis. B. infantis (1×109 cfu) was administered for 11 days, starting from 7 days before 5-FU injection...
March 2015: Beneficial Microbes
M G Redman, E J Ward, R S Phillips
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are living microorganisms that are generally thought of as being beneficial to the recipient. They have been shown to be effective in people with acute infectious diarrhoea, and cost-effective in antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Probiotics may have a role in people with cancer, as various cancer treatments often lead to diarrhoea. However, as people with cancer are often immunocompromised, it is important to assess for adverse events (AEs) such as infection, which could potentially be a consequence of deliberate ingestion of living microorganisms...
October 2014: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Caroline C Henson, Sorrel Burden, Susan E Davidson, Simon Lal
BACKGROUND: Across the developed world, an estimated 150,000 to 300,000 people are treated annually with pelvic radiotherapy and 80% will develop gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms during treatment. Acute GI symptoms are associated with a greater risk of chronic, often debilitating, GI symptoms. Up to one-third of patients are malnourished before pelvic radiotherapy and up to four-fifths of patients lose weight during treatment. Malnutrition is linked to a higher risk of GI toxicity, which can lead to breaks in radiotherapy and early cessation of chemotherapy, thus compromising the efficacy of the primary cancer treatment...
November 26, 2013: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michal Mego, Vladimir Holec, Lubos Drgona, Katarina Hainova, Sona Ciernikova, Vladimir Zajac
BACKGROUND: Probiotics are live microorganisms, which as drugs or food supplements help to maintain health beneficial microbial balance in the digestive tract of a human or other host. Probiotics by their properties may help strengthen homeostasis and thus reduce side effects associated with cancer treatment. Experimental evidence suggests that probiotics might have beneficial effect on the toxicity of anticancer therapy. METHODS: A computer-based literature search was carried out using PubMed (keywords: "probiotic" and "lactic acid bacteria" in association with the search terms "cancer" or "oncology" or "chemotherapy" or "radiation"); data reported at international meetings were included...
December 2013: Complementary Therapies in Medicine
Eran Ben-Arye, Aaron Polliack, Elad Schiff, Tamar Tadmor, Noah Samuels
CONTEXT: Many cancer patients are using non-herbal nutritional supplements (NHNS), often without informing their oncologists. OBJECTIVES: To review the literature and summarize the beneficial effects and safety of NHNS in the prevention and reduction of treatment-related symptoms. METHODS: Databases were searched for randomized, controlled clinical trials (Jadad score ≥ 2) using AltHealthWatch, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Embase, MEDLINE, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Integrative Medicine Service Database, Natural Standard Database, and PubMed...
December 2013: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Imen Kahouli, Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau, Satya Prakash
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common form of cancer. Diverse therapies such as chemotherapy, immunotherapy and radiation have shown beneficial effects, but are limited because of their safety and toxicity. Probiotic formulations have shown great promise in CRC as preventive and early stage therapeutics. This review highlights the importance of a balanced intestinal microbiota and summarizes the recent developments in probiotics for treating CRC. Specifically, this report describes evidence of the role of probiotics in modulating the microbiota, in improving the physico-chemical conditions of the gut and in reducing oxidative stress...
August 2013: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Deniz Güney Duman, Zarife Nigâr Özdemir Kumral, Feriha Ercan, Mustafa Deniz, Güray Can, Berrak Cağlayan Yeğen
Saccharomyces boulardii is a probiotic used for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. We aimed to investigate whether S. boulardii could alter the effects of clarithromycin (CLA) and methotrexate (MTX) on oro-caecal intestinal transit and oxidative damage in rats. Rats were divided into two groups receiving a single dose of MTX (20 mg/kg) or CLA (20 mg/kg per d) for 1 week. Groups were treated with either saline or S. boulardii (500 mg/kg) twice per d throughout the experiment. The control group was administered only saline...
August 28, 2013: British Journal of Nutrition
Gamze Akbulut
Cancer and its treatment result in severe biochemical and physiological alterations associated with a deterioration of quality of life (QoL). Cancer-related malnutrition may evolve into cancer cachexia due to complex interactions between pro-inflammatory cytokines and the host metabolism. Depending on the type of cancer treatment (either curative or palliative), the clinical condition of the patient and nutritional status, adequate and patient-tailored nutritional intervention should be prescribed (diet counseling, oral supplementation, enteral or total parenteral nutrition)...
July 2011: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hongyu Xue, Michael B Sawyer, Paul E Wischmeyer, Vickie E Baracos
Chemotherapy-induced gut toxicity is a major dose-limiting toxicity for many anticancer drugs. Gastrointestinal (GI) complications compromise the efficacy of chemotherapy, promote overall malnutrition, aggravate cancer cachexia, and may contribute to worsened prognosis. The GI tract is an attractive target for nutrition modulation, owing to its direct exposure to the diet, participation in uptake and metabolism of nutrients, high rate of cell turnover, and plasticity to nutrition stimuli. Glutamine, ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, and probiotics/prebiotics are therapeutic factors that potentially modulate GI toxicity related to cancer treatments...
January 2011: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Kara M Kelly
Children with cancer frequently use complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), especially in conjunction with conventional therapy. Dietary supplements are a commonly used CAM modality, with the prevalence of supplement use ranging from 35% to 50% of children with cancer in surveys completed in the United States. Less is known about the use of dietary supplements in developing countries. The evidence for some dietary supplements providing some benefit to children with cancer is reviewed. Preliminary studies have shown that antioxidant status may affect chemotherapy tolerance in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia...
February 2008: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Hongyu Xue, Michael B Sawyer, Catherine J Field, Levinus A Dieleman, Vickie E Baracos
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the influence of dietary elements on cancer progression, chemotherapy efficacy, and toxicity, particularly severe, late-onset diarrhea related to irinotecan (CPT-11) treatment. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used laboratory rats fed a standardized basal diet, Ward colon tumor, and CPT-11 therapy for the study of CPT-11-induced diarrhea. Dietary interventions were selected from nutrients already established to modify other forms of colitis and which have been hypothesized to mitigate chemotherapy-induced gastrointestinal injury (glutamine, n-3 fatty acids, prebiotic oligosaccharides)...
December 1, 2007: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
P Osterlund, T Ruotsalainen, R Korpela, M Saxelin, A Ollus, P Valta, M Kouri, I Elomaa, H Joensuu
5-Fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy is frequently associated with diarrhoea. We compared two 5-FU-based regimens and the effect of Lactobacillus and fibre supplementation on treatment tolerability. Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer (n=150) were randomly allocated to receive monthly 5-FU and leucovorin bolus injections (the Mayo regimen) or a bimonthly 5-FU bolus plus continuous infusion (the simplified de Gramont regimen) for 24 weeks as postoperative adjuvant therapy. On the basis of random allocation, the study participants did or did not receive Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG supplementation (1-2 x 10(10) per day) and fibre (11 g guar gum per day) during chemotherapy...
October 22, 2007: British Journal of Cancer
Joanne M Bowen, Andrea M Stringer, Rachel J Gibson, Ann S J Yeoh, Sarah Hannam, Dorothy M K Keefe
BACKGROUND: One of the most common toxicities of cancer treatment is diarrhea. Probiotics have been shown effective at preventing diarrhea in inflammatory bowel disease and may prove useful in the oncology setting. AIM: The primary aim of this study was to investigate the probiotic mixture, VSL#3, for amelioration of chemotherapy-induced diarrhea (CID). METHODS: This experiment was carried out in a clinically relevant model of CID. VSL#3 was administered to female DA rats in one of three schedules...
September 2007: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Pia Osterlund, Tarja Ruotsalainen, Katri Peuhkuri, Riitta Korpela, Anneli Ollus, Minna Ikonen, Heikki Joensuu, Inkeri Elomaa
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Bowel mucosal injury associated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment might result in secondary lactose intolerance. The frequency and clinical significance of 5-FU-related hypolactasia are unknown. METHODS: One hundred fifty patients randomly assigned to receive 1 of 2 adjuvant 5-FU-based chemotherapy regimens, the Mayo regimen or the simplified de Gramont regimen, were studied for lactose tolerance by using an oral lactose absorption test, a symptom questionnaire, treatment-related toxicity, and Subjective Global Assessment of Nutritional Status questionnaire before, during, and 2 and 6 months after chemotherapy for colorectal cancer...
August 2004: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
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