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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353457/fasting-and-fast-food-diet-play-an-opposite-role-in-mice-brain-aging
#1
Paola Castrogiovanni, Giovanni Li Volti, Cristina Sanfilippo, Daniele Tibullo, Fabio Galvano, Michele Vecchio, Roberto Avola, Ignazio Barbagallo, Lucia Malaguarnera, Sergio Castorina, Giuseppe Musumeci, Rosa Imbesi, Michelino Di Rosa
Fasting may be exploited as a possible strategy for prevention and treatment of several diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and aging. On the other hand, high-fat diet (HFD) represents a risk factor for several diseases and increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of fasting on mouse brain aging transcriptome and how HFD regulates such pathways. We used the NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, in order to identify suitable microarray datasets comparing mouse brain transcriptome under fasting or HFD vs aged mouse brain transcriptome...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353010/modulation-of-immune-responses-by-plasmodium-falciparum-infection-in-asymptomatic-children-living-in-the-endemic-region-of-mbita-western-kenya
#2
Caroline Kijogi, Daisuke Kimura, Lam Quoc Bao, Risa Nakamura, Evans Asena Chadeka, Ngetich Benard Cheruiyot, Felix Bahati, Kazuhide Yahata, Osamu Kaneko, Sammy M Njenga, Yoshio Ichinose, Shinjiro Hamano, Katsuyuki Yui
Individuals living in malaria endemic areas become clinically immune after multiple re-infections over time and remain infected without apparent symptoms. However, it is unclear why a long period is required to gain clinical immunity to malaria, and how such immunity is maintained. Although malaria infection is reported to induce inhibition of immune responses, studies on asymptomatic individuals living in endemic regions of malaria are relatively scarce. We conducted a cross-sectional study of immune responses in asymptomatic school children aged 4-16years living in an area where Plasmodium falciparum and Schistosoma mansoni infections are co-endemic in Kenya...
January 15, 2018: Parasitology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352267/differential-susceptibility-of-striatal-hippocampal-and-cortical-neurons-to-caspase-6
#3
Anastasia Noël, Libin Zhou, Bénédicte Foveau, P Jesper Sjöström, Andréa C LeBlanc
Active cysteinyl protease Caspase-6 is associated with early Alzheimer and Huntington diseases. Higher entorhinal cortex and hippocampal Caspase-6 levels correlate with lower cognitive performance in aged humans. Caspase-6 induces axonal degeneration in human primary neuron cultures and causes inflammation and neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus, and age-dependent memory impairment. To assess whether Caspase-6 causes damage to another neuronal system, a transgenic knock-in mouse overexpressing a self-activated form of Caspase-6 five-fold in the striatum, the area affected in Huntington disease, and 2...
January 19, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351038/early-reading-abilities-of-bilingual-children-with-nonsyndromic-orofacial-clefts
#4
Michelle Heng Yue Cheong, Selena Ee-Li Young, Dawn Patricia Chuan Yu Young, Mary Lay Choo Lee, Susan Jane Rickard Liow
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the early reading abilities, and related cognitive-linguistic processes, in bilingual children with nonsyndromic cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P), and to identify deficits that might be amenable to intervention. DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: Bilingual participants with CL/P aged 5 to 6 years who were English-dominant ( n=17) or Mandarin-dominant ( n=18) were recruited using consecutive sampling from a national cleft treatment center and matched pairwise to a sample of typically developing (TD) children on language dominance, age, and socioeconomic status...
February 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350084/exploring-assistive-technology-use-to-support-cognition-in-college-students-with-histories-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Jessica Brown, Madeline Wollersheim
PURPOSE: College students with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) may experience chronic cognitive deficits necessitating use of external supports for daily task completion. The purpose of this study was to explore cognitive support system selection and use by students with histories of mTBI when completing novel prospective memory tasks. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We implemented a multiple case study, sequential explanatory mixed-methods design with three participants...
January 19, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348440/neural-predictors-of-cognitive-improvement-by-multi-strategic-memory-training-based-on-metamemory-in-older-adults-with-subjective-memory-complaints
#6
Soowon Park, Seung-Ho Ryu, Yongjoon Yoo, Jin-Ju Yang, Hunki Kwon, Jung-Hae Youn, Jong-Min Lee, Seong-Jin Cho, Jun-Young Lee
Previous studies have indicated that memory training may help older people improve cognition. However, evidence regarding who will benefit from such memory trainings has not been fully discovered yet. Understanding the clinical and neural inter-individual differences for predicting cognitive improvement is important for maximizing the training efficacy of memory-training programs. The purpose of this study was to find the individual characteristics and brain morphological characteristics that predict cognitive improvement after a multi-strategic memory training based on metamemory concept...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348041/executive-dysfunction-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-is-associated-with-a-failure-to-modulate-frontoparietal-insular-hub-architecture
#7
Charles J Lynch, Andrew L Breeden, Xiaozhen You, Ruth Ludlum, William D Gaillard, Lauren Kenworthy, Chandan J Vaidya
BACKGROUND: Comorbid executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a barrier to adaptive functioning, despite remittance of core social-communication symptoms. Network models of ASD address core symptoms but not comorbid executive dysfunction. Following recent demonstrations in healthy adults that, with increasing executive demands, hubs embedded within frontoparietal-insular control networks interact with a more diverse set of networks, we hypothesized that the capability of hubs to do so is perturbed in ASD and predicts executive behavior...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346599/magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-laser-interstitial-thermal-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-hypothalamic-hamartomas-a-retrospective-review
#8
David S Xu, Tsinsue Chen, Randall J Hlubek, Ruth E Bristol, Kris A Smith, Francisco A Ponce, John F Kerrigan, Peter Nakaji
BACKGROUND: Hypothalamic hamartomas (HH) are rare lesions associated with treatment-resistant epilepsy. Open surgery results in modest seizure control (about 50%) but has a significant associated morbidity. Radiosurgery is limited to a subset of patients due to latent therapeutic effects. Magnetic resonance imaging-guided laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) offers a novel minimally invasive option. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a single center's outcomes for the LITT treatment of HH...
January 13, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346569/controlled-antenatal-thyroid-screening-ii-effect-of-treating-maternal-sub-optimal-thyroid-function-on-child-cognition
#9
Charlotte Hales, Peter N Taylor, Sue Channon, Ruth Paradice, Kirsten McEwan, Lei Zhang, Michael Gyedu, Ameen Bakhsh, Onyebuchi Okosieme, Ilaria Muller, Mohd S Draman, John W Gregory, Colin Dayan, John H Lazarus, D Aled Rees, Marian Ludgate
Context & Objective: The Controlled Antenatal Thyroid Screening (CATS) study investigated treatment for suboptimal gestational thyroid function (SGTF) on childhood cognition and found no difference in IQ at 3 years between children of treated and untreated SGTF mothers. We have measured IQ in the same children at age 9.5-years and included children from normal-GTF mothers. Design, Setting & Participants: One examiner, blinded to participant group, assessed children's IQ (WISC-IV), long-term memory and motor function (NEPSY-II) from children of 119 treated and 98 untreated SGTF mothers plus children of 232 mothers with normal-GTF...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346524/-effects-of-a-primary-care-based-multifactorial-intervention-on-physical-and-cognitive-function-in-frail-elderly-individuals-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Laura Romera-Liebana, Francesc Orfila, Josep Maria Segura, Jordi Real, Maria Lluïsa Fabra, Mercedes Möller, Santiago Lancho, Anna Ramirez, Nuria Marti, Montserrat Cullell, Nuria Bastida, Dolors Martinez, Maria Giné, Patricia Cendrós, Anna Bistuer, Elena Perez, Maria Assumpta Fabregat, Gonçal Foz
Background: Detecting and managing frailty at early stages can prevent disability and other adverse outcomes. The study aim was to evaluate whether a multifactorial intervention program could modify physical and cognitive frailty parameters in elderly individuals. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, single-blind, parallel-group trial in community-living pre-frail/frail elderly individuals in Barcelona. A total of 352 patients, aged ≥65 years old with positive frailty screening, was randomized into two groups to receive a 12-week multidisciplinary intervention or usual care, with concealed allocation...
January 16, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346276/comparison-of-the-response-of-male-balb-c-and-c57bl-6-mice-in-behavioral-tasks-to-evaluate-cognitive-function
#11
Yenela Garcia, Nashelly Esquivel
To evaluate several cognitive parameters during the execution of behavioral tasks assessing cognitive function in laboratory animals, the parameters are reported within a range. This situation entails that each laboratory must establish the conditions under which the behavioral task to evaluate the cognitive function can be carried out. C57BL/6 and BALB/c inbred strains are used more often in behavioral studies relating to anxiety, stress, fear and cognitive function. The aim of this work was to compare the behavioral response of mice of the strains BALB/c and C57BL/6 to evaluate memory and learning as cognitive functions...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346236/a-teenager-with-acute-anterograde-amnesia
#12
Jennifer A Hoffmann, Michael P Goldman, Richard G Bachur
Isolated amnesia is an uncommon presenting complaint in the pediatric age group. We report the case of an 18-year-old woman who presented with the acute onset of memory difficulty and an otherwise normal neurologic examination. Brain magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated inflammation in the bilateral temporal lobes. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid testing ultimately revealed a diagnosis of autoimmune encephalitis. Although rare, the acute onset of isolated amnesia deserves a prompt, comprehensive evaluation...
January 16, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345724/effects-of-cognitive-training-on-cognition-and-quality-of-life-of-older-persons-with-dementia
#13
Eeva-Liisa Kallio, Hannareeta Öhman, Marja Hietanen, Helena Soini, Timo E Strandberg, Hannu Kautiainen, Kaisu H Pitkälä
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of cognitive training on cognition and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in community-dwelling persons with dementia. DESIGN: Single-blind randomized controlled trial with 3- and 9-month follow-up. SETTING: Adult day care centers in Helsinki, Finland. PARTICIPANTS: Older individuals with mild to moderate dementia living at home and attending adult day care twice a week (N = 147; mean age 83, 72% female, 63% at mild stage of dementia)...
January 18, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345054/isoflurane-anesthesia-in-aged-mice-and-effects-of-a1-adenosine-receptors-on-cognitive-impairment
#14
Chun-Long Zuo, Chun-Man Wang, Jin Liu, Ting Shen, Jiang-Ping Zhou, Xin-Rui Hao, Yi-Zhao Pan, Hua-Cheng Liu, Qing-Quan Lian, Han Lin
AIMS: Isoflurane may not only accelerate the process of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but increase the risk of incidence of postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. This study was designed to investigate whether isoflurane contributed to the POCD occurrence through A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) in aged mice. METHODS: We assessed cognitive function of mice with Morris water maze (MWM) and then measured expression level of two AD biomarkers (P-tau and Aβ) and a subtype of the NMDA receptor (NR2B) in aged wild-type (WT) and homozygous A1 adenosine receptor (A1AR) knockout (KO) mice at baseline and after they were exposed to isoflurane (1...
January 17, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344657/effects-of-hereditary-moderate-high-fat-diet-on-metabolic-performance-and-physical-endurance-capacity-in-c57bl-6-offspring
#15
Fang Liu, Guirong Zhang, Xue Sheng, Shang Liu, Meng Cui, Heyun Guo, Jianbin Xue, Lingyun Zhang
Obesity in pregnant women presents a risk to fetal health, leading to numerous metabolic syndromes and chronic inflammation risks. Previously, physical exercise was considered to be one of the primary treatments for obesity. However, the effect of fat consumption throughout the life cycle on physical endurance capacity remains unknown. A total of two groups of female mice (age, 6 weeks; C57BL/6J) were fed with a normal chow diet and a moderate high fat diet (MHFD), during pregnancy and lactation (8 weeks), with the offspring receiving the same diet as the mother...
January 16, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344321/fixed-drug-eruption-to-supplement-containing-ginkgo-biloba-and-vinpocetine-a-case-report-and-review-of-related-cutaneous-side-effects
#16
Philip R Cohen
BACKGROUND: Fixed drug eruption is a cutaneous reaction to a systemic agent that typically presents as an annular or oval erythematous patch or blister and subsequently resolves with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation at the site. Ginkgo biloba leaf extract and vinpocetine are nutritional supplements used to enhance memory in patients with dementia and age-related memory impairment conditions such as Alzheimer's disease. PURPOSE: To describe a fixed drug eruption in a man who repeatedly developed pruritus and macular erythema on his distal penile shaft after ingesting a natural product containing Ginkgo biloba and vinpocetine...
October 2017: Journal of Clinical and Aesthetic Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344175/effects-of-andrographolide-on-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-and-the-association-with-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mapk-pathway
#17
Yongbo Ding, Cunxian Shi, Linjing Chen, Piliang Ma, Kezhong Li, Jin Jin, Qingfeng Zhang, Aizhi Li
The present study investigated the effects of andrographolide on postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in aged rats to gain insight of the underlying mechanism, which may provide theoretical basis for the clinical application of andrographolide to prevent POCD in older patients. Thirty aged male rats were randomly assigned to 3 groups: Control, model and andrographolide groups. The Morris water maze test was used to examine the spatial memory and learning ability of the rats postoperatively. The histological alterations of neuronal cells in the hippocampus were visualized by H&E staining...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342056/-product-versus-process-measures-in-assessing-speech-recognition-outcomes-in-adults-with-cochlear-implants
#18
Aaron C Moberly, Irina Castellanos, Kara J Vasil, Oliver F Adunka, David B Pisoni
HYPOTHESES: 1) When controlling for age in postlingual adult cochlear implant (CI) users, information-processing functions, as assessed using "process" measures of working memory capacity, inhibitory control, information-processing speed, and fluid reasoning, will predict traditional "product" outcome measures of speech recognition. 2) Demographic/audiologic factors, particularly duration of deafness, duration of CI use, degree of residual hearing, and socioeconomic status, will impact performance on underlying information-processing functions, as assessed using process measures...
January 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341891/long-term-treadmill-exercise-improves-memory-impairment-through-restoration-of-decreased-synaptic-adhesion-molecule-1-2-3-induced-by-transient-cerebral-ischemia-in-the-aged-gerbil-hippocampus
#19
Ji Hyeon Ahn, Joon Ha Park, Jinseu Park, Myoung Cheol Shin, Jun Hwi Cho, In Hye Kim, Jeong-Hwi Cho, Tae-Kyeong Lee, Jae-Chul Lee, Bich Na Shin, Young-Myeong Kim, Choong Hyun Lee, In Koo Hwang, Il Jun Kang, Bai Hui Chen, Bing Chun Yan, Young Joo Lee, Moo-Ho Won, Soo Young Choi
Exercise improves cognitive impairments induced by transient cerebral ischemia and modulates synaptic adhesion molecules. In this study, we investigated effects of long-term treadmill exercise on cognitive impairments and its relation to changes of synaptic cell adhesion molecule (SynCAM) 1/2/3 in the hippocampus after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia in aged gerbils. Animals were assigned to sedentary and exercised groups, given treadmill exercise for 4 consecutive weeks from 5 days after transient ischemia and evaluated cognitive function through passive avoidance test and Morris water maze test...
January 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341323/test-retest-reliability-and-longitudinal-analysis-of-automated-hippocampal-subregion-volumes-in-healthy-ageing-and-alzheimer-s-disease-populations
#20
Amanda Worker, Danai Dima, Anna Combes, William R Crum, Johannes Streffer, Steven Einstein, Mitul A Mehta, Gareth J Barker, Steve C R Williams, Owen O'daly
The hippocampal formation is a complex brain structure that is important in cognitive processes such as memory, mood, reward processing and other executive functions. Histological and neuroimaging studies have implicated the hippocampal region in neuropsychiatric disorders as well as in neurodegenerative diseases. This highly plastic limbic region is made up of several subregions that are believed to have different functional roles. Therefore, there is a growing interest in imaging the subregions of the hippocampal formation rather than modelling the hippocampus as a homogenous structure, driving the development of new automated analysis tools...
January 16, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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