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Aging memory

J S Milligan-Saville, B M Graham
Fear extinction is the laboratory basis of exposure therapy for anxiety disorders. Recent findings have revealed that estradiol is necessary to the consolidation of extinction memories in females. These findings are based on studies conducted using virgin rats and young women whose reproductive history is unknown. We hypothesized that motherhood, which results in extensive endocrinological, neurobiological and behavioral changes, may lead to alterations in fear extinction in females. We used a cross-species translational approach to investigate the impact of reproductive experience on fear extinction and fear relapse in female rats (n=116) and women (n=64)...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Thomas G Burns, Natasha N Ludwig, Tiffany N Tajiri, Nick DeFilippis
The objective of this study was to assess cognitive performance and behavioral symptoms in a sample of children diagnosed with partial epilepsy who were seizure controlled on AED monotherapy for one year. Ninety-eight seizure-controlled children on AED monotherapy were included in this study. Specific AEDs examined included topiramate, divalproex sodium, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, and oxcarbazepine. Groups did not differ on age, region of focal epilepsy, or Full-Scale IQ. Direct measures included the WISC-IV and selected tests from the DKEFS (Verbal Fluency and Trail Making Test)...
October 25, 2016: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
H Li, C L Lv, C S Yang, D F Wei, K W Chen, S W Li, Z J Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SORL1 rs1699102 is associated with the risk of late-onset Alzheimer's disease. However, the effects of this single nucleotide polymorphism on cognition and brain structure during normal aging are unclear. This study aimed to examine the effects of the rs1699102 polymorphism on age-related cognitive decline and cortical gray matter reduction in the Chinese Han population. METHODS: A total of 780 non-demented adults completed a battery of neuropsychological tests...
October 25, 2016: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
Peter J Na, Kim B Kim, Su Yeon Lee-Tauler, Hae-Ra Han, Miyong T Kim, Hochang B Lee
OBJECTIVE: Our aim is to investigate the prevalence and predictors of suicidal ideation among Korean American older adults and assess the self-rated mental health of Korean American older adults with suicidal ideation with or without depressive syndrome. METHODS: The Memory and Aging Study of Koreans is a cross-sectional, epidemiologic study of a community-representative sample of Korean American older adults (N = 1116) residing in the Baltimore-Washington area...
October 25, 2016: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Satomi Miwa, Rafal Czapiewski, Tengfei Wan, Amy Bell, Kirsten N Hill, Thomas von Zglinicki, Gabriele Saretzki
Telomerase in its canonical function maintains telomeres in dividing cells. In addition, the telomerase protein TERT has non-telomeric functions such as shuttling to mitochondria resulting in a decreased oxidative stress, DNA damage and apoptosis. TERT protein persists in adult neurons and can co-localise to mitochondria under various stress conditions. We show here that TERT expression decreased in mouse brain during aging while release of reactive oxygen species (ROS) from the mitochondrial electron transport chain increased...
October 22, 2016: Aging
Nadja Affenzeller, Rupert Palme, Helen Zulch
Situations that are emotional and arousing have an effect on cognitive performance. It is thought that beta adrenergic activation and the release of stress hormones enhance memory consolidation and lead to an increase in memorability of emotional events. This beneficial effect has been shown in humans, non-human primates and rodents. Techniques which could enhance memory for learning specific tasks would be highly valuable, especially in dogs, which are extensively trained to aid humans. A pseudo-randomized, counterbalanced, between subject study designs was utilised and 16 Labrador Retrievers ranging from 1 to 9years of age were trained in a 2-choice discrimination paradigm...
October 21, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Soren Impey, Timothy Jopson, Carl Pelz, Amanuel Tafessu, Fatema Fareh, Damian Zuloaga, Tessa Marzulla, Lara-Kirstie Riparip, Blair Stewart, Susanna Rosi, Mitchell S Turker, Jacob Raber
BACKGROUND: Astronauts are exposed to (56)Fe ions that may pose a significant health hazard during and following prolonged missions in deep space. We showed previously that object recognition requiring the hippocampus, a structure critical for cognitive function, is affected in 2-month-old mice irradiated with (56)Fe ions. Here we examined object recognition in 6-month-old mice irradiated with (56)Fe ions, a biological age more relevant to the typical ages of astronauts. Moreover, because the mechanisms mediating the detrimental effects of (56)Fe ions on hippocampal function are unclear, we examined changes in hippocampal networks involved in synaptic plasticity and memory, gene expression, and epigenetic changes in cytosine methylation (5mC) and hydroxymethylation (5hmC) that could accompany changes in gene expression...
October 24, 2016: BMC Genomics
Hye-Geum Kim, Eun-Jung Kong, Eun-Jin Cheon, Hae-Won Kim, Bon-Hoon Koo
The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between cerebral amyloid deposition and overall clinical factors including cognitive functions in geriatric depression by using ¹⁸F-florbetaben positron emission tomography. Thirteen subjects aged over 60 years who had a history of major depressive disorder and also had subjective memory complaint were included. Of all subjects, 3 subjects judged as amyloid positive, and the others judged as amyloid negative. Their memory, visuospatial functions and attention abilities were negatively correlated with amyloid deposition in specific brain regions, but their language and recognition abilities were not correlated with any region...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Michael D Nevarez, Johanna C Malone, Dorene M Rentz, Robert J Waldinger
OBJECTIVE: Identifying adaptive ways to cope with extreme stress is essential to promoting long-term health. Memory systems are highly sensitive to stress, and combat exposure during war has been shown to have deleterious effects on cognitive processes, such as memory, decades later. No studies have examined coping styles used by combat veterans and associations with later-life cognitive functioning. Defenses are coping mechanisms that manage difficult memories and feelings, with some more closely related to memory processes (e...
October 7, 2016: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Paulina R Davis, Ginevra Giannini, Karin Rudolph, Nathaniel Calloway, Christopher M Royer, Tina L Beckett, M Paul Murphy, Frederick Bresch, Dieter Pagani, Thomas Platt, Xiaohong Wang, Amy Skinner Donovan, Tiffany L Sudduth, Wenjie Lou, Erin Abner, Richard Kryscio, Donna M Wilcock, Edward G Barrett, Elizabeth Head
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) immunotherapy is a promising intervention to slow Alzheimer's disease. Aging dogs naturally accumulate Aβ and show cognitive decline. An active vaccine against fibrillar Aβ 1-42 (VAC) in aged beagles resulted in maintenance but not improvement of cognition along with reduced brain Aβ. Behavioral enrichment (ENR) led to cognitive benefits but no reduction in Aβ. We hypothesized cognitive outcomes could be improved by combining VAC with ENR in aged dogs. Aged dogs (11-12 years) were placed into 4 groups: (1) control/control (C/C); (2) control/VAC (C/V); (3) ENR/control (E/C); and (4) ENR/VAC (E/V) and treated for 20 months...
September 26, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Foteini Christidi, Efstratios Karavasilis, Ioannis Zalonis, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Zoi Giavri, Elisabeth A Wilde, Sophia Xirou, Michalis Rentzos, Vasiliki Zouvelou, George Velonakis, Panagiotis Toulas, Efstathios Efstathopoulos, Loukia Poulou, Georgios Argyropoulos, Athanasios Athanasakos, Thomas Zambelis, Harvey S Levin, Nikolaos Karandreas, Nikolaos Kelekis, Ioannis Evdokimidis
We aimed to investigate structural changes in vivo in memory-related white matter tracts (i.e., perforant pathway zone [PPZ]; uncinate fasciculus [UF]; fornix) using diffusion tensor tractography and evaluate possible associations with memory performance in nondemented patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Forty-two ALS patients and 25 healthy controls (HCs) underwent a 30-directional diffusion-weighted imaging on a 3T MR scanner, followed by tractography of PPZ, UF, and fornix and analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA), axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity (Dr)...
September 28, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Cathy Joanna Jensen, Frauke Demol, Romy Bauwens, Ron Kooijman, Ann Massie, Agnès Villers, Laurence Ris, Jacques De Keyser
In vitro and in vivo studies suggest that the astrocytic adrenergic signalling enhances glycogenolysis which provides energy to be transported to nearby cells and in the form of lactate. This energy source is important for motor and cognitive functioning. While it is suspected that the β2-adrenergic receptor on astrocytes might contribute to this energy balance, it has not yet been shown conclusively in vivo. Inducible astrocyte specific β2-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice were generated by crossing homozygous β2-adrenergic receptor floxed mice (Adrb2flox) and mice with heterozygous tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase-expression driven by the astrocyte specific L-glutamate/L-aspartate transporter promoter (GLAST-CreERT2)...
2016: PloS One
Shih-Chun Kao, Daniel R Westfall, Andrew C Parks, Matthew B Pontifex, Charles H Hillman
PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationship between aerobic and muscular fitness with working memory and academic achievement in preadolescent children. METHODS: Seventy-nine 9-11 year old children completed an aerobic fitness assessment using a graded exercise test; a muscular fitness assessment consisting of upper body, lower body, and core exercises; a serial n-back task to assess working memory; and an academic achievement test of mathematics and reading...
October 21, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Jennie Johnstone, Robin Parsons, Fernando Botelho, Jamie Millar, Shelly McNeil, Tamas Fulop, Janet E McElhaney, Melissa K Andrew, Stephen D Walter, P J Devereaux, Mehrnoush Malek, Ryan R Brinkman, Jonathan Bramson, Mark Loeb
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether immune phenotypes associated with immunosenescence are predictive of frailty and mortality within 1-year in elderly nursing home residents. DESIGN: Cross sectional study of frailty; prospective cohort study of mortality. SETTING: Thirty-two nursing homes in four Canadian cities between September 2009 and October 2011. PARTICIPANTS: Nursing home residents aged 65 and older (N = 1,072, median age 86, 72% female)...
October 24, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Erin Hawkins, Susan Gathercole, Duncan Astle, The Calm Team, Joni Holmes
Symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity frequently co-occur with language difficulties in both clinical and community samples. We explore the specificity and strength of these associations in a heterogeneous sample of 254 children aged 5 to 15 years identified by education and health professionals as having problems with attention, learning and/or memory. Parents/carers rated pragmatic and structural communication skills and behaviour, and children completed standardised assessments of reading, spelling, vocabulary, and phonological awareness...
October 21, 2016: Brain Sciences
Geoffrey Blondelle, Mathieu Hainselin, Yannick Gounden, Laurent Heurley, Hélène Voisin, Olga Megalakaki, Estelle Bressous, Véronique Quaglino
BACKGROUND: Regularity effect can affect performance in prospective memory (PM), but little is known on the cognitive processes linked to this effect. Moreover, its impacts with regard to aging remain unknown. To our knowledge, this study is the first to examine regularity effect in PM in a lifespan perspective, with a sample of young, intermediate, and older adults. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: Our study examined the regularity effect in PM in three groups of participants: 28 young adults (18-30), 16 intermediate adults (40-55), and 25 older adults (65-80)...
2016: Socioaffective Neuroscience & Psychology
Sarah Raz, Jamie C Piercy, Andrew M Heitzer, Brittany N Peters, Julie Bapp Newman, Angela K DeBastos, Noa Ofen, Beau Batton, Daniel G Batton
OBJECTIVES: A limited body of research is available on the relationships between multiplicity of birth and neuropsychological functioning in preterm children who were conceived in the age of assisted reproductive technology and served by the modern neonatal intensive care unit. Our chief objective was to evaluate whether, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors and perinatal complications, twin birth accounted for a unique portion of developmental outcome variance in children born at-risk in the surfactant era...
October 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Karissa Leduc, Shanna Williams, Carlos Gomez-Garibello, Victoria Talwar
In this study, preschool-aged children's lie-telling behaviour was examined in relation to mental state understanding and executive functioning. Sixty-seven children aged between 25 and 43 months (Mage in months  = 34.80, SD = 4.39) participated in a temptation resistance paradigm (TRP). Children completed emerging ToM tasks measuring the following mental states: (1) diverse beliefs, (2) diverse desires, and (3) knowledge access. Children also completed measures of inhibitory control and working memory...
October 23, 2016: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
Katie M de Almondes, Mônica V Costa, Leandro F Malloy-Diniz, Breno S Diniz
Aim: In this manuscript, we report data on the association between executive functions screened by Frontal Assessment Battery, Five Digit Test and Digit Span with self-reported depressive symptoms and sleep complaints in non-demented older adults. Methods: A total sample of 95 non-demented older adults performed Geriatric Depression Scale short version, Frontal Assessment Battery, Five Digit Test, Digit Span, and clinical interview. We split participants in groups stratified by age according to: young-old (60-69 years of age), old-old (70-79 years), and oldest-old (>80 years) and compared these three groups on the sociodemographic characteristics and executive functions performance...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Arlener D Turner, Andrew S Lim, Sue E Leurgans, David A Bennett, Aron S Buchman, Lisa L Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Assess the relationship of self-reported sleep quality and possible sleep disorders with disability in a racially diverse sample of community-dwelling older adults. METHODS: Participants included 943 non-demented older African Americans (n=452) and Whites (n=491) from two cohort studies, the Minority Aging Research Study (MARS) and the Rush Memory and Aging Project (MAP). Participants completed a 32-item questionnaire assessing sleep quality and the possible presence of three sleep disorders (sleep apnea, restless leg syndrome [RLS] and REM behavior disorder [RBD])...
October 20, 2016: Ethnicity & Disease
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