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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447938/low-serum-selenium-concentrations-in-french-patients-with-measles
#1
M Garcia, A Pineau, O Guillard, S Ragot, N Lévêque, G Agius
OBJECTIVE: Selenium deficiency adversely affects the clinical outcome of measles in the tropics. In developed countries, serum selenium level has never been investigated during acute measles. The aim of this study was to determine serum selenium concentrations in French patients with acute measles and to seek correlations with clinical and virological findings. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We studied serum selenium concentrations in 94 French patients with acute measles and in 99 healthy controls matched for age and sex...
November 9, 2016: Current Research in Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447340/marginal-deficiencies-of-dietary-arginine-and-methionine-could-suppress-growth-performance-and-immunological-responses-in-broiler-chickens
#2
R Jahanian, M Khalifeh-Gholi
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of different levels of dietary arginine (Arg) and methionine (Met) on performance, immune responses, and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens. A total of 540 day-old Ross 308 broiler chicks were randomly assigned into the nine experimental diets, consisting five replicates of 12 birds each. Dietary treatments included three different levels (90%, 100%, and 110% of National Research Council [NRC] specifications) of either dietary Arg or Met, which were fed to the birds according to a 3 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments during a 42 days feeding trial...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446609/glycosylation-of-the-core-of-the-hiv-1-envelope-subunit-protein-gp120-is-not-required-for-native-trimer-formation-or-viral-infectivity
#3
Ujjwal Rathore, Piyali Saha, Sannula Kesavardhana, Aditya Arun Kumar, Rohini Datta, Sivasankar Devanarayanan, Raksha Das, John R Mascola, Raghavan Varadarajan
The gp120 subunit of HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein is heavily glycosylated at approximately 25 glycosylation sites, of which ~7-8 are located in the V1/V2 and V3 variable loops and the others in the remaining core gp120 region. Glycans partially shield Env from recognition by the host immune system and also are believed to be indispensable for proper folding of gp120 and for viral infectivity. Previous attempts to alter glycosylation sites in Env typically involved mutating the glycosylated asparagine residues to structurally similar glutamines or to alanines...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445864/tumor-antigen-glycosaminoglycan-modification-regulates-antibody-drug-conjugate-delivery-and-cytotoxicity
#4
Helena C Christianson, Julien A Menard, Vineesh Indira Chandran, Erika Bourseau-Guilmain, Dmitry Shevela, Jon Lidfeldt, Ann-Sofie Månsson, Silvia Pastorekova, Johannes Messinger, Mattias Belting
Aggressive cancers are characterized by hypoxia, which is a key driver of tumor development and treatment resistance. Proteins specifically expressed in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment thus represent interesting candidates for targeted drug delivery strategies. Carbonic anhydrase (CAIX) has been identified as an attractive treatment target as it is highly hypoxia specific and expressed at the cell-surface to promote cancer cell aggressiveness. Here, we find that cancer cell internalization of CAIX is negatively regulated by post-translational modification with chondroitin or heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan chains...
April 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445705/mutation-characterization-and-heterodimer-analysis-of-patients-with-leukocyte-adhesion-deficiency-including-one-novel-mutation
#5
Shahram Teimourian, Martin De Boer, Dirk Roos, Anna Isaian, Ehsan Moghanloo, Sharhzad Lashkary, Bita Hassani, Hasan Mollanoori, Vahid Babaei, Asaad Azarnezhad
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Leukocyte adhesion deficiency type 1 (LAD-I) is a rare, autosomal recessive disorder of neutrophil migration, characterized by severe, recurrent bacterial infections, inadequate pus formation and impaired wound healing. The ITGB2 gene encodes the β2 integrin subunit (CD18) of the leukocyte adhesion cell molecules, and mutations in this gene cause LAD-I. The aim of the current study was to investigate the mutations in patients diagnosed with LAD-I and functional studies of the impact of two previously reported and a novel mutation on the expression of the CD18/CD11a heterodimer...
April 23, 2017: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443628/intestinal-microbiota-link-lymphopenia-to-murine-autoimmunity-via-pd-1-cxcr5-dim-b-helper-t-cell-induction
#6
Toshiki Eri, Kimito Kawahata, Takeyuki Kanzaki, Mitsuru Imamura, Kazuya Michishita, Lisa Akahira, Ei Bannai, Noritada Yoshikawa, Yasumasa Kimura, Takeshi Satoh, Satoshi Uematsu, Hirotoshi Tanaka, Kazuhiko Yamamoto
T cell lymphopenia results in peripheral homeostatic expansion to maintain the T cell immune system, which is termed lymphopenia-induced proliferation (LIP). LIP is a potential risk for expanding autoreactive clones to become pathogenic in human and murine autoimmune diseases. However, the ontogeny of T cells that induce autoantibody production by autoreactive B cells in LIP remains unclear. Transfer of CD4(+)CD25(-) conventional T (Tc) cells into T-cell-deficient athymic nude mice has been previously reported as a LIP-induced autoimmune model which develops organ-specific autoimmune diseases and systemic antinuclear antibodies (ANAs)...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441942/rare-antibody-associated-hemolytic-transfusion-reaction-and-transfusion-related-acute-lung-injury-a-case-report
#7
Tim N Beck, Natalee G Young, Michelle L Erickson, Ignacio Prats
BACKGROUND: Hemolytic transfusion reactions and transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) are life-threatening complications associated with the transfusion of blood products. Hemorrhage is one of the most common surgical complications and the risk of bleeding is particularly acute in patients with hematologic deficiencies. Management of surgical bleeding can be divided into two phases. The first phase centers on immediate control of acute bleeding and the second phase focuses on keeping the patient stable and on reducing the sequelae associated with blood transfusions and blood loss...
April 26, 2017: BMC Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438973/pulmonary-il-17-lymphocytes-increase-during-pneumocystis-murina-infection-but-are-not-required-for-clearance-of-pneumocystis
#8
Chiara Ripamonti, Lisa R Bishop, Joseph A Kovacs
Pneumocystis remains an important pathogen of immunosuppressed patients, causing a potentially life-threatening pneumonia. Despite its medical importance, the immune responses required to control infection, including the role of IL-17, which is important in controlling other fungal infections, have not been clearly defined. Using flow cytometry and intracellular cytokine staining following stimulation with PMA and ionomycin, we examined interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-17 production by lung lymphocytes in immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice over time following infection with P...
April 24, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438539/recurrent-acute-rhinosinusitis-prevention-by-azithromycin-in-children-with-nonallergic-rhinitis
#9
Jittima Veskitkul, Patcharaporn Wongkaewpothong, Tanita Thaweethamchareon, Kitirat Ungkanont, Nualanong Visitsunthorn, Punchama Pacharn, Pakit Vichyanond, Orathai Jirapongsananuruk
BACKGROUND: Recurrent acute rhinosinusitis (RARS) is characterized by multiple episodes of acute rhinosinusitis between which symptoms and signs resolve completely. The role of antibiotic prophylaxis to prevent RARS in children with nonallergic rhinitis (NAR) has not been investigated. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of azithromycin to prevent RARS in children with NAR. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted in NAR children (5-15 years) with RARS...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437323/lack-of-utility-of-anti-ttg-igg-to-diagnose-celiac-disease-when-anti-ttg-iga-is-negative
#10
Imad Absah, Abdul R Rishi, Rami Gebrail, Melissa R Snyder, Joseph A Murray
OBJECTIVES: Guidelines for diagnosing celiac disease (CD) recommend initial testing with a highly sensitive serologic test for anti-tissue transglutaminase immunoglobulin A antibodies (tTG IgA). When the probability of CD is high, IgA deficiency should be considered. The 2 approaches to address this include measuring "both tTG IgA and tTG IgG" or measuring "total IgA." We aim to assess the utility of an isolated positive tTG IgG result in diagnosing CD. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of patients undergoing serologic testing for CD from January 1997 to June 2014...
May 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433622/diminished-capacity-of-opsonization-and-immune-complex-solubilization-and-detection-of-anti-c1q-antibodies-in-sera-from-patients-with-hereditary-angioedema
#11
Daisuke Honda, Isao Ohsawa, Nobuyuki Sato, Hiroyuki Inoshita, Satoshi Mano, Yasuhiko Tomino, Yusuke Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is an autosomal dominant disease caused by deficiency of C1 esterase inhibitor. Symptoms of HAE include edema, which can potentially cause suffocation. Some patients with HAE exhibit immunological abnormalities, which could prevent an accurate diagnosis. Low levels of complement components are characteristic of HAE and in other settings are thought to reduce elimination of apoptotic cells and immune complex (IC). Thus, we aimed to experimentally clarify the mechanism of immunological abnormalities using sera from HAE patients...
April 19, 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432146/c1q-dependent-dendritic-cell-cross-presentation-of-in-vivo-formed-antigen-antibody-complexes
#12
Nataschja I Ho, Marcel G M Camps, Edwin F E de Haas, Leendert A Trouw, J Sjef Verbeek, Ferry Ossendorp
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized in Ag engulfment via a wide variety of uptake receptors on their cell surface. In the present study we investigated Ag uptake and presentation of in vivo-formed Ag-Ab complexes by i.v. injecting mice with Ag-specific Abs followed by the cognate Ag. We show by this natural Ab-mediated Ag targeting system that uptake by splenic APC subsets is severely hampered in mice lacking complement factor C1q (C1qa(-/-)). Moreover, no detectable Ag cross-presentation by CD8α(+) DCs from C1qa(-/-) mice was found...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428802/regulation-of-th2-responses-by-different-cell-types-expressing-the-interleukin-31-receptor
#13
Saburo Saito, Ayana Aoki, Iwao Arai, Shinya Takaishi, Haruyasu Ito, Nobutake Akiyama, Hiroshi Kiyonari
BACKGROUND: Interleukin-31 (IL-31) is a recently identified cytokine produced by Th2 cells that is involved in the development of atopic dermatitis-induced skin inflammation and pruritus. Its receptor, IL-31RA, is expressed by a number of cell types, including epithelial cells, eosinophils, and activated monocytes and macrophages. To date, however, the regulation of Th2 responses by distinct cell types and tissues expressing IL-31RA has not been well studied. METHODS: In this study, Cry j 2, one of the major allergens of Japanese cedar pollen, was administered to IL-31RA-deficient or wild-type (WT) mice via nasal or intraperitoneal injection for induction of specific Th2 responses...
2017: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428179/adamts13-controls-vascular-remodeling-by-modifying-vwf-reactivity-during-stroke-recovery
#14
Haochen Xu, Yongliang Cao, Xing Yang, Ping Cai, Lijing Kang, Ximin Zhu, Haiyu Luo, Lu Lu, Lixiang Wei, Xiaofei Bai, Yuanbo Zhu, Bing-Qiao Zhao, Wenying Fan
Angiogenic response is essential for ischemic brain repair. However, the mechanisms leading to postischemic neovascularization have not been established, and no therapies have been identified. The VWF-cleaving protease ADAMTS13 is required for endothelial tube formation in vitro However, there is currently no in vivo evidence supporting a function of ADAMTS13 in angiogenesis. Here we show that mice deficient in ADAMTS13 exhibited significantly reduced neovascularization, brain capillary perfusion, pericyte and smooth muscle cell coverage on microvessels, expression of the tight junction and basement membrane proteins, and accelerated blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and extravascular deposits of serum proteins in the peri-infarct cortex at 14 days after stroke...
April 20, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427937/reactivity-of-anti-hnk-1-antibodies-to-branched-o-mannose-glycans-associated-with-demyelination
#15
Kanoko Sakuda, Yasuhiko Kizuka, Yoshiki Yamaguchi, Katsunori Tanaka, Ken Ogiwara, Tatsuya Segawa, Yoshiaki Hagiwara, Ichiro Matsuo, Haruko Ogawa, Naoyuki Taniguchi, Shinobu Kitazume
Human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) epitope, a highly-expressed glycan in the nervous system, is critical for normal synaptic plasticity and spatial learning. HNK-1 epitope modifies N-glycans on several neural glycoproteins, and also modifies O-mannosyl glycans. A branching enzyme for O-mannosyl glycans (GnT-IX, Core M2 synthase) exhibits brain-specific expression, and the product core M2 glycans are also limited to the brain. In a previous study, we showed that cuprizone-induced demyelination increased HNK-1-capped core M2 glycan expression, while GnT-IX deficiency ameliorated demyelination, suggesting that these glycans could be useful diagnostic markers for demyelination status and act as therapeutic targets...
April 18, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425451/ifn%C3%AE-protects-neurons-from-damage-in-a-murine-model-of-hiv-1-associated-brain-injury
#16
Victoria E Thaney, Alan M O'Neill, Melanie M Hoefer, Ricky Maung, Ana B Sanchez, Marcus Kaul
Infection with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) causes brain injury. Type I interferons (IFNα/β) are critical mediators of any anti-viral immune response and IFNβ has been implicated in the temporary control of lentiviral infection in the brain. Here we show that transgenic mice expressing HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein 120 in their central nervous system (HIVgp120tg) mount a transient IFNβ response and provide evidence that IFNβ confers neuronal protection against HIVgp120 toxicity. In cerebrocortical cell cultures, neuroprotection by IFNβ against gp120 toxicity is dependent on IFNα receptor 1 (IFNAR1) and the β-chemokine CCL4, as IFNAR1 deficiency and neutralizing antibodies against CCL4, respectively, abolish the neuroprotective effects...
April 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424685/analysis-of-linear-antibody-epitopes-on-factor-h-and-cfhr1-using-sera-of-patients-with-autoimmune-atypical-hemolytic-uremic-syndrome
#17
Eszter Trojnár, Mihály Józsi, Katalin Uray, Dorottya Csuka, Ágnes Szilágyi, Danko Milosevic, Vesna D Stojanović, Brankica Spasojević, Krisztina Rusai, Thomas Müller, Klaus Arbeiter, Kata Kelen, Attila J Szabó, György S Reusz, Satu Hyvärinen, T Sakari Jokiranta, Zoltán Prohászka
INTRODUCTION: In autoimmune atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS), the complement regulator factor H (FH) is blocked by FH autoantibodies, while 90% of the patients carry a homozygous deletion of its homolog complement FH-related protein 1 (CFHR1). The functional consequence of FH-blockade is widely established; however, the molecular basis of autoantibody binding and the role of CFHR1 deficiency in disease pathogenesis are still unknown. We performed epitope mapping of FH to provide structural insight in the autoantibody recruitment on FH and potentially CFHR1...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424241/microbiota-induced-antibodies-are-essential-for-host-inflammatory-responsiveness-to-sterile-and-infectious-stimuli
#18
Daniel Cisalpino, Caio T Fagundes, Camila B Brito, Fernando R Ascenção, Celso M Queiroz-Junior, Angélica T Vieira, Lirlândia P Sousa, Flávio A Amaral, Leda Q Vieira, Jacques R Nicoli, Mauro M Teixeira, Danielle G Souza
The indigenous intestinal microbiota is frequently considered an additional major organ of the human body and exerts profound immunomodulating activities. Germ-free (GF) mice display a significantly different inflammatory responsiveness pattern compared with conventional (CV) mice, and this was dubbed a "hyporesponsive phenotype." Taking into account that the deposition of immune complexes is a major event in acute inflammation and that GF mice have a distinct Ig repertoire and B cell activity, we aimed to evaluate whether this altered Ig repertoire interferes with the inflammatory responsiveness of GF mice...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422757/cross-reactive-dengue-human-monoclonal-antibody-prevents-severe-pathologies-and-death-from-zika-virus-infections
#19
Yiu-Wing Kam, Cheryl Yi-Pin Lee, Teck-Hui Teo, Shanshan W Howland, Siti Naqiah Amrun, Fok-Moon Lum, Peter See, Nicholas Qing-Rong Kng, Roland G Huber, Mei-Hui Xu, Heng-Liang Tan, Andre Choo, Sebastian Maurer-Stroh, Florent Ginhoux, Katja Fink, Cheng-I Wang, Lisa F P Ng, Laurent Rénia
Zika virus (ZIKV) infections have been linked with neurological complications and congenital Zika syndrome. Given the high level of homology between ZIKV and the related flavivirus dengue virus (DENV), we investigated the level of cross-reactivity with ZIKV using a panel of DENV human mAbs. A majority of the mAbs showed binding to ZIKV virions, with several exhibiting neutralizing capacities against ZIKV in vitro. Three of the best ZIKV-neutralizing mAbs were found to recognize diverse epitopes on the envelope (E) glycoprotein: the highly conserved fusion-loop peptide, a conformation-specific epitope on the E monomer, and a quaternary epitope on the virion surface...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418194/accelerated-tumor-metastasis-due-to-ifn%C3%AE-receptor-mediated-dissociation-of-perivascular-cells-from-blood-vessels
#20
Chen Ni, Pan Ma, Liwei Qu, Fan Wu, Junfeng Hao, Ruirui Wang, Yu Lu, Wei Yang, Ulrike Erben, Zhihai Qin
Angiostasis mediated by IFNγ is a key mechanism of anti-tumor immunity; however, the effect of IFNγ on host VEGFA-expressing cells during tumor progression is still elusive. Here, we developed transgenic mice with IFNγ receptor (IFNγR) expression under control of the Vegfa promoter (V-γR). In these mice, the IFNγ responsiveness of VEGFA -expressing cells led to a dramatic growth suppression of transplanted lung carcinoma cells. Surprisingly, increased mortality and tumor metastasis were observed in the tumor-bearing V-γR mice, in comparison to the control wild type and IFNγR-deficient mice...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Pathology
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