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antibody deficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634819/establishment-of-a-tagged-variant-of-lgr4-receptor-suitable-for-functional-and-expression-studies-in-the-mouse
#1
Vitezslav Kriz, Michaela Krausova, Petra Buresova, Jan Dobes, Dusan Hrckulak, Olga Babosova, Jiri Svec, Vladimir Korinek
Leucine-rich repeat-containing G-protein-coupled receptor 4 (LGR4) is produced in a broad spectrum of mouse embryonic and adult tissues and its deficiency results in embryonal or perinatal lethality. The LGR4 function was mainly related to its potentiation of canonical Wnt signaling; however, several recent studies associate LGR4 with additional signaling pathways. To obtain a suitable tool for studying the signaling properties of Lgr4, we generated a tagged variant of the Lgr4 receptor using gene targeting in the mouse oocyte...
June 20, 2017: Transgenic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630062/the-transcription-factor-nfat1-participates-in-the-induction-of-cd4-t-cell-functional-exhaustion-during-plasmodium-yoelii-infection
#2
Rachel Y Ames, Li-Min Ting, Inessa Gendlina, Kami Kim, Fernando Macian
Repeated stimulation of T cells that occurs in the context of chronic infection results in progressively reduced responsiveness of T cells to pathogen-derived antigens. This phenotype, known as T cell exhaustion, occurs during chronic infections caused by a variety of pathogens, from persistent viruses to parasites. Unlike the memory cells that typically form after successful pathogen clearance following an acute infection, exhausted T cells secrete lower levels of effector cytokines, proliferate less in response to cognate antigen, and up-regulate cell-surface inhibitory molecules such as PD-1 and LAG-3...
June 19, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629465/natural-igm-antibodies-that-bind-neoepitopes-exposed-as-a-result-of-spinal-cord-injury-drive-secondary-injury-by-activating-complement
#3
Aarti Narang, Fei Qiao, Carl Atkinson, Hong Zhu, Xiaofeng Yang, Liudmila Kulik, V Michael Holers, Stephen Tomlinson
BACKGROUND: Natural IgM antibodies (Abs) function as innate immune sensors of injury via recognition of neoepitopes expressed on damaged cells, although how this recognition systems function following spinal cord injury (SCI) exposes various neoepitopes and their precise nature remains largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of two natural IgM monoclonal Abs (mAbs), B4 and C2, that recognize post-ischemic neoepitopes following ischemia and reperfusion in other tissues. METHODS: Identification of post-SCI expressed neoepitopes was examined using previously characterized monoclonal Abs (B4 and C2 mAbs)...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628214/unconventional-role-of-voltage-gated-proton-channels-vsop-hv1-in-regulation-of-microglial-ros-production
#4
Takafumi Kawai, Yoshifumi Okochi, Tomohiko Ozaki, Yoshio Imura, Schuichi Koizumi, Maya Yamazaki, Manabu Abe, Kenji Sakimura, Toshihide Yamashita, Yasushi Okamura
It has been established that voltage-gated proton channels (VSOP/Hv1), encoded by Hvcn1, support reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in phagocytic activities of neutrophils (El Chemaly et al. 2010) and antibody production in B lymphocytes (Capasso et al. 2010). VSOP/Hv1 is a potential therapeutic target for brain ischemia, since Hvcn1 deficiency reduces microglial ROS production and protects brain from neuronal damage (Wu et al. 2012). In the present study, we report that VSOP/Hv1 has paradoxical suppressive role in ROS production in microglia...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624610/anti-fc%C3%AE-riib-monoclonal-antibody-suppresses-murine-igg-dependent-anaphylaxis-by-fc-domain-targeting-of-fc%C3%AE-riii
#5
Corey D Clay, Richard T Strait, Ashley Mahler, Marat V Khodoun, Fred D Finkelman
BACKGROUND: The inhibitory receptor, FcγRIIB, is expressed on human and murine bone marrow-derived cells and limits inflammation by suppressing signaling through stimulatory receptors. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of K9.361, a mouse IgG2a alloantibody to mouse FcγRIIB, on murine anaphylaxis. METHODS: Wild-type and FcγR-deficient mice were used to study anaphylaxis, which was induced by injection of 2.4G2 (rat IgG2b mAb that binds both FcγRIIB and the stimulatory receptor, FcγRIII); by actively immunizing IgE-deficient mice, then challenging with the immunizing Ag; and by passive immunization with IgG or IgE anti-TNP mAb, followed by injection of TNP-ovalbumin...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624132/schizogony-and-gametogony-of-oocyst-deficient-t-263-strain-of-toxoplasma-gondii
#6
J P Dubey
Oocysts are important stage for the spread of Toxoplasma gondii because they are environmentally resistant. Among all hosts of T. gondii, only felids can excrete oocysts. Cats that have excreted T. gondii oocysts after primary infection develop immunity to re-excretion of oocysts, and this immunity appears to be long-lasting. It would be desirable to have a non-infectious vaccine for the prevention of T. gondii infection in cats and to understand mechanism of immunity to excretion of oocysts. An initial step will be to indentify stage/stages of the parasite for induction of immunity...
May 27, 2017: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623346/early-onset-primary-antibody-deficiency-resembling-common-variable-immunodeficiency-challenges-the-diagnosis-of-wiedeman-steiner-and-roifman-syndromes
#7
Delfien J Bogaert, Melissa Dullaers, Hye Sun Kuehn, Bart P Leroy, Julie E Niemela, Hans De Wilde, Sarah De Schryver, Marieke De Bruyne, Frauke Coppieters, Bart N Lambrecht, Frans De Baets, Sergio D Rosenzweig, Elfride De Baere, Filomeen Haerynck
Syndromic primary immunodeficiencies are rare genetic disorders that affect both the immune system and other organ systems. More often, the immune defect is not the major clinical problem and is sometimes only recognized after a diagnosis has been made based on extra-immunological abnormalities. Here, we report two sibling pairs with syndromic primary immunodeficiencies that exceptionally presented with a phenotype resembling early-onset common variable immunodeficiency, while extra-immunological characteristics were not apparent at that time...
June 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620494/endemic-goitre-and-hypothyroidism-in-an-adult-female-patient-dependent-on-total-parenteral-nutrition
#8
S Pearson, C Donnellan, L Turner, E Noble, K Seejore, R D Murray
We present the case of a thirty-year-old female patient who was referred to the endocrinology team with an enlarging goitre and biochemical hypothyroidism. She had been dependent on total parenteral nutrition for the previous six years as a result of intestinal failure thought to be caused by possible underlying mitochondrial disease. The patient also suffers from a Desmin myopathy, and at present, the exact aetiology behind her intestinal failure is not certain. The goitre was smooth and had been enlarging slowly over the previous few months...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620068/x-box-binding-protein-1-dependent-plasma-cell-responses-limit-the-development-of-atherosclerosis
#9
Andrew P Sage, Meritxell Nus, Jayashree Bagchi Chakraborty, Dimitrios Tsiantoulas, Stephen A Newland, Alison J Finigan, Leanne Masters, Christoph J Binder, Ziad Mallat
Rationale: Diverse B cell responses and functions may be involved in atherosclerosis. Protective antibody responses, such as those against oxidized lipid epitopes, are thought to mainly derive from T cell-independent innate B cell subsets. In contrast, both pathogenic and protective roles have been associated with T cell-dependent antibodies and their importance in both humans and mouse models is still unclear. Objective: To specifically target antibody production by plasma cells and determine the impact on atherosclerotic plaque development in mice with and without CD4+ T cells...
June 15, 2017: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619747/successful-immune-checkpoint-blockade-in-a-patient-with-advanced-stage-microsatellite-unstable-biliary-tract-cancer
#10
Elena Czink, Matthias Kloor, Benjamin Goeppert, Stefan Froehling, Sebastian Uhrig, Tim F Weber, Joern Meinel, Christian Sutter, Karl Heinz Weiss, Peter Schirmacher, Magnus von Knebel Doeberitz, Dirk Jaeger, Christoph Springfeld
Cancers acquire multiple somatic mutations that can lead to the generation of immunogenic mutation-induced neoantigens. These neoantigens can be recognized by the host's immune system. However, continuous stimulation of immune cells against tumor antigens can lead to immune cell exhaustion, which allows uncontrolled outgrowth of tumor cells. Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have emerged as a novel approach to overcome immune cell exhaustion and re-activate anti-tumor immune responses. In particular, antibodies blocking the exhaustion-mediating programmed death receptor (PD-1)/PD-L1 pathway have shown clinical efficacy...
June 15, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619678/april-taci-axis-is-dispensable-for-the-immune-response-to-rabies-vaccination
#11
Shannon L Haley, Evgeni P Tzvetkov, Andrew G Lytle, Kishore R Alugupalli, Joseph R Plummer, James P McGettigan
There is significant need to develop a single-dose rabies vaccine to replace the current multi-dose rabies vaccine regimen and eliminate the requirement for rabies immune globulin in post-exposure settings. To accomplish this goal, rabies virus (RABV)-based vaccines must rapidly activate B cells to secrete antibodies which neutralize pathogenic RABV before it enters the CNS. Increased understanding of how B cells effectively respond to RABV-based vaccines may improve efforts to simplify post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) regimens...
June 12, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619052/heterologous-expression-of-an-%C3%AE-amylase-inhibitor-from-common-bean-phaseolus-vulgaris-in-kluyveromyces-lactis-and-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#12
Stephanie Brain-Isasi, Alejandro Álvarez-Lueje, Thomas Joseph V Higgins
BACKGROUND: Phaseolamin or α-amylase inhibitor 1 (αAI) is a glycoprotein from common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that inhibits some insect and mammalian α-amylases. Several clinical studies support the beneficial use of bean αAI for control of diabetes and obesity. Commercial extracts of P. vulgaris are available but their efficacy is still under question, mainly because some of these extracts contain antinutritional impurities naturally present in bean seeds and also exhibit a lower specific activity αAI...
June 15, 2017: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617178/concentrations-of-pneumococcal-iga-and-igm-are-compromised-in-some-individuals-with-antibody-deficiencies
#13
Ainara Echeverría de Carlos, Ricardo Gómez de la Torre, Enrique García Carus, Luis Caminal Montero, Jose Bernardino Díaz López, Hector Suárez Casado, Luis Molinos Matin, Lourdes Tricas Aizpún, Stephen Harding, Antony R Parker
The response to pneumococcal vaccination is assessed by measurement of antigen specific IgG only and is compromised in a number of antibody deficiencies. We measured the concentrations of Pneumococcal IgA and IgM in individuals with both normal and abnormal pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) IgG concentrations. A higher number of individuals had abnormal pre vaccination IgA and IgM concentrations below the lower limit of the normal range compared to the control group. Post vaccination a lower number of individuals had IgA and IgM concentrations below the upper limit of the normal range compared to the control group...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616085/helicobacter-pylori-infection-old-and-new
#14
REVIEW
S Diaconu, A Predescu, A Moldoveanu, C S Pop, C Fierbințeanu-Braticevici
Helicobacter pylori is a spiral-shaped bacterium that grows in the digestive tract and may be present in more than half of the world's population. The clinical features of Helicobacter pylori range from asymptomatic gastritis to gastrointestinal malignancy. Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is a low-grade B-cell marginal zone lymphoma and Helicobacter pylori has been detected in more than 75% of the patients with MALT lymphoma. Many tests for the detection of Helicobacter pylori are available, including antibody tests, urea breath tests, stool antigen tests and endoscopic biopsies...
April 2017: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615655/secreted-igm-deficiency-leads-to-increased-bcr-signaling-that-results-in-abnormal-splenic-b-cell-development
#15
Dimitrios Tsiantoulas, Mate Kiss, Barbara Bartolini-Gritti, Andreas Bergthaler, Ziad Mallat, Hassan Jumaa, Christoph J Binder
Mice lacking secreted IgM (sIgM (-/-)) antibodies display abnormal splenic B cell development, which results in increased marginal zone and decreased follicular B cell numbers. However, the mechanism by which sIgM exhibit this effect is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that B cells in sIgM (-/-) mice display increased B cell receptor (BCR) signaling as judged by increased levels of phosphorylated Bruton's tyrosine kinase (pBtk), phosphorylated Spleen tyrosine kinase (pSyk), and nuclear receptor Nur77. Low dosage treatment with the pBtk inhibitor Ibrutinib reversed the altered B cell development in the spleen of sIgM (-/-) mice, suggesting that sIgM regulate splenic B cell differentiation by decreasing BCR signaling...
June 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614794/an-activated-th17-prone-t-cell-subset-involved-in-chronic-graft-versus-host-disease-sensitive-to-pharmacological-inhibition
#16
Edouard Forcade, Katelyn Paz, Ryan Flynn, Brad Griesenauer, Tohti Amet, Wei Li, Liangyi Liu, Giorgos Bakoyannis, Di Jiang, Hong Wei Chu, Mercedes Lobera, Jianfei Yang, David S Wilkes, Jing Du, Kate Gartlan, Geoffrey R Hill, Kelli Pa MacDonald, Eduardo L Espada, Patrick Blanco, Jonathan S Serody, John Koreth, Corey S Cutler, Joseph H Antin, Robert J Soiffer, Jerome Ritz, Sophie Paczesny, Bruce R Blazar
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGvHD) remains a major complication of allogeneic stem cell transplantation requiring novel therapies. CD146 and CCR5 are expressed by activated T cells and associated with increased T cell migration capacity and Th17 polarization. We performed a multiparametric flow cytometry analysis in a cohort of 40 HSCT patients together with a cGvHD murine model to understand the role of CD146-expressing subsets. We observed an increased frequency of CD146+ CD4 T cells in the 20 patients with active cGvHD with enhanced RORγt expression...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614791/human-vaccination-against-plasmodium-vivax-duffy-binding-protein-induces-strain-transcending-antibodies
#17
Ruth O Payne, Sarah E Silk, Sean C Elias, Kathryn H Milne, Thomas A Rawlinson, David Llewellyn, A Rushdi Shakri, Jing Jin, Geneviève M Labbé, Nick J Edwards, Ian D Poulton, Rachel Roberts, Ryan Farid, Thomas Jørgensen, Daniel Gw Alanine, Simone C de Cassan, Matthew K Higgins, Thomas D Otto, James S McCarthy, Willem A de Jongh, Alfredo Nicosia, Sarah Moyle, Adrian Vs Hill, Eleanor Berrie, Chetan E Chitnis, Alison M Lawrie, Simon J Draper
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria geographically; however, no effective vaccine exists. Red blood cell invasion by the P. vivax merozoite depends on an interaction between the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) and region II of the parasite's Duffy-binding protein (PvDBP_RII). Naturally acquired binding-inhibitory antibodies against this interaction associate with clinical immunity, but it is unknown whether these responses can be induced by human vaccination...
June 15, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613137/measurement-of-the-igg2-response-to-pneumococcal-capsular-polysaccharides-may-identify-an-antibody-deficiency-in-individuals-referred-for-immunological-investigation
#18
Antony Parker, Juan Irure Ventura, Dawn Sims, Ainara Echeverría de Carlos, Ricardo Gómez de la Torre, Lourdes Tricas Aizpún, J Gonzalo Ocejo-Vinyals, Marcos López-Hoyos, Gregg Wallis, Stephen Harding
IgG2 is the most efficient subclass for providing protection against pneumococcal pathogens. We hypothesised that some individuals may be unable to mount an effective pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide (PCP) IgG2 response despite having a normal PCP IgG concentration (PCP IgG2 deficient). The median pre-vaccination PCP IgG2 concentration was significantly lower in individuals referred for immunological investigation compared to healthy controls (2.8 mg/L range, 95% CI 1.1-88 vs 29.5mg/L, 95% CI 13.5-90, p=0...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611730/exploiting-nanobodies-in-the-detection-and-quantification-of-human-growth-hormone-via-phage-sandwich-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#19
Hossam Murad, Jana Mir Assaad, Rasha Al-Shemali, Abdul Qader Abbady
BACKGROUND: Monitoring blood levels of human growth hormone (hGH) in most children with short stature deficiencies is crucial for taking a decision of treatment with extended course of daily and expensive doses of recombinant hGH (rhGH or Somatropin(®)). Besides, misusing of rhGH by sportsmen is banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency and thus sensitive GH-detecting methods are highly welcome in this field. Nanobodies are the tiniest antigen-binding entity derived from camel heavy chain antibodies...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611475/murine-lrba-deficiency-causes-ctla-4-deficiency-in-tregs-without-progression-to-immune-dysregulation
#20
Deborah Burnett, Ian Parish, Etienne Masle-Farquhar, Robert Brink, Christopher Goodnow
Inherited mutations in Lipopolysaccharide Responsive Beige-like Anchor (LRBA) cause a recessive human immune dysregulation syndrome with memory B cell and antibody deficiency (common variable immunodeficiency, CVID), inflammatory bowel disease, enlarged spleen and lymph nodes, accumulation of activated T cells, and multiple autoimmune diseases. To understand the pathogenesis of the syndrome, C57BL/6 mice carrying a homozygous truncating mutation in Lrba were produced using CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene targeting...
June 14, 2017: Immunology and Cell Biology
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