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balkan virus

Roberto Bruni, Stefania Taffon, Michele Equestre, Eleonora Cella, Alessandra Lo Presti, Angela Costantino, Paola Chionne, Elisabetta Madonna, Elitsa Golkocheva-Markova, Diljana Bankova, Massimo Ciccozzi, Pavel Teoharov, Anna Rita Ciccaglione
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection is endemic in Eastern European and Balkan region countries. In 2012, Bulgaria showed the highest rate (67.13 cases per 100,000) in Europe. Nevertheless, HAV genotypes and strains circulating in this country have never been described. The present study reports the molecular characterization of HAV from 105 patients from Bulgaria. METHODS: Anti-HAV IgM positive serum samples collected in 2012-2014 from different towns and villages in Bulgaria were analysed by nested RT-PCR, sequencing of the VP1/2A region and phylogenetic analysis; the results were analysed together with patient and geographical data...
July 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
Ayhan Balkan, Nimet Yılmaz, Yasemin Balkan, Irfan Koruk, Mustafa Örkmez, Musa Aydınlı, Mehmet Koruk
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Apoptosis represents a well-known mechanism of cell death involved in most chronic liver injuries. Our aim was to investigate the serum fragment level of cytokeratin 18 (CK18), M30, in asymptomatic hepatitis B virus (HBV) carriers and patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) and to evaluate the relationship between serum M30 levels and the severity of hepatic injury. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Asymptomatic HBV carriers (n=169), patients with CHB (n=100), and healthy control subjects (n=43) were enrolled in the study...
June 1, 2017: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
Nazli Ayhan, Kurtesh Sherifi, Arber Taraku, Kristaq Bërxholi, Rémi N Charrel
Toscana and sandfly fever Sicilian viruses (TOSV and SFSV, respectively), both transmitted by sand flies, are prominent human pathogens in the Old World. Of 1,086 serum samples collected from cattle and sheep during 2013 in various regions of Kosovo (Balkan Peninsula), 4.7% and 53.4% had neutralizing antibodies against TOSV and SFSV, respectively.
June 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
C Sailleau, E Breard, C Viarouge, A Gorlier, H Quenault, E Hirchaud, F Touzain, Y Blanchard, D Vitour, S Zientara
In November 2016, sheep located in the south of Corsica island exhibited clinical signs suggestive of bluetongue virus (BTV) infection. Laboratory analyses allowed to isolate and identify a BTV strain of serotype 4. The analysis of the full viral genome showed that all the 10 genomic segments were closely related to those of the BTV-4 present in Hungary in 2014 and involved in a large BT outbreak in the Balkan Peninsula. These results together with epidemiological data suggest that BTV-4 has been introduced to Corsica from Italy (Sardinia) where BTV-4 outbreaks have been reported in autumn 2016...
May 11, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
Resat Ozaras, Ilker Inanc Balkan, Mucahit Yemisen, Bilgul Mete, Fehmi Tabak
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
John I Pitt, J David Miller
Toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins entered human food supplies about the time when mankind first began to cultivate crops and to store them from one season to the next, perhaps 10,000 years ago. The storage of cereals probably initiated the transition by mankind from hunter-gatherer to cultivator, at the same time providing a vast new ecological niche for fungi pathogenic on grain crops or saprophytic on harvested grain, many of which produced mycotoxins. Grains have always been the major source of mycotoxins in the diet of man and his domestic animals...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Alexander N Lukashev, Alexander S Klimentov, Svetlana E Smirnova, Tamara K Dzagurova, Jan Felix Drexler, Anatoly P Gmyl
Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most severe viral zoonozes. It is prevalent throughout Africa, Asia and southern Europe. Limited availability of sequence data has hindered phylogeographic studies. The complete genomic sequence of all three segments of 14 Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains isolated from 1958-2000 in Russia, Central Asia and Africa was identified. Each genomic segment was independently subjected to continuous Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. The origin of each genomic segment was traced to Africa about 1,000-5,000 years ago...
2016: PloS One
Nazli Ayhan, Enkelejda Velo, Xavier de Lamballerie, Majlinda Kota, Perparim Kadriaj, Yusuf Ozbel, Remi N Charrel, Silvia Bino
OBJECTIVE: To organize entomological campaigns to trap sand flies in selected regions of Albania and to test them for the presence of existing or new phleboviruses and for leishmania DNA. METHODS: Sand flies were collected in 14 locations from May to October 2014 using three different types of traps. Pools with a maximum of 30 individuals were prepared according to gender, trapping site, and trapping date; they were tested for the presence of (1) phlebovirus RNA with three different PCR systems (2) and Leishmania DNA using two different real-time PCR assays...
December 2016: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Manfred Weidmann, Tatjana Avsic-Zupanc, Silvia Bino, Michelle Bouloy, Felicity Burt, Sadegh Chinikar, Iva Christova, Isuf Dedushaj, Ahmed El-Sanousi, Nazif Elaldi, Roger Hewson, Frank T Hufert, Isme Humolli, Petrus Jansen van Vuren, Zeliha Koçak Tufan, Gülay Korukluoglu, Pieter Lyssen, Ali Mirazimi, Johan Neyts, Matthias Niedrig, Aykut Ozkul, Anna Papa, Janusz Paweska, Amadou A Sall, Connie S Schmaljohn, Robert Swanepoel, Yavuz Uyar, Friedemann Weber, Herve Zeller
In countries from which Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is absent, the causative virus, CCHF virus (CCHFV), is classified as a hazard group 4 agent and handled in containment level (CL)-4. In contrast, most endemic countries out of necessity have had to perform diagnostic tests under biosafety level (BSL)-2 or -3 conditions. In particular, Turkey and several of the Balkan countries have safely processed more than 100 000 samples over many years in BSL-2 laboratories. It is therefore advocated that biosafety requirements for CCHF diagnostic procedures should be revised, to allow the tests required to be performed under enhanced BSL-2 conditions with appropriate biosafety laboratory equipment and personal protective equipment used according to standardized protocols in the countries affected...
November 2016: Journal of General Virology
Marie Stiborová, Volker M Arlt, Heinz H Schmeiser
Balkan endemic nephropathy (BEN) is a unique, chronic renal disease frequently associated with upper urothelial cancer (UUC). It only affects residents of specific farming villages located along tributaries of the Danube River in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia, Bulgaria, and Romania where it is estimated that ~100,000 individuals are at risk of BEN, while ~25,000 have the disease. This review summarises current findings on the aetiology of BEN. Over the last 50 years, several hypotheses on the cause of BEN have been formulated, including mycotoxins, heavy metals, viruses, and trace-element insufficiencies...
November 2016: Archives of Toxicology
Laurent Getaz, Alejandra Casillas, Sandrine Motamed, Jean-Michel Gaspoz, Francois Chappuis, Hans Wolff
Purpose - The environmental and demographic characteristics of closed institutions, particularly prisons, precipitate morbidity during hepatitis A virus (HAV) outbreaks. Given the high prevalence of chronic liver disease and other risk factors in the prison setting, the purpose of this paper is to examine HAV-immunity and its associated factors in this population. Design/methodology/approach - The cross-sectional study was conducted in 2009: a serology screening for HAV IgG was carried out among 116 inmates in Switzerland's largest pre-trial prison...
June 13, 2016: International Journal of Prisoner Health
Ayhan Balkan, Mustafa Namiduru, Yasemin Balkan, Ayse Ozlem Mete, Ilkay Karaoglan, Vuslat Kecik Bosnak
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Fluctuations in hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and alanine transaminase (ALT) levels complicate assessment of the phases of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and correct identification of the inactive HBV carrier state. In this study, we aimed to examine the role of HBsAg quantification (qHBsAg) in the identification of the phases of HBV and to evaluate its association with liver histopathology. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Inactive HBV carriers (IC) (n = 104) and CHB patients (n = 100) were enrolled in the study...
May 2016: Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Saudi Gastroenterology Association
Edina Dervović, Mirsada Hukić
Hantaviruses are the causative agents of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Euroasia and of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS) in the North, Central and South America. HFRS is endemic in the Balkan Peninsula, where sporadic cases or outbreaks have been reported. Puumala virus (PUUV) is the causative agent of nephropathia epidemica (NE), a mild form of HFRS. PUUV is carried by the bank voles (Myodes glareolus). In this study, we investigated viral RNA from 76 tissues samples (lung n=30, heart n=6, liver n=18 and kidney n=22) of infected naturally rodent hosts in the area of Central Dinarides caught in live traps...
April 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Annamaria Conte, Luca Candeloro, Carla Ippoliti, Federica Monaco, Fabrizio De Massis, Rossana Bruno, Daria Di Sabatino, Maria Luisa Danzetta, Abdennasser Benjelloun, Bouchra Belkadi, Mehdi El Harrak, Silvia Declich, Caterina Rizzo, Salah Hammami, Thameur Ben Hassine, Paolo Calistri, Giovanni Savini
West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques...
2015: PloS One
Umbertina Villano, Alessandra Lo Presti, Michele Equestre, Eleonora Cella, Giulio Pisani, Marta Giovanetti, Roberto Bruni, Elena Tritarelli, Massimo Amicosante, Alba Grifoni, Carmelo Scarcella, Issa El-Hamad, Maria Chiara Pezzoli, Silvia Angeletti, Angeletti Silvia, Anna Rita Ciccaglione, Massimo Ciccozzi
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B virus infection (HBV) is widespread and it is considered a major health problem worldwide. The global distribution of HBV varies significantly between countries and between regions of the world. Among the many factors contributing to the changing epidemiology of viral hepatitis, the movement of people within and between countries is a potentially important one. In Italy, the number of migrant individuals has been increasing during the past 25 years. HBV genotype D has been found throughout the world, although its highest prevalence is in the Mediterranean area, the Middle East and southern Asia...
2015: BMC Infectious Diseases
Robert Barthel, Emad Mohareb, Rasha Younan, Teodora Gladnishka, Nikolay Kalvatchev, Abdel Moemen, Sameh S Mansour, Cynthia Rossi, Randal Schoepp, Iva Christova
Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne zoonotic disease. Over the past decade, CCHF cases in humans have emerged in Turkey and reemerged in the Balkan countries, Ukraine and Tajikistan. Occupational contact with infected livestock has been recognized as a common cause of the disease. A cross-sectional seroprevalence study in livestock was conducted in farming communities of an endemic area in Bulgaria, southeastern Europe. Overall, 72% of the tested animals were positive for IgG antibodies to CCHF virus...
May 4, 2014: Biotechnology, Biotechnological Equipment
Nurettin Canakoglu, Engin Berber, Sukru Tonbak, Mustafa Ertek, Ibrahim Sozdutmaz, Munir Aktas, Ahmet Kalkan, Aykut Ozdarendeli
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is an acute tick-borne zoonotic disease. The disease has been reported in many countries of Africa, Asia, the Middle East, and in Eurasia. During the past decade, new foci of CCHF have emerged in the Balkan Peninsula, southwest Russia, the Middle East, western China, India, Africa, and Turkey. CCHF virus produces severe hemorrhagic manifestations in humans with fatality rates up to 30%. Vaccine development efforts have been significantly hampered by a lack of animal models and therefore, no protective vaccine has been achieved...
March 2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Zoran Vratnica, Gianguglielmo Zehender, Erika Ebranati, Chiara Sorrentino, Alessia Lai, Danijela Vujošević, Carla Veo, Alessandra Lo Presti, Eleonora Cella, Marta Giovanetti, Dragan Laušević, Massimo Galli, Massimo Ciccozzi, Boban Mugoša
The Mediterranean area and the Balkans in particular show the highest level of genetic heterogeneity of HBV in Europe. Data about the circulation of HBV genotypes in Montenegro are lacking. It was studied the prevalence and distribution of HBV genot/subgenotypes in a total of 150 HBV infected patients living in Montenegro. Phylogenetic analysis of 136 successfully amplified P sequences showed a high degree of genetic heterogeneity of HBV in Montenegro. Subgenotype D2 (36.8%) and D3 (32.3%) were the most prevalent, followed by genotype A (subgenotype A2 in all of the cases-19...
May 2015: Journal of Medical Virology
Luis M Hernández-Triana, Claire L Jeffries, Karen L Mansfield, George Carnell, Anthony R Fooks, Nicholas Johnson
West Nile virus (WNV) is transmitted by mosquitoes and causes fever and encephalitis in humans, equines, and occasionally wild birds. The virus was first isolated in sub-Saharan Africa where it is endemic. WNV lineage 1 has been responsible for repeated disease outbreaks in the countries of the Mediterranean basin over the past 50 years. This lineage was also introduced into North America in 1999 causing widespread human, equine, and avian mortality. WNV lineage 2, the first WNV lineage to be isolated, was believed to be restricted to sub-Saharan Africa causing a relatively mild fever in humans...
2014: Frontiers in Public Health
Iva Christova, Angelina Plyusnina, Teodora Gladnishka, Nikolay Kalvatchev, Iva Trifonova, Hristo Dimitrov, Vesela Mitkovska, Emad Mohareb, Alexander Plyusnin
Several Hantaviruses cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in Europe: Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV), Puumala, Saaremaa, Sochi, and Seoul virus. Although HFRS is endemic in Bulgaria, genome sequences of hantaviruses have never been detected in wild rodents. To identify rodent reservoirs, a total of 691 rodents from three endemic regions were trapped in 2011-2012 and screened by TaqMan RT-PCR for detection of hantaviral genomic RNA. Partial small (S) and/or large (L)-segment sequences were recovered from six Apodemus mice: five of the species A...
February 2015: Journal of Medical Virology
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