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Recent advances in neuropsychiatry

Jeffrey A Stanley, Naftali Raz
Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H MRS) is a well-established technique for quantifying the brain regional biochemistry in vivo . In most studies, however, the 1 H MRS is acquired during rest with little to no constraint on behavior. Measured metabolite levels, therefore, reflect steady-state concentrations whose associations with behavior and cognition are unclear. With the recent advances in MR technology-higher-field MR systems, robust acquisition techniques and sophisticated quantification methods-1 H MRS is now experiencing a resurgence...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Mark D Berry, Raul R Gainetdinov, Marius C Hoener, Mohammed Shahid
The discovery in 2001 of a G protein-coupled receptor family, subsequently termed trace amine-associated receptors (TAAR), triggered a resurgence of interest in so-called trace amines. Initial optimism quickly faded, however, as the TAAR family presented a series of challenges preventing the use of standard medicinal chemistry and pharmacology technologies. Consequently the development of basic tools for probing TAAR and translating findings from model systems to humans has been problematic. Despite these challenges the last 5years have seen considerable advances, in particular with respect to TAAR1, which appears to function as an endogenous rheostat, maintaining central neurotransmission within defined physiological limits, in part through receptor heterodimerization yielding biased signaling outputs...
July 16, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Isao Ohno
Since the recognition of asthma as a syndrome with complex pathophysiological signs and symptoms, recent research has sought to classify asthma phenotypes based on its clinical and molecular pathological features. Psychological stress was first recognized as a potential immune system modulator of asthma at the end of the 19th century. The activation of the central nervous system (CNS) upon exposure to psychological stress is integral for the initiation of signal transduction processes. The stress hormones, including glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and norepinephrine, which are secreted following CNS activation, are involved in the immunological alterations involved in psychological stress-induced asthma exacerbation...
September 2017: Allergology International: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Allergology
Norberto Garcia-Cairasco, Eduardo H L Umeoka, José A Cortes de Oliveira
In the context of modeling epilepsy and neuropsychiatric comorbidities, we review the Wistar Audiogenic Rat (WAR), first introduced to the neuroscience international community more than 25years ago. The WAR strain is a genetically selected reflex model susceptible to audiogenic seizures (AS), acutely mimicking brainstem-dependent tonic-clonic seizures and chronically (by audiogenic kindling), temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Seminal neuroethological, electrophysiological, cellular, and molecular protocols support the WAR strain as a suitable and reliable animal model to study the complexity and emergent functions typical of epileptogenic networks...
June 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Michael P Milham, R Cameron Craddock, Arno Klein
Despite decades of research, visions of transforming neuropsychiatry through the development of brain imaging-based "growth charts" or "lab tests" have remained out of reach. In recent years, there is renewed enthusiasm about the prospect of achieving clinically useful tools capable of aiding the diagnosis and management of neuropsychiatric disorders. The present work explores the basis for this enthusiasm. We assert that there is no single advance that currently has the potential to drive the field of clinical brain imaging forward...
July 2017: Depression and Anxiety
Kimberly A Mulligan, Benjamin N R Cheyette
Mounting evidence indicates that Wnt signaling is relevant to pathophysiology of diverse mental illnesses including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and autism spectrum disorder. In the 35 years since Wnt ligands were first described, animal studies have richly explored how downstream Wnt signaling pathways affect an array of neurodevelopmental processes and how their disruption can lead to both neurological and behavioral phenotypes. Recently, human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) models have begun to contribute to this literature while pushing it in increasingly translational directions...
February 2017: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
Orestes V Forlenza, Júlia Cunha Loureiro, Marcos Vasconcelos Pais, Florindo Stella
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present article addresses intriguing questions related to the clinical intervention in distinct neuropsychiatric syndromes of patients with dementia. RECENT FINDINGS: We reviewed 154 articles published between 2015 and 2016 targeting psychopharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, and safety-tolerability concerns. We selected 115 articles addressing the purpose of this study. Of these, 33 were chosen because they were dedicated to subtopics: agitation (42), depression (33), apathy (18), sleep disorders/anxiety (8), and psychosis (4)...
March 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Andre Der-Avakian, Samuel A Barnes, Athina Markou, Diego A Pizzagalli
Deficits in reward and motivation are common symptoms characterizing several psychiatric and neurological disorders. Such deficits may include anhedonia, defined as loss of pleasure, as well as impairments in anticipatory pleasure, reward valuation, motivation/effort, and reward learning. This chapter describes recent advances in the development of behavioral tasks used to assess different aspects of reward processing in both humans and non-human animals. While earlier tasks were generally developed independently with limited cross-species correspondence, a newer generation of translational tasks has emerged that are theoretically and procedurally analogous across species and allow parallel testing, data analyses, and interpretation between human and rodent behaviors...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Daniel I Kaufer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article presents a multidimensional, integrative approach to clinical assessment and management of neurobehavioral disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry has grown as a subspecialty along with increased recognition of two common brain disorders: dementia and traumatic brain injury. Alzheimer disease is a highly prevalent dementia and a prototypical memory disorder, which has led to a primary focus on cognitive screening and assessment...
June 2015: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Donald F Smith
Major depressive disorder continues to challenge medical and psychological resources worldwide. A marked surge has occurred recently in China in neuroimaging studies of major depressive disorder. Those studies represent an emerging trend in neuropsychiatry in that such research has previously been extremely rare in China. The present article provides a systematic review of reports published in English by research institutes in China on resting-state functional connectivity studied by MRI in depressed subjects and healthy control subjects...
2015: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Savina Apolloni, Susanna Amadio, Chiara Parisi, Alessandra Matteucci, Rosa L Potenza, Monica Armida, Patrizia Popoli, Nadia D'Ambrosi, Cinzia Volonté
In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the role of P2X7, a receptor for extracellular ATP, in modulating physiopathological mechanisms in the central nervous system. In particular, P2X7 has been shown to be implicated in neuropsychiatry, chronic pain, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Remarkably, P2X7 has also been shown to be a 'gene modifier' in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): the receptor is upregulated in spinal cord microglia in human and rat at advanced stages of the disease; in vitro, activation of P2X7 exacerbates pro-inflammatory responses in microglia that have an ALS phenotype, as well as toxicity towards neuronal cells...
September 2014: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Martin Raff
Some of the most interesting questions in biology today, in my view, derive from the real advances in neuropsychiatry that have come largely from human genetics. Research in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been leading the way, mainly because it has become especially well funded and has recently attracted many outstanding scientists. (I must make it clear that I am an outsider in this field, as I have never worked on any neuropsychiatric disorder).
2014: BMC Biology
Helen S Mayberg
Advances in neuroscience have revolutionized our understanding of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging technologies, in particular, have begun to reveal the complex anatomical, physiological, biochemical, genetic, and molecular organizational structure of the organ at the center of that system: the human brain. More recently, neuroimaging technologies have enabled the investigation of normal brain function and are being used to gain important new insights into the mechanisms behind many neuropsychiatric disorders...
March 2014: Hastings Center Report
G E Berrios, T R Dening
During the recent resurgence of interest in neuropsychiatry, rapid technological advances have outpaced developments in the underlying theoretical framework. Neurophilosophy has tended to overlook clinical problems. This paper aims to redress the balance by examining a number of conceptual issues. Two groups of problems are considered: those related to brain functioning and psychiatric symptoms, and those related to the measurement of symptoms and their statistical analysis. It is emphasized that psychiatric symptoms appear to reflect the modular organization of the brain; and the particular psychiatric symptomatology associated with individual neurological diseases may be more distinct than is generally assumed, both cross-sectionally and over time...
1990: Behavioural Neurology
Jerzy A Sobański, Dominika Dudek
The two objectives of the following paper are: to make few remarks on the topic absorbing neurologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychiatrists - integration and division of their specialties; and to describe the situation in Poland, reflected in the latest literature. The authors describe the former and present processes of approaches and divisions in psychiatry and neurology. They indicate dissemination of mutual methods of structural and action brain neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neurogenetics, and advanced neurophysiology diagnostics...
November 2013: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Benjamin Jacob Hayempour, Abass Alavi
Medical imaging has made a major contribution to cerebral dysfunction due to inherited diseases, as well as injuries sustained with modern living, such as car accidents, falling down, and work-related injuries. These injuries, up until the introduction of sensitive techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), were overlooked because of heavy reliance on structural imaging techniques such as MRI and CT. These techniques are extremely insensitive for dysfunction caused by such underlying disorders. We believe that the use of these highly powerful functional neuroimaging technologies, such as PET, has substantially improved our ability to assess these patients properly in the clinical setting, to determine their natural course, and to assess the efficacy of various interventional detections...
September 2013: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Samuel S Newton, Neil M Fournier, Ronald S Duman
Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular basis of psychiatric illnesses have shed light on the important role played by trophic factors in modulating functional parameters associated with disease causality and drug action. Disease mechanisms are now thought to involve multiple cell types, including neurons and endothelial cells. These functionally distinct but interactively coupled cell types engage in cellular cross talk via shared and common signaling molecules. Dysregulation in their cellular signaling pathways influences brain function and alters behavioral performance...
May 2013: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Yuan Mei, Feng Zhang
The mammalian brain poses a formidable challenge to the study and treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases, owing to the complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic, and circuit-level mechanisms underlying pathogenesis. Technologies that facilitate functional dissection of distinct brain circuits are necessary for systematic identification of disease origin and therapy. Recent developments in optogenetics technology have begun to address this challenge by enabling precise perturbation of distinct cell types based on molecular signatures, functional projections, and intracellular biochemical signaling pathways...
June 15, 2012: Biological Psychiatry
John M Petitto, Zhi Huang, Danielle Meola, Grace K Ha, Daniel Dauer
The effects of IL-2 on brain development, function, and disease are the result of IL-2's actions in the peripheral immune system and its intrinsic actions in the central nervous system (CNS). Determining whether, and under what circumstances (e.g., development, acute injury), these different actions of IL-2 are operative in the brain is essential to make significant advances in understanding the multifaceted affects of IL-2 on CNS function and disease, including psychiatric disorders. For several decades, there has been a great deal of speculation about the role of autoimmunity in brain disease...
2012: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jeremy Turk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in developmental neuropsychiatry and the mental health needs of people with intellectual disability are creating ever greater understanding of the critical associations between human genome variations and psychological functioning throughout lifespan and across the entire intellectual ability spectrum. This review highlights the recent developments and their clinical implications for people with fragile X syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: There is substantial evidence for individuals of all ages and intellectual abilities being prone to psychological profiles determined not only by having a fragile X gene full mutation, but also by having premutations and intermediate alleles...
September 2011: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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