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Recent advances in neuropsychiatry

Andre Der-Avakian, Samuel A Barnes, Athina Markou, Diego A Pizzagalli
Deficits in reward and motivation are common symptoms characterizing several psychiatric and neurological disorders. Such deficits may include anhedonia, defined as loss of pleasure, as well as impairments in anticipatory pleasure, reward valuation, motivation/effort, and reward learning. This chapter describes recent advances in the development of behavioral tasks used to assess different aspects of reward processing in both humans and non-human animals. While earlier tasks were generally developed independently with limited cross-species correspondence, a newer generation of translational tasks has emerged that are theoretically and procedurally analogous across species and allow parallel testing, data analyses, and interpretation between human and rodent behaviors...
2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
Daniel I Kaufer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article presents a multidimensional, integrative approach to clinical assessment and management of neurobehavioral disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry has grown as a subspecialty along with increased recognition of two common brain disorders: dementia and traumatic brain injury. Alzheimer disease is a highly prevalent dementia and a prototypical memory disorder, which has led to a primary focus on cognitive screening and assessment...
June 2015: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Donald F Smith
Major depressive disorder continues to challenge medical and psychological resources worldwide. A marked surge has occurred recently in China in neuroimaging studies of major depressive disorder. Those studies represent an emerging trend in neuropsychiatry in that such research has previously been extremely rare in China. The present article provides a systematic review of reports published in English by research institutes in China on resting-state functional connectivity studied by MRI in depressed subjects and healthy control subjects...
2015: Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Savina Apolloni, Susanna Amadio, Chiara Parisi, Alessandra Matteucci, Rosa L Potenza, Monica Armida, Patrizia Popoli, Nadia D'Ambrosi, Cinzia Volonté
In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the role of P2X7, a receptor for extracellular ATP, in modulating physiopathological mechanisms in the central nervous system. In particular, P2X7 has been shown to be implicated in neuropsychiatry, chronic pain, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Remarkably, P2X7 has also been shown to be a 'gene modifier' in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): the receptor is upregulated in spinal cord microglia in human and rat at advanced stages of the disease; in vitro, activation of P2X7 exacerbates pro-inflammatory responses in microglia that have an ALS phenotype, as well as toxicity towards neuronal cells...
September 2014: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Martin Raff
Some of the most interesting questions in biology today, in my view, derive from the real advances in neuropsychiatry that have come largely from human genetics. Research in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been leading the way, mainly because it has become especially well funded and has recently attracted many outstanding scientists. (I must make it clear that I am an outsider in this field, as I have never worked on any neuropsychiatric disorder).
2014: BMC Biology
Helen S Mayberg
Advances in neuroscience have revolutionized our understanding of the central nervous system. Neuroimaging technologies, in particular, have begun to reveal the complex anatomical, physiological, biochemical, genetic, and molecular organizational structure of the organ at the center of that system: the human brain. More recently, neuroimaging technologies have enabled the investigation of normal brain function and are being used to gain important new insights into the mechanisms behind many neuropsychiatric disorders...
March 2014: Hastings Center Report
G E Berrios, T R Dening
During the recent resurgence of interest in neuropsychiatry, rapid technological advances have outpaced developments in the underlying theoretical framework. Neurophilosophy has tended to overlook clinical problems. This paper aims to redress the balance by examining a number of conceptual issues. Two groups of problems are considered: those related to brain functioning and psychiatric symptoms, and those related to the measurement of symptoms and their statistical analysis. It is emphasized that psychiatric symptoms appear to reflect the modular organization of the brain; and the particular psychiatric symptomatology associated with individual neurological diseases may be more distinct than is generally assumed, both cross-sectionally and over time...
1990: Behavioural Neurology
Jerzy A Sobański, Dominika Dudek
The two objectives of the following paper are: to make few remarks on the topic absorbing neurologists, psychiatrists, and neuropsychiatrists - integration and division of their specialties; and to describe the situation in Poland, reflected in the latest literature. The authors describe the former and present processes of approaches and divisions in psychiatry and neurology. They indicate dissemination of mutual methods of structural and action brain neuroimaging, neurophysiology, neurogenetics, and advanced neurophysiology diagnostics...
November 2013: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Benjamin Jacob Hayempour, Abass Alavi
Medical imaging has made a major contribution to cerebral dysfunction due to inherited diseases, as well as injuries sustained with modern living, such as car accidents, falling down, and work-related injuries. These injuries, up until the introduction of sensitive techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET), were overlooked because of heavy reliance on structural imaging techniques such as MRI and CT. These techniques are extremely insensitive for dysfunction caused by such underlying disorders. We believe that the use of these highly powerful functional neuroimaging technologies, such as PET, has substantially improved our ability to assess these patients properly in the clinical setting, to determine their natural course, and to assess the efficacy of various interventional detections...
September 2013: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Samuel S Newton, Neil M Fournier, Ronald S Duman
Recent advances in understanding the cellular and molecular basis of psychiatric illnesses have shed light on the important role played by trophic factors in modulating functional parameters associated with disease causality and drug action. Disease mechanisms are now thought to involve multiple cell types, including neurons and endothelial cells. These functionally distinct but interactively coupled cell types engage in cellular cross talk via shared and common signaling molecules. Dysregulation in their cellular signaling pathways influences brain function and alters behavioral performance...
May 2013: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Yuan Mei, Feng Zhang
The mammalian brain poses a formidable challenge to the study and treatment of neuropsychiatric diseases, owing to the complex interaction of genetic, epigenetic, and circuit-level mechanisms underlying pathogenesis. Technologies that facilitate functional dissection of distinct brain circuits are necessary for systematic identification of disease origin and therapy. Recent developments in optogenetics technology have begun to address this challenge by enabling precise perturbation of distinct cell types based on molecular signatures, functional projections, and intracellular biochemical signaling pathways...
June 15, 2012: Biological Psychiatry
John M Petitto, Zhi Huang, Danielle Meola, Grace K Ha, Daniel Dauer
The effects of IL-2 on brain development, function, and disease are the result of IL-2's actions in the peripheral immune system and its intrinsic actions in the central nervous system (CNS). Determining whether, and under what circumstances (e.g., development, acute injury), these different actions of IL-2 are operative in the brain is essential to make significant advances in understanding the multifaceted affects of IL-2 on CNS function and disease, including psychiatric disorders. For several decades, there has been a great deal of speculation about the role of autoimmunity in brain disease...
2012: Methods in Molecular Biology
Jeremy Turk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Advances in developmental neuropsychiatry and the mental health needs of people with intellectual disability are creating ever greater understanding of the critical associations between human genome variations and psychological functioning throughout lifespan and across the entire intellectual ability spectrum. This review highlights the recent developments and their clinical implications for people with fragile X syndrome. RECENT FINDINGS: There is substantial evidence for individuals of all ages and intellectual abilities being prone to psychological profiles determined not only by having a fragile X gene full mutation, but also by having premutations and intermediate alleles...
September 2011: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Anna C Need, David B Goldstein
Hundreds of genome-wide association studies have been performed in recent years in order to try to identify common variants that associate with complex disease. These have met with varying success. Some of the strongest effects of common variants have been found in late-onset diseases and in drug response. The major histocompatibility complex has also shown very strong association with a variety of disorders. Although there have been some notable success stories in neuropsychiatric genetics, on the whole, common variation has explained little of the high heritability of these traits...
2010: Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience
David C Steffens
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Research in geriatric depression has always had a multidisciplinary bent, particularly in methods used to characterize depression. Understanding diagnosis, psychiatric comorbidities, and course continues to be a goal of clinical researchers. Those interested in cognitive neuroscience and basic neuroscience have more recently trained their sights on late-life depression. This review identifies recent progress in the characterization of geriatric depression using a variety of methodologies...
November 2009: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Tih-Shih Lee, Beng-Yeong Ng, Wei-Ling Lee
Neuropsychiatry is an emerging field at the intersection of neurology and psychiatry, driven by the unprecedented advances in neuroscience. The arbitrary demarcation between neurology and psychiatry, which largely existed only in the last century and a half, has become less tenable. We discuss the definition and scope of this emerging field. We also review the development of clinical neuropsychiatry in Singapore in the context of historical developments and recent changes in the field from other countries. At a more practical level, we discuss a few of the clinical settings in which neuropsychiatry operates, in particular, the stigma associated with psychiatric disorders locally, and the significant number of patients with psychiatric or psychosomatic symptoms presenting to neurology and general practice clinics...
July 2008: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Selma Aybek, Richard A Kanaan, Anthony S David
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: During the past two decades there has been a relative surge of interest in conversion disorder, and a multitude of studies have emerged on the subject. With continuing developments in neuroscience--mainly brain imaging--new applications to conversion disorder are being reported every year. RECENT FINDINGS: Diagnosis continues to represent a challenge, although neurological signs are increasingly being developed and validated to assist with this...
May 2008: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Omar Ghaffar, Anthony Feinstein
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize the current literature on the neuropsychiatry of multiple sclerosis (MS). RECENT FINDINGS: Data from community samples have supported earlier findings from tertiary referral centres of high rates of depression in MS patients. Neuroimaging offers important clues as to the pathogenesis of depression, but psychosocial factors cannot be ignored and emerge as equally important predictors. Cognitive-behavioural therapy is an effective treatment, rivalling standard dosing of sertraline in patients with depression...
May 2007: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
Christopher R Bowie, Philip D Harvey
Our understanding of schizophrenia has increased substantially in recent years. This is due to technological advances that have improved our ability to assess neuropsychiatric function and the genetic underpinnings of the disease. While diagnostic classification still relies on the presentation of the more overt symptoms of the disease, the neuropsychiatric perspective provides a more accurate and comprehensive understanding of the illness. This perspective provides insight into the etiology and treatment of schizophrenia...
November 2006: Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
Paolo Fusar-Poli, Matthew R Broome
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Psychiatric neuroimaging has made a dramatic impact on the understanding of the brain in mental illness in a relatively brief period of time and continues to be evolving in terms of methodology, analysis and utilization of the combination of techniques. Given the level of sophistication of the techniques and the importance of imaging in current academic psychiatry, it is timely to review its conceptual influence on psychopathology. RECENT FINDINGS: The study will review scientific advances in psychiatric neuromaging, around the themes of functional connectivity, diffusion tensor imaging, magnetoencephalography, modality integration, meta-analyses and mega-analyses of data and discuss recent influential findings in contemporary research...
November 2006: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
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