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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628070/interactions-between-oxytocin-receptor-gene-methylation-and-callous-unemotional-traits-impact-socioaffective-brain-systems-in-conduct-disordered-offenders
#1
Moji Aghajani, Eduard T Klapwijk, Olivier F Colins, Christiane Ziegler, Katharina Domschke, Robert R J M Vermeiren, Nic J A van der Wee
BACKGROUND: The developmental trajectory of psychopathy seemingly begins early in life and includes the presence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits (e.g., perturbed socioaffective reactivity and empathy, callousness) in youths with conduct disorder (CD). Whereas oxytocin receptor gene methylation (OXTRMeth ) and its downstream neuromodulatory effects are deemed relevant to CU traits, nothing is known of how OXTRMeth interacts with CU traits to impact socioaffective brain systems in youngsters with CD...
April 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627593/quantification-of-receptor-activation-by-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-in-endocytosis-coupled-bioluminescence-reduction-assay-using-nanokaz
#2
Isao Kii, Shino Hirahara-Owada, Masataka Yamaguchi, Takashi Niwa, Yuka Koike, Rie Sonamoto, Harumi Ito, Kayo Takahashi, Chihiro Yokoyama, Takuya Hayashi, Takamitsu Hosoya, Yasuyoshi Watanabe
Oxytocin (OXT) and arginine vasopressin (AVP) are structurally similar neuropeptide hormones that function as neurotransmitters in the brain, and have opposite key roles in social behaviors. These peptides bind to their G protein-coupled receptors (OXTR and AVPRs), inducing calcium ion-dependent signaling pathways and endocytosis of these receptors. Because selective agonists and antagonists for these receptors have been developed as therapeutic and diagnostic agents for diseases such as psychiatric disorders, facile methods are in demand for the evaluation of selectivity between these receptors...
April 5, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611254/oxytocin-levels-in-saliva-correlate-better-than-plasma-levels-with-concentrations-in-the-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-patients-in-neurocritical-care
#3
Jan Martin, Simone M Kagerbauer, Jens Gempt, Armin Podtschaske, Alexander Hapfelmeier, Gerhard Schneider
In the converging fields of neuroendocrinology and behavioural neuroscience, the interaction between peripheral secretion and central release of oxytocin in humans has not yet been comprehensively assessed. As the human brain is not directly accessible and as the collection of human cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) usually requires invasive procedures, easier accessible compartments such as blood or saliva attract increasing attention. In this study, we prospectively determined oxytocin concentrations in the three compartments plasma, CSF and saliva of fifty critically ill patients with neurological and neurosurgical diseases...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603440/role-of-oxytocin-in-parental-behaviour
#4
REVIEW
D E Olazábal
Both animal and human studies have provided conclusive evidence that oxytocin (OXT) acts in the brain (e.g. medial preoptic area, ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens) to promote parental behaviour under different reproductive and physiological conditions. OXT seems to accelerate and strengthen the neural process that makes newborns attractive or rewarding. Besides, OXT reduces stress/anxiety, and might improve mood and well being resulting in indirect benefits for parents. However, OXT also plays a role in the development of species reproductive and social strategies, making some species or individuals more prone to display caring activities in non-reproductive contexts...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587625/the-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-reward-circuitry-responses-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#5
R K Greene, M Spanos, C Alderman, E Walsh, J Bizzell, M G Mosner, J L Kinard, G D Stuber, T Chandrasekhar, L C Politte, L Sikich, G S Dichter
BACKGROUND: Intranasal oxytocin (OT) has been shown to improve social communication functioning of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and, thus, has received considerable interest as a potential ASD therapeutic agent. Although preclinical research indicates that OT modulates the functional output of the mesocorticolimbic dopamine system that processes rewards, no clinical brain imaging study to date has examined the effects of OT on this system using a reward processing paradigm...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551417/oxytocin-signaling-in-the-lateral-septum-prevents-social-fear-during-lactation
#6
Rohit Menon, Thomas Grund, Iulia Zoicas, Ferdinand Althammer, Dominik Fiedler, Verena Biermeier, Oliver J Bosch, Yuichi Hiraoka, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Marina Eliava, Valery Grinevich, Inga D Neumann
Oxytocin (OXT)-mediated behavioral responses to social and stressful cues have extensively been studied in male rodents. Here, we investigated the capacity of brain OXT receptor (OXTR) signaling in the lateral septum (LS) to prevent social fear expression in female mice using the social-fear-conditioning paradigm. Utilizing the activated OXT system during lactation, we show that lactating mice did not express fear 24 hr after social fear conditioning. Supporting the role of OXTR signaling in the LS in attenuation of social fear, synthetic OXT infusion or overexpression of OXTR in the LS diminished social fear expression, whereas constitutive OXTR knockout severely impaired social fear extinction in virgin mice...
March 7, 2018: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549435/the-accessory-magnocellular-neurosecretory-system-of-the-rostral-human-hypothalamus
#7
Morten Møller, Johannes R Busch, Christina Jacobsen, Sissel B Lundemose, Niels Lynnerup, Martin F Rath, Jytte Banner
The morphology and neurophysin expression of the magnocellular accessory neuroendocrine system located in the rostral human hypothalamus is investigated in a series of brains obtained at autopsy. The hypothalami were fixed in formalin and embedded in paraffin, or after cryoprotection, frozen for cryostat sectioning. Paraffin sections were either stained with Luxol Fast blue or immunoreacted for neurophysin I or neurophysin II, the precursor molecule for oxytocin and vasopressin. Further, 50-μm-thick serial cryostat sections were immunoreacted with the same antibodies...
March 16, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538098/oxytocin-administration-in-the-basolateral-and-central-nuclei-of-amygdala-moderately-suppresses-food-intake
#8
Oscar A Klockars, Anica Klockars, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Oxytocin (OT) at acting central nuclei decreases meal size and reduces intake of palatable sweet solutions. It remains largely unclear as to which brain sites mediate OT's effect on palatability versus energy or the combination of those aspects of consumption. Here, we expanded the search for sites that mediate anorexigenic properties of OT by focusing on two subdivisions of the amygdala, its central (CNA) and basolateral (BLA) nuclei. We injected OT directly into the BLA or CNA in rats and assessed intake of standard chow induced by energy deprivation and intake of sweet solutions in nondeprived animals...
March 13, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530929/separate-roles-for-med12-and-wnt-signaling-in-regulation-of-oxytocin-expression
#9
Emma D Spikol, Eric Glasgow
Transcriptional control of oxytocinergic cell development influences social, sexual, and appetite related behaviors, and is implicated in disorders such as autism and Prader-Willi syndrome. Mediator 12 (Med12) is a transcriptional coactivator required for multiple facets of brain development including subsets of serotonergic and dopaminergic neurons. We surveyed hormone gene expression within the hypothalamo-pituitary axis of med12 mutant zebrafish embryos with a focus on oxytocin ( oxt ) expression. Some transcripts, such as oxt , vasopressin ( avp ) and corticotrophin releasing hormone ( crh ) are undetectable in the med12 mutant, while others are upregulated or downregulated to varying degrees...
March 12, 2018: Biology Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524515/mdma-assisted-psychotherapy-for-ptsd-are-memory-reconsolidation-and-fear-extinction-underlying-mechanisms
#10
REVIEW
Allison A Feduccia, Michael C Mithoefer
MDMA-assisted psychotherapy for treatment of PTSD has recently progressed to Phase 3 clinical trials and received Breakthrough Therapy designation by the FDA. MDMA used as an adjunct during psychotherapy sessions has demonstrated effectiveness and acceptable safety in reducing PTSD symptoms in Phase 2 trials, with durable remission of PTSD diagnosis in 68% of participants. The underlying psychological and neurological mechanisms for the robust effects in mitigating PTSD are being investigated in animal models and in studies of healthy volunteers...
March 7, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524165/phospholipid-magnesome-a-nasal-vesicular-carrier-for-delivery-of-drugs-to-brain
#11
Hiba Natsheh, Elka Touitou
The goal of this work was to investigate a new nasal carrier for enhanced drug delivery to brain, we call Phospholipid Magnesome. The system contains soft phospholipid vesicles, composed of phospholipid, water, propylene glycol, magnesium salt, and the mucoadhesive polymer, alginate. The carrier was characterized by various methods: electron microscopy, calorimetry, and dynamic light scattering. The ability of the carrier's vesicles to entrap various molecules was studied by CLSM and ultracentrifugation combined with HPLC quantification...
March 9, 2018: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523998/rapid-nonapeptide-synthesis-during-a-critical-period-of-development-in-the-prairie-vole-plasticity-of-the-paraventricular-nucleus-of-the-hypothalamus
#12
Aubrey M Kelly, Lisa C Hiura, Alexander G Ophir
Vasopressin (VP) and oxytocin (OT) are involved in modulating basic physiology and numerous social behaviors. Although the anatomical distributions of nonapeptide neurons throughout development have been described, the functional roles of VP and OT neurons during development are surprisingly understudied, and it is unknown whether they exhibit functional changes throughout early development. We utilized an acute social isolation paradigm to determine if VP and OT neural responses in eight nonapeptide cell groups differ at three different stages of early development in prairie voles...
March 9, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518698/sex-differences-in-the-regulation-of-social-and-anxiety-related-behaviors-insights-from-vasopressin-and-oxytocin-brain-systems
#13
REVIEW
Remco Bredewold, Alexa H Veenema
To understand how the brain regulates behavior, many variables must be taken into account, with sex as a prominent variable. In this review, we will discuss recent human and rodent studies showing the sex-specific involvement of the neuropeptides vasopressin and oxytocin in social and anxiety-related behaviors. We discuss that sex differences can be evident at pre-pubertal ages as seen in the sex-specific regulation of social recognition, social play, and anxiety by the vasopressin system in juvenile rats. We further discuss that the oxytocin system in humans and rodents alters brain activation, anxiety, and sociosexual motivation in sex-specific ways...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499034/food-addiction-in-latin-america
#14
Joel Figueroa-Quiñones, Julio Cjuno
Food addiction is a disorder characterized by an uncontrollable desire to eat foods high in fats and sugars. These foods activate the brain reward system in a similar way to drugs generating the release of neurotransmitters such as dopamine and oxytocin which trigger a need to repeat the behavior. In developed countries in Europe, Asia, and North America, there are reports of food addiction in children, adolescents, university students, sexual minorities, women and the adult population that suffer from obesity or overweight...
February 27, 2018: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29494953/to-mirror-or-not-to-mirror-upon-mutual-gaze-oxytocin-can-pave-the-way-a-cross-over-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#15
Jellina Prinsen, Stephanie Brams, Kaat Alaerts
The eyes constitute a highly salient cue to communicate social intent. Previous research showed that direct eye contact between two individuals can readily evoke an increased propensity to 'mirror' other peoples' actions. Considering the implicated role of the prosocial neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) in enhancing the saliency of social cues and modulating approach/avoidance motivational tendencies, the current study adopted the non-invasive brain stimulation technique transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to explore whether a single dose of intranasal OXT (24 IU) modulated (enhanced) a person's propensity to show heightened mirroring or motor resonance upon salient social cues, such as eye contact...
February 22, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29489634/expanding-regulation-theory-with-oxytocin-a-psychoneurobiological-model-for-infant-development
#16
Ashley M Weber, Tondi M Harrison, Deborah K Steward
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OT), an affiliation hormone released during supportive social interactions, provides an exemplar of how social environments are reflected in our neurobiology from the beginning of life. A growing body of OT research has uncovered previously unknown functions of OT, including modulation of parenting behaviors, neuroprotection, affiliation, and bonding. Regulation theory provides a strong framework for describing how the maternal care environment affects infant neurodevelopment through a symphony of molecules that form the neurobiological milieu of the developing infant brain...
March 2018: Nursing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486321/oxytocin-attenuates-trust-as-a-subset-of-more-general-reinforcement-learning-with-altered-reward-circuit-functional-connectivity-in-males
#17
Jaime S Ide, Sanja Nedic, Kin F Wong, Shmuel L Strey, Elizabeth A Lawson, Bradford C Dickerson, Lawrence L Wald, Giancarlo La Camera, L R Mujica-Parodi
Oxytocin (OT) is an endogenous neuropeptide that, while originally thought to promote trust, has more recently been found to be context-dependent. Here we extend experimental paradigms previously restricted to de novo decision-to-trust, to a more realistic environment in which social relationships evolve in response to iterative feedback over twenty interactions. In a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled within-subject/crossover experiment of human adult males, we investigated the effects of a single dose of intranasal OT (40 IU) on Bayesian expectation updating and reinforcement learning within a social context, with associated brain circuit dynamics...
February 24, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486216/interoception-sensitivity-in-the-parental-brain-during-the-first-months-of-parenting-modulates-children-s-somatic-symptoms-six-years-later-the-role-of-oxytocin
#18
Eyal Abraham, Talma Hendler, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Ruth Feldman
Interoception, the perception and interpretation of one's own bodily signals, is a key aspect of human caregiving that impacts infant health and well-being across life. Interoception relies on limbic structures, mainly the amygdala, and the agranular visceromotor cortex, particularly the anterior insula (AI), that integrate with the oxytocin (OT) system to support interoceptive sensitivity. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine whether interoception sensitivity in the parent's brain during the first months of parenting combines with sensitive parenting and OT-system functionality to predict children's somatic symptoms six years later...
February 24, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29478725/oxytocin-promotes-face-sensitive-neural-responses-to-infant-and-adult-faces-in-mothers
#19
Mikko J Peltola, Lane Strathearn, Kaija Puura
Research utilizing intranasal oxytocin (OT) administration has shown that OT may increase attention and sensitivity to social cues, such as faces. Given the pivotal role of OT in parental behaviors across mammals, the paucity of intranasal OT research investigating responses to social cues in parents and particularly mothers of young children is a critical limitation. In the current study, we recorded cortical event-related potentials (ERPs) to investigate whether intranasal OT affects the early neural responses to emotional faces in mothers of 1-year-old infants...
February 19, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477300/maternal-stress-and-the-mpoa-activation-of-crf-receptor-1-impairs-maternal-behavior-and-triggers-local-oxytocin-release-in-lactating-rats
#20
Stefanie M Klampfl, Milena M Schramm, Barbara M Gaßner, Katharina Hübner, Audrey F Seasholtz, Paula J Brunton, Doris S Bayerl, Oliver J Bosch
Maternal behavior and anxiety are potently modulated by the brain corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system postpartum. Downregulation of CRF in limbic brain regions is essential for appropriate maternal behavior and an adaptive anxiety response. Here, we focus our attention on arguably the most important brain region for maternal behavior, the hypothalamic medial preoptic area (MPOA). Within the MPOA, mRNA for CRF receptor subtype 1 (protein: CRFR1, gene: Crhr1) was more abundantly expressed than for subtype 2 (protein: CRFR2, gene: Crhr2), however expression of Crhr1, Crhr2 and CRF binding-protein (protein: CRFBP, gene: Crhbp) mRNA was similar between virgin and lactating rats...
February 22, 2018: Neuropharmacology
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