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oxytocin, brain

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427292/intranasal-oxytocin-modulates-neural-functional-connectivity-during-human-social-interaction
#1
James K Rilling, Xiangchuan Chen, Xu Chen, Ebrahim Haroon
Oxytocin (OT) modulates social behavior in primates and many other vertebrate species. Studies in non-primate animals have demonstrated that, in addition to influencing activity within individual brain areas, OT influences functional connectivity across networks of areas involved in social behavior. Previously, we used fMRI to image brain function in human subjects during a dyadic social interaction task following administration of either intranasal oxytocin (INOT) or placebo, and analyzed the data with a standard general linear model...
February 10, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426874/oxytocin-curbs-calorie-intake-via-food-specific-increases-in-the-activity-of-brain-areas-that-process-reward-and-establish-cognitive-control
#2
Maartje S Spetter, Gordon B Feld, Matthias Thienel, Hubert Preissl, Maike A Hege, Manfred Hallschmid
The hypothalamic neurohormone oxytocin decreases food intake via largely unexplored mechanisms. We investigated the central nervous mediation of oxytocin's hypophagic effect in comparison to its impact on the processing of generalized rewards. Fifteen fasted normal-weight, young men received intranasal oxytocin (24 IU) or placebo before functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) measurements of brain activity during exposure to food stimuli and a monetary incentive delay task (MID). Subsequently, ad-libitum breakfast intake was assessed...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424020/activation-patterns-of-vasopressinergic-and-oxytocinergic-brain-regions-following-social-play-exposure-in-juvenile-male-and-female-rats
#3
C J Reppucci, C K Gergely, A H Veenema
Social play is a highly rewarding and motivated behavior predominately displayed by juveniles and expressed by nearly all mammalian species. Prior work suggested that the vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OT) systems can regulate the expression of social play in sex-specific ways. Here we investigated whether there are sex differences in the recruitment of vasopressinergic and oxytocinergic brain regions following social play exposure in juvenile rats. Single-housed rats were allowed to play, in their home cage, with an age- and sex-matched unfamiliar conspecific for 10 min, or received similar handling but no partner...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414026/bdnf-levels-are-associated-with-autistic-traits-in-the-general-population
#4
Natascia Brondino, Laura Fusar-Poli, Matteo Rocchetti, Federico Bertoglio, Nora Bloise, Livia Visai, Pierluigi Politi
Evidence supports the notion that autistic symptoms and behaviors should be regarded as dimensional traits. The present study aimed to investigate the role of vasopressin (AVP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and oxytocin (OXT) as potential biochemical correlates of subclinical autistic traits in a cohort of healthy young adults. One hundred and fifty-three subjects (80 males, 73 females) were recruited. Participants completed the Autism Spectrum Quotient (AQ), a widely used measure for the identification of autistic traits in the general population...
January 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29406581/crf2-receptor-deficiency-eliminates-social-behaviour-deficits-and-vulnerability-induced-by-cocaine
#5
Nadège Morisot, Romain Monier, Catherine Le Moine, Mark J Millan, Angelo Contarino
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poor social behaviour and vulnerability to stress are major clinical features of stimulant use disorders. The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) system mediates stress responses and might underlie substance use disorders; however, its implication in social impairment induced by stimulant substances remains unknown. CRF signalling is mediated by two receptor types, CRF1 and CRF2 . The present study investigated the role for the CRF2 receptor in social behaviour deficits, vulnerability to stress and related brain alterations induced by cocaine administration and withdrawal...
February 6, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382539/molecular-cloning-and-distribution-of-oxytocin-vasopressin-like-mrna-in-the-blue-swimming-crab-portunus-pelagicus-and-its-inhibitory-effect-on-ovarian-steroid-release
#6
Jirawat Saetan, Thanapong Kruangkum, Phetcharat Phanthong, Chittipong Tipbunjong, Wandee Udomuksorn, Prasert Sobhon, Prapee Sretarugsa
This study was aimed to characterize the full length of mRNA of oxytocin/vasopressin (OT/VP)-like mRNA in female Portunus pelagicus (PpelOT/VP-like mRNA) using a partial PpelOT/VP-like sequence obtained previously in our transcriptome analysis (Saetan, 2014) to construct the primers. The PpelOT/VP-like mRNA was 626 bp long and it encoded the preprohormones containing 158 amino acids. This preprohormone consisted of a signal peptide, an active nonapeptide (CFITNCPPG) followed by the dibasic cleavage site (GKR), and the neurophysin domain...
January 27, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355675/anxiety-like-behavior-and-neuropeptide-receptor-expression-in-male-and-female-prairie-voles-the-effects-of-stress-and-social-buffering
#7
Meghan Donovan, Yan Liu, Zuoxin Wang
Strong social support can negate negative health outcomes - an effect defined as 'social buffering'. In the present study, using the socially monogamous prairie vole (Microtus ochrogaster), we examined whether the presence of a bonded partner during a stressful event can reduce stress responses. Adult, pair-bonded female and male voles were assigned into experimental groups that were either handled (Control), experienced a 1-hr immobilization (IMO) stress alone (IMO-Alone), or experienced IMO with their partner (IMO-Partner)...
January 18, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346405/oxytocin-alters-cell-fate-selection-of-rat-neural-progenitor-cells-in-vitro
#8
Arvind Palanisamy, Ramaswamy Kannappan, Zhiqiang Xu, Audrey Martino, Matthew B Friese, Justin D Boyd, Gregory Crosby, Deborah J Culley
Synthetic oxytocin (sOT) is widely used during labor, yet little is known about its effects on fetal brain development despite evidence that it reaches the fetal circulation. Here, we tested the hypothesis that sOT would affect early neurodevelopment by investigating its effects on neural progenitor cells (NPC) from embryonic day 14 rat pups. NPCs expressed the oxytocin receptor (OXTR), which was downregulated by 45% upon prolonged treatment with sOT. Next, we examined the effects of sOT on NPC death, apoptosis, proliferation, and differentiation using antibodies to NeuN (neurons), Olig2 (oligodendrocytes), and GFAP (astrocytes)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338251/delivery-of-oxytocin-to-the-brain-for-the-treatment-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-by-nasal-application
#9
Akiko Tanaka, Tomoyuki Furubayashi, Mari Arai, Daisuke Inoue, Shunsuke Kimura, Akiko Kiriyama, Kosuke Kusamori, Hidemasa Katsumi, Reiko Yutani, Toshiyasu Sakane, Akira Yamamoto
Oxytocin (OXT) is a cyclic nonapeptide, two amino acids of which are cysteine, forming an intramolecular disulfide bond. OXT is produced in the hypothalamus and is secreted into the bloodstream from the posterior pituitary. As recent studies have suggested that OXT is a neurotransmitter exhibiting central effects important for social deficits, it has drawn much attention as a drug candidate for the treatment of autism. Although human-stage clinical trials of the nasal spray of OXT for the treatment of autism have already begun, few studies have examined the pharmacokinetics and brain distribution of OXT after nasal application...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337699/associations-between-nurse-guided-variables-and-plasma-oxytocin-trajectories-in-premature-infants-during-initial-hospitalization
#10
Ashley Weber, Tondi M Harrison, Loraine Sinnott, Abigail Shoben, Deborah Steward
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin (OT) is a social hormone that may help researchers understand how nurse-guided interventions during initial infant hospitalization, such as supporting human milk expression, promoting comforting touch, and reducing exposure to stressors, affect preterm brain development. PURPOSE: To determine whether factors related to human milk, touch, or stressor exposure are related to plasma OT trajectories in premature infants. METHODS: Plasma from 33 premature infants, born gestational ages 25 to 28 6/7 weeks, was collected at 14 days of life and then weekly until 34 weeks' corrected gestational age (CGA)...
January 15, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330007/lost-connections-oxytocin-and-the-neural-physiological-and-behavioral-consequences-of-disrupted-relationships
#11
REVIEW
Tobias T Pohl, Larry J Young, Oliver J Bosch
In humans and rodent animal models, the brain oxytocin system is paramount for facilitating social bonds, from the formation and consequences of early-life parent-infant bonds to adult pair bond relationships. In social species, oxytocin also mediates the positive effects of healthy social bonds on the partners' well-being. However, new evidence suggests that the negative consequences of early neglect or partner loss may be mediated by disruptions in the oxytocin system as well. With a focus on oxytocin and its receptor, we review studies from humans and animal models, i...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306053/cd38-is-required-for-dendritic-organisation-in-visual-cortex-and-hippocampus
#12
Thom P Nelissen, Rosemary A Bamford, Shiro Tochitani, Kamuran Akkus, Aurimas Kudzinskas, Kenichiro Yokoi, Hiroshi Okamoto, Yasuhiko Yamamoto, J Peter H Burbach, Hideo Matsuzaki, Asami Oguro-Ando
Morphological screening of mouse brains with known behavioural deficits can give great insight into the relationship between brain regions and their behaviour. Oxytocin- and CD38-deficient mice have previously been shown to have behavioural phenotypes, such as restrictions in social memory, social interactions, and maternal behaviour. CD38 is reported as an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) candidate gene and these behavioural phenotypes may be linked to ASD. To address whether these behavioural phenotypes relate to brain pathology and neuronal morphology, here we investigate the morphological changes in the CD38-deficient mice brains, with focus on the pathology and neuronal morphology of the cortex and hippocampus, using Nissl staining, immunohistochemistry, and Golgi staining...
January 3, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278530/controversies-and-clarifications-in-the-classification-of-disorders-of-intellectual-development-new-genetic-findings-epilepsy-and-innovative-developmental-neuropsychiatric-treatments-deep-brain-stimulation-electroconvulsive-therapy-and-oxytocin
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249590/neuroprotective-effects-of-oxytocin-hormone-after-an-experimental-stroke-model-and-the-possible-role-of-calpain-1
#14
Sepideh Etehadi Moghadam, Abolfazl Azami Tameh, Zeinab Vahidinia, Mohammad Ali Atlasi, Hassan Hassani Bafrani, Homayoun Naderian
BACKGROUND: Different mechanisms will be activated during ischemic stroke. Calpain proteases play a pivotal role in neuronal death after ischemia damage through apoptosis. Anti-apoptotic activities of the oxytocin (OT) in different ischemic tissues were reported in previous studies. Recently, a limited number of studies have noted the protective effects of OT in the brain. In the present study, the neuroprotective potential of OT in an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) and the possible role of calpain-1 in the penumbra region were assessed...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246492/three-steroid-binding-globulins-their-localization-in-the-brain-and-nose-and-what-they-might-be-doing-there
#15
J D Caldwell, K Londe, S D Ochs, Z Hajdu, A Rodewald, V M Gebhart, G F Jirikowski
Steroid-binding globulins (SBGs) such as sex hormone binding globulin, corticosteroid binding globulin, and vitamin-D binding protein are receiving increasing notice as being actively involved in steroid actions. This paper reviews data of all three of these SBGs, focusing on their presence and possible activity in the brain and nose. We have found all three proteins in the brain in limbic areas such as the paraventricular (PVN) and supraoptic nuclei (SON) as well as other areas of the hypothalamus, hippocampus, and medial preoptic area...
December 12, 2017: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244625/the-role-of-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-in-attachment
#16
C Sue Carter
Selective relationships and attachments are central to human health and well-being, both in current societies and during the course of evolution. The presence or absence of social bonds has consequences across the lifespan. The neurobiology of attachment is grounded in neuroendocrine substrates that are shared with reproduction and survival. Experimental studies of species, such as sheep or prairie voles, capable of showing selective social behaviors toward offspring or partners, have provided empirical evidence for the role of oxytocin and vasopressin in the formation of selective attachments...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244620/calming-cycle-theory-and-the-co-regulation-of-oxytocin
#17
Martha G Welch, Robert J Ludwig
The biological functions of oxytocin in attachment and bonding between mother and infant in parturition and breastfeeding and between adults have been studied extensively. However, most current authors have proposed that infant attachment to the mother is learned through operant conditioning mechanisms via the infant's brain and central nervous system. We propose that oxytocin levels in the mother and infant are co-regulated by emotional connection or disconnection, and that the autonomic co-conditioning learning mechanism can be exploited to change a negative physiological and behavioral response between mother and infant into a positive one...
2017: Psychodynamic Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236527/paradoxical-effects-of-intranasal-oxytocin-on-trust-in-inpatient-and-community-adolescents
#18
Amanda Venta, Carolyn Ha, Salome Vanwoerden, Elizabeth Newlin, Lane Strathearn, Carla Sharp
Research suggests that oxytocin, a neuropeptide implicated in attachment, is a promising clinical tool because it increases affiliation and attachment behaviors, which are reduced in a range of psychiatric disorders. Oxytocin has been recommended as a psychiatric treatment for adolescents, but this remains largely unstudied. Skepticism is warranted, based on mixed findings in adults and absence of data across development. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of intranasal oxytocin on attachment-related and non-attachment-related trust in an interactive game, determining how this effect differs among inpatient adolescents and healthy controls and whether this effect is moderated by attachment security...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235904/molecular-modeling-and-docking-studies-of-the-oxytocin-receptor
#19
Gloria Antobreh, Istvan Enyedy, Aina Westrheim Ravna
AIM: Low oxytocin (OT) level is involved in a number of psychiatric diseases, indicating that OT could be used to aid treating these disorders. OT itself is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, and development of new small nonpeptide drugs targeting the OT receptor (OXTR) may be beneficial for treating mental disorders. Results & methodology: Three OXTR models were constructed based on crystallized homologous proteins (Protein Data Bank [PDB]: 2Y00, PDB: 4BVN and PDB: 4LDE). The abilities of the models to discriminate between true binders and decoys were analyzed using receiver operating characteristics curves, and the 4LDE-based model gave the best result...
December 13, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235461/oxytocin-enhances-observational-fear-in-mice
#20
Marc T Pisansky, Leah R Hanson, Irving I Gottesman, Jonathan C Gewirtz
Empathy is fundamental to human relations, but its neural substrates remain largely unknown. Here we characterize the involvement of oxytocin in the capacity of mice to display emotional state-matching, an empathy-like behavior. When exposed to a familiar conspecific demonstrator in distress, an observer mouse becomes fearful, as indicated by a tendency to freeze and subsequent efforts to escape. Both intranasal oxytocin administration and chemogenetic stimulation of oxytocin neurons render males sensitive to the distress of an unfamiliar mouse...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
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