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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511728/birth-weight-interacts-with-a-functional-variant-of-the-oxytocin-receptor-gene-oxtr-to-predict-executive-functioning-in-children
#1
Mark Wade, Heather Prime, Thomas J Hoffmann, Louis A Schmidt, Thomas G O'Connor, Jennifer M Jenkins
Genetic variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with several psychiatric conditions characterized by deficits in executive functioning (EF). A specific OXTR variant, rs2254298, has previously been associated with brain functioning in regions implicated in EF. Moreover, birth weight variation across the entire range is associated with individual differences in cortical structure and function that underlie EF. This is the first study to examine the main and interactive effect between rs2254298 and birth weight on EF in children...
May 17, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461466/oxytocin-under-opioid-antagonism-leads-to-supralinear-enhancement-of-social-attention
#2
Olga Dal Monte, Matthew Piva, Kevin M Anderson, Marios Tringides, Avram J Holmes, Steve W C Chang
To provide new preclinical evidence toward improving the efficacy of oxytocin (OT) in treating social dysfunction, we tested the benefit of administering OT under simultaneously induced opioid antagonism during dyadic gaze interactions in monkeys. OT coadministered with a μ-opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, invoked a supralinear enhancement of prolonged and selective social attention, producing a stronger effect than the summed effects of each administered separately. These effects were consistently observed when averaging over entire sessions, as well as specifically following events of particular social importance, including mutual eye contact and mutual reward receipt...
May 1, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460894/intravenous-administration-of-oxytocin-in-rats-acutely-decreases-deprivation-induced-chow-intake-but-it-fails-to-affect-consumption-of-palatable-solutions
#3
Anica Klockars, Chloe Brunton, Lu Li, Allen S Levine, Pawel K Olszewski
Despite its limited ability to cross the blood-brain barrier, peripherally administered oxytocin (OT) acutely decreases food intake, most likely via the brainstem and hypothalamic mechanisms. Studies performed to date have focused mainly on the effects of subcutaneous or intraperitoneal OT on the consumption of only solid calorie-dense diets (either standard or high-fat), whereas it is unknown whether, similarly to central OT, peripherally administered peptide reduces intake of calorie-dilute and non-caloric palatable solutions...
April 28, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28451068/preventing-ptsd-with-oxytocin-effects-of-oxytocin-administration-on-fear-neurocircuitry-and-ptsd-symptom-development-in-recently-trauma-exposed-individuals
#4
Jessie L Frijling
Background: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating psychiatric disorder which develops in approximately 10% of trauma-exposed individuals. Currently, there are few early preventive interventions available for PTSD. Intranasal oxytocin administration early posttrauma may prevent PTSD symptom development, as oxytocin administration was previously found to beneficially impact neurobiological (e.g. amygdala reactivity) and socio-emotional PTSD vulnerability factors. Objective: The overall aim of this dissertation was to investigate the potential of intranasal oxytocin administration as early preventive intervention for PTSD...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448987/a-role-for-oxytocin-like-receptor-in-social-habituation-in-a-teleost
#5
Chelsea A Weitekamp, Tessa K Solomon-Lane, Pamela Del Valle, Zegni Triki, Bridget M Nugent, Hans A Hofmann
Oxytocin (OT) mediates social habituation in rodent model systems, but its role in mediating this effect in other vertebrates is unknown. We used males of the African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, to investigate two aspects of isotocin (IT; an OT homolog) signaling in social habituation. First, we examined the expression of IT receptor 2 (ITR2) as well as two immediate early genes in brain regions implicated in social recognition. Next, we examined IT neuron activity using immunohistochemistry. Patterns of gene expression in homologs of the amygdala and hippocampus implicate IT signaling in these regions in social habituation to a territorial neighbor...
April 28, 2017: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447622/modern-clinical-research-on-lsd
#6
REVIEW
Matthias E Liechti
All modern clinical studies using the classic hallucinogen lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in healthy subjects or patients in the last 25 years are reviewed herein. There were five recent studies in healthy participants and one in patients. In a controlled setting, LSD acutely induced bliss, audiovisual synesthesia, altered meaning of perceptions, derealization, depersonalization, and mystical experiences. These subjective effects of LSD were mediated by the 5-HT2A receptor. LSD increased feelings of closeness to others, openness, trust, and suggestibility...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447621/direct-involvement-of-androgen-receptor-in-oxytocin-gene-expression-possible-relevance-for-mood-disorders
#7
Dan Dai, Qiao-Chu Li, Qiong-Bin Zhu, Shao-Hua Hu, Rawien Balesar, Dick Swaab, Ai-Min Bao
Oxytocin (OXT), synthesized in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and then released into different brain areas, may play a crucial role in various behaviors and neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression. Testosterone has been proposed by clinical studies to have the opposite effect of oxytocin in these disorders. We began by studying, in the postmortem hypothalamus of fifteen patients with mood disorders and fifteen matched controls, the expression of OXT in the PVN by means of immunocytochemistry (ICC) and the co-localization of OXT and androgen receptor (AR) by means of double labeling ICC...
April 27, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443705/severity-of-withdrawal-symptoms-plasma-oxytocin-levels-and-treatment-outcome-in-heroin-users-undergoing-acute-withdrawal
#8
Kakia Nikolaou, Dorothea Kapoukranidou, Samuel Ndungu, Georgios Floros, Leda Kovatsi
Pre-clinical studies show that, following chronic opioid exposure, oxytocin neurons exhibit over-excitation upon withdrawal, causing an increase in oxytocin brain and plasma levels. Relevant clinical data on humans are scarce. This study investigates the opioid withdrawal stress effect on oxytocin plasma levels in humans. We evaluated 57 male chronic heroin users in a residential detoxification program. We determined plasma oxytocin levels by ELISA and measured the stress effects of withdrawal using the COWS scale for opioid withdrawal, the VAS scale for craving, and the Hamilton scales for anxiety and depression on the second day of admission...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442360/the-oxtr-gene-implicit-learning-and-social-processing-does-empathy-evolve-from-perceptual-skills-for-details
#9
Martin Melchers, Christian Montag, Sebastian Markett, Nawael Niazy, Johanna Groß-Bölting, Jelena Zimmermann, Martin Reuter
Oxytocin is an important messenger in the brain that has been linked to a variety of social functions in pharmacological studies. Besides, functional genetic variations on the oxytocin receptor gene have been repeatedly associated with social processing and functioning. Despite this knowledge, there are very few studies investigating the mechanisms that may explain the link between oxytocin and social functions. In the endeavor to fill this gap in the literature, the current study searches for associations between the prominent rs2268498 polymorphism on the oxytocin receptor gene and participants' ability to perceive and store implicit social information, which is a fundamental function in social information processing...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439234/salivary-oxytocin-concentration-associates-with-the-subjective-feeling-of-body-ownership-during-the-rubber-hand-illusion
#10
Masakazu Ide, Makoto Wada
Oxytocin is a hormone of the posterior pituitary that promotes lactation, maternal bonding, and birth. Recent studies have shown that oxytocin may modulate social recognition in both sexes, and thus it may be related to empathy. Brain regions that are associated with social recognition and empathy (e.g., the insular cortex) are activated in the rubber hand illusion (RHI), which involves illusory ownership of a rubber hand caused by brush strokes applied synchronously to both a rubber hand and one of the participant's hand, which is hidden from view...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431971/influence-of-stress-associated-with-chronic-alcohol-exposure-on-drinking
#11
REVIEW
Howard C Becker
Stress is commonly regarded as an important trigger for relapse and a significant factor that promotes increased motivation to drink in some individuals. However, the relationship between stress and alcohol is complex, likely changing in form during the transition from early moderated alcohol use to more heavy uncontrolled alcohol intake. A growing body of evidence indicates that prolonged excessive alcohol consumption serves as a potent stressor, producing persistent dysregulation of brain reward and stress systems beyond normal homeostatic limits...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431278/intranasal-oxytocin-does-not-modulate-jumping-to-conclusions-in-schizophrenia-potential-interactions-with-caudate-volume-and-baseline-social-functioning
#12
Fernando Caravaggio, Philip Gerretsen, Wanna Mar, Jun Ku Chung, Eric Plitman, Shinichiro Nakajima, Julia Kim, Yusuke Iwata, Raihaan Patel, M Mallar Chakravarty, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff-Guerrero, Mahesh Menon
BACKGROUND: Patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) tend to sample less information when making a decision, jumping to conclusions (JTC) without sufficient evidence. This "JTC bias" may be a trait marker of the disease and may not improve with antipsychotic treatment. We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to test whether intranasal oxytocin could reduce JTC in stable, medicated patients with SCZ and healthy controls (HCs). We also explored whether striatal volume, clinical symptoms, and baseline social functioning (SF) was related to JTC performance...
March 31, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412582/sex-differences-in-neural-activation-following-different-routes-of-oxytocin-administration-in-awake-adult-rats
#13
Kelly M Dumais, Praveen P Kulkarni, Craig F Ferris, Alexa H Veenema
The neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) regulates social behavior in sex-specific ways across species. OT has promising effects on alleviating social deficits in sex-biased neuropsychiatric disorders. However little is known about potential sexually dimorphic effects of OT on brain function. Using the rat as a model organism, we determined whether OT administered centrally or peripherally induces sex differences in brain activation. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to examine blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal intensity changes in the brains of awake rats during the 20min following intracerebroventricular (ICV; 1μg/5μl) or intraperitoneal (IP; 0...
April 7, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403933/knocking-down-amygdalar-ptp1b-in-diet-induced-obese-rats-improves-insulin-signaling-action-decreases-adiposity-and-may-alter-anxiety-behavior
#14
Natalia Ferreira Mendes, Gisele Castro, Dioze Guadagnini, Natalia Tobar, Susana Quiros Cognuck, Lucila Leico Kagohara Elias, Patricia Aline Boer, Patricia Oliveira Prada
OBJECTIVE: Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) has been extensively implicated in the regulation of body weight, food intake, and energy expenditure. The role of PTP1B appears to be cell and brain region dependent. RESULTS: Herein, we demonstrated that chronic high-fat feeding enhanced PTP1B expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) of rats compared to rats on chow. Knocking down PTP1B with oligonucleotide antisense (ASO) decreased its expression and was sufficient to improve the anorexigenic effect of insulin through IR/Akt signaling in the CeA...
May 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402515/oxytocin-differentially-modulates-pavlovian-cue-and-context-fear-acquisition
#15
Juliana Cavalli, Michaela Ruttorf, Mario Rosero Pahi, Francesca Zidda, Herta Flor, Frauke Nees
Background: Fear acquisition and extinction have been demonstrated as core mechanisms for the development and maintenance of mental disorders, with different contributions of processing cues versus contexts. The hypothalamic peptide oxytocin (OXT) may have a prominent role in this context, as it has been shown to affect fear learning. However, investigations have focused on cue conditioning, and fear extinction. Its differential role for cue and context fear acquisition is still not known...
April 11, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401924/the-human-coparental-bond-implicates-distinct-corticostriatal-pathways-longitudinal-impact-on-family-formation-and-child-well-being
#16
Eyal Abraham, Gadi Gilam, Yaniv Kanat-Maymon, Yael Jacob, Orna Zagoory-Sharon, Talma Hendler, Ruth Feldman
Alloparental care, the cooperative care of offspring by group members other than the biological mother, has been widely practiced since early hominin evolution to increase infant survival and thriving. The coparental bond-a relationship of solidarity and commitment between two adults who join their effort to care for children- is a central contributor to children's well-being and sociality; yet, the neural basis of coparenting has not been studied in humans. Here, we followed 84 first-time co-parents (42 couples) across the first six years of family formation, including opposite-sex and same-sex couples, measured brain response to coparental stimuli, observed collaborative and undermining coparental behaviors in infancy and preschool, assayed oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP), and measured coparenting and child behavior problems at six years...
April 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389281/oxytocin-in-the-amygdala-and-not-the-prefrontal-cortex-enhances-fear-and-impairs-extinction-in-the-juvenile-rat
#17
Milly Kritman, Nisrine Lahoud, Mouna Maroun
A growing body of evidence suggests that the hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin (OT), aside from its central role in the regulation of social behavior, reduces fear and anxiety. The functional and opposing interactions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the amygdala in regulation of fear provide a unique experimental setting to examine the effects of OT on fear and extinction. Recent evidence suggests that in the adult animal OT can play a dual role in the regulation of fear leading to contrasting effects on fear depending on the manipulated brain region and the time of manipulations...
April 5, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385526/sex-difference-in-mouse-hypothalamic-transcriptome-profile-in-stress-induced-depression-model
#18
Bhanu Chandra Karisetty, Nitin Khandelwal, Arvind Kumar, Sumana Chakravarty
The influence of sex on prevalence and presentation of human depression necessitates studying its role in depression. Additionally, stress can also affect the incidence and progression of depressive phenotypes. Hypothalamus is a well-reported sexually dimorphic brain region. Hence, we performed a gene-array to uncover the chronic stress-induced transcriptional changes in the hypothalamus of male, intact female (with ovaries) and ovariectomized female mice. Chronic variable mild stress model was used to induce depression-like behavior in mice, assessed by despair behavior in forced swim test...
May 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343138/revisiting-the-impact-of-oxtr-rs53576-on-empathy-a-population-based-study-and-a-meta-analysis
#19
Pingyuan Gong, Huiyong Fan, Jinting Liu, Xing Yang, Kejin Zhang, Xiaolin Zhou
Oxytocin in the brain is related to empathy, which refers to the ability to understand and share others' internal states or responses. Previous studies have investigated the impact of OXTR rs53576, the most intensively examined polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene, on individual differences in empathy. However, these studies produced inconsistent results. In the current study, we reexamined the association of OXTR rs53576 with empathy in a relatively large population (N=1830) and also evaluated the association by a comprehensive meta-analysis (N=6631, 13 independent samples)...
June 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340569/an-immunohistochemical-enzymatic-and-behavioral-study-of-cd157-bst-1-as-a-neuroregulator
#20
Haruhiro Higashida, Mingkun Liang, Toru Yoshihara, Shirin Akther, Azam Fakhrul, Cherepanov Stanislav, Tae-Sik Nam, Uh-Hyun Kim, Satoka Kasai, Tomoko Nishimura, Naila Al Mahmuda, Shigeru Yokoyama, Katsuhiko Ishihara, Maria Gerasimenko, Alla Salmina, Jing Zhong, Takahiro Tsuji, Chiharu Tsuji, Olga Lopatina
BACKGROUND: Recent rodent and human studies provide evidence in support of the fact that CD157, well known as bone marrow stromal cell antigen-1 (BST-1) and a risk factor in Parkinson's disease, also meaningfully acts in the brain as a neuroregulator and affects social behaviors. It has been shown that social behaviors are impaired in CD157 knockout mice without severe motor dysfunction and that CD157/BST1 gene single nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with autism spectrum disorder in humans...
March 24, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
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