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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235904/molecular-modeling-and-docking-studies-of-the-oxytocin-receptor
#1
Gloria Antobreh, Istvan Enyedy, Aina Westrheim Ravna
AIM: Low oxytocin (OT) level is involved in a number of psychiatric diseases, indicating that OT could be used to aid treating these disorders. OT itself is unable to cross the blood-brain barrier, and development of new small nonpeptide drugs targeting the OT receptor (OXTR) may be beneficial for treating mental disorders. Results & methodology: Three OXTR models were constructed based on crystallized homologous proteins (Protein Data Bank [PDB]: 2Y00, PDB: 4BVN and PDB: 4LDE). The abilities of the models to discriminate between true binders and decoys were analyzed using receiver operating characteristics curves, and the 4LDE-based model gave the best result...
December 13, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235461/oxytocin-enhances-observational-fear-in-mice
#2
Marc T Pisansky, Leah R Hanson, Irving I Gottesman, Jonathan C Gewirtz
Empathy is fundamental to human relations, but its neural substrates remain largely unknown. Here we characterize the involvement of oxytocin in the capacity of mice to display emotional state-matching, an empathy-like behavior. When exposed to a familiar conspecific demonstrator in distress, an observer mouse becomes fearful, as indicated by a tendency to freeze and subsequent efforts to escape. Both intranasal oxytocin administration and chemogenetic stimulation of oxytocin neurons render males sensitive to the distress of an unfamiliar mouse...
December 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222505/a-comparison-of-methods-to-measure-central-and-peripheral-oxytocin-concentrations-in-human-and-non-human-primates
#3
Arthur Lefevre, Raphaëlle Mottolese, Manon Dirheimer, Carmine Mottolese, Jean-René Duhamel, Angela Sirigu
Oxytocin (OT) concentration in the blood is considered to be a marker of its action in the brain. However, two problems have emerged when measuring OT level in the blood. First, it is unclear whether different methods of assessment lead to similar OT values. Second, it is unclear if plasma OT concentrations is informative on what OT does in the brain. To clarify these issues, we collected cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the brain ventricle of 25 patients during surgery to compare with plasma OT after simultaneous blood withdrawal...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209769/different-behavioral-neural-and-neuropeptide-responses-of-fathers-to-their-own-and-to-alien-pups-in-mandarin-voles
#4
Wei Yuan, Xiang-Ping Yang, Peng Yu, Rui Jia, Fa-Dao Tai, Bin Wei, Xiao Liu, Lei-Ge Ma
Mothers often prefer to care for their own offspring rather than those of other females. However, whether fathers respond differently to their own pups and to alien ones remains unclear. In this study, we found that male mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus) directed more sniffing toward their own pups than toward alien pups. The numbers of Fos-immunoreactive neurons in the medial preoptic nucleus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, nucleus accumbens, anterior cingulate cortex were significantly increased when fathers were exposed to an alien pups; however, more brain regions such as paraventricular nucleus, hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus, lateral habenula, ventral lateral septal nucleus, and medial amygdaloid nucleus showed increased number of Fos-immunoreactive neurons activated when the fathers were exposed to their own pups...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205599/postnatal-separation-prevents-the-development-of-prenatal-stress-induced-anxiety-in-association-with-changes-in-estrogen-receptor-and-oxytocin-immunoreactivity-in-female-mandarin-vole-microtus-mandarinus-offspring
#5
Fengqin He, Zijian Wang, Guanlin Guo
Estrogen has both anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects because of variation in opposing action on alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ) estrogen receptors in the medial preoptic area (mPOA), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and medial amygdala (MeA). Oxytocin (OT) reverses some of the anxiogenic effects of estrogen in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and supraoptic nucleus (SON). Because anxiety disorders are twice as common in women as in men, and estrogen and OT are more important in females, we examined interactions between prenatal restraint stress (GS) and postnatal early short-term maternal separation (MS) and female mandarin vole behavior, estrogen receptors and OT...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204125/alcohol-s-effects-on-pair-bond-maintenance-in-male-prairie-voles
#6
Andre T Walcott, Andrey E Ryabinin
Alcohol abuse can have devastating effects on social relationships. In particular, discrepant patterns of heavy alcohol consumption are associated with increased rates of separation and divorce. Previous studies have attempted to model these effects of alcohol using socially monogamous prairie voles. These studies showed that alcohol consumption can inhibit the formation of pair bonds in this species. While these findings indicated that alcohol's effects on social attachments can involve biological mechanisms, the formation of pair bonds does not properly model long-term human attachments...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200428/low-empathy-like-behaviour-in-male-mice-associates-with-impaired-sociability-emotional-memory-physiological-stress-reactivity-and-variations-in-neurobiological-regulations
#7
Giovanni Laviola, Francesca Zoratto, Danilo Ingiosi, Valentina Carito, Damien Huzard, Marco Fiore, Simone Macrì
Deficits in empathy have been proposed to constitute a hallmark of several psychiatric disturbances like conduct disorder, antisocial and narcissistic personality disorders. Limited sensitivity to punishment, shallow or deficient affect and reduced physiological reactivity to environmental stressors have been often reported to co-occur with limited empathy and contribute to the onset of antisocial phenotypes. Empathy in its simplest form (i.e. emotional contagion) is addressed in preclinical models through the evaluation of the social transmission of emotional states: mice exposed to a painful stimulus display a higher response if in the presence of a familiar individual experiencing a higher degree of discomfort, than in isolation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189166/oxytocin-and-eating-disorders-a-narrative-review-on-emerging-findings-and-perspectives
#8
Katrin Giel, Stephan Zipfel, Manfred Hallschmid
The hypothalamic neuropeptide oxytocin regulates reproductive behavior and mother-infant interaction, and conclusive studies in humans indicate that oxytocin is also a potent modulator of psychosocial function. Pilot experiments have yielded first evidence that this neuropeptide moreover influences eating behavior. Brain administration of oxytocin in animals with normal weight, but also with diet-induced or genetically induced obesity, attenuates food intake and reduces body weight. In normal-weight and obese individuals, acute intranasal oxytocin delivery curbs calorie intake from main dishes and snacks...
November 28, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186377/oxytocin-oxytocin-receptor-systems-facilitate-social-defeat-posture-in-male-mice
#9
Naranbat Nasanbuyan, Masahide Yoshida, Yuki Takayanagi, Ayumu Inutsuka, Katsuhiko Nishimori, Akihiro Yamanaka, Tatsushi Onaka
Social stress has deteriorating effects on various psychiatric diseases. In animal models, exposure to socially dominant conspecifics, i.e., social defeat stress, evokes species-specific defeat posture via unknown mechanisms. Oxytocin neurons have been shown to be activated by stressful stimuli and to have pro-social and anxiolytic actions. The roles of oxytocin during social defeat stress remain unclear. Expression of c-Fos, a marker of neuronal activation, in oxytocin neurons and in oxytocin receptor-expressing neurons was investigated in mice...
November 24, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184212/oxytocin-receptor-expressing-neurons-in-the-parabrachial-nucleus-regulate-fluid-intake
#10
Philip J Ryan, Silvano I Ross, Carlos A Campos, Victor A Derkach, Richard D Palmiter
Brain regions that regulate fluid satiation are not well characterized, yet are essential for understanding fluid homeostasis. We found that oxytocin-receptor-expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus of mice (OxtrPBN neurons) are key regulators of fluid satiation. Chemogenetic activation of OxtrPBN neurons robustly suppressed noncaloric fluid intake, but did not decrease food intake after fasting or salt intake following salt depletion; inactivation increased saline intake after dehydration and hypertonic saline injection...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162165/epigenetic-correlates-of-neonatal-contact-in-humans
#11
Sarah R Moore, Lisa M McEwen, Jill Quirt, Alex Morin, Sarah M Mah, Ronald G Barr, W Thomas Boyce, Michael S Kobor
Animal models of early postnatal mother-infant interactions have highlighted the importance of tactile contact for biobehavioral outcomes via the modification of DNA methylation (DNAm). The role of normative variation in contact in early human development has yet to be explored. In an effort to translate the animal work on tactile contact to humans, we applied a naturalistic daily diary strategy to assess the link between maternal contact with infants and epigenetic signatures in children 4-5 years later, with respect to multiple levels of child-level factors, including genetic variation and infant distress...
December 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157488/l%C3%A2-hypophyse-et-ses-traitements-comment-peuvent-ils-influer-sur-le-comportement-the-pituitary-and-its-treatments-how-can-they-influence-behaviour
#12
C Mouly, F Borson-Chazot, P Caron
Behaviour may be influenced by pituitary hormones or treatments. Dopamine agonist (DA) indicated in prolactinomas treatment can cause side effects, and especially impulse control disorders. In the context of prolactinomas treatment, impulse control disorders (ICD) have been reported like gambling, compulsive shopping, but mostly hypersexuality. These ICD can occur with low AD doses, and seem to be independent of type of molecule and psychiatric medical history. The main pathophysiologic hypothesis is a dysregulation of dopaminergic pathway involved in reward system...
October 2017: Annales D'endocrinologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150303/oxytocin-intranasal-administration-as-a-new-hope-for-hypogonadotropic-hypogonadism-patients
#13
Mohammad Saied Salehi, Sareh Pandamooz, Homayoun Khazali
Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HH) is a form of hypogonadism which also known as secondary or central hypogonadism. Congenital HH can occur due to defect in gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons, upstream regulators of GnRH neurons or pituitary gonadotropic cells. Testosterone or gonadotropins therapy are widely used to treat HH patients, however both have undesirable effects and GnRH treatment for HH patients is time and cost consuming. Direct delivery of therapeutics to the brain via the nasal route is located in the center of attention during the last decade and trial application of intranasal oxytocin as a method of enhancing social interactions are reported...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134359/anxiety-depression-and-the-microbiome-a-role-for-gut-peptides
#14
REVIEW
Gilliard Lach, Harriet Schellekens, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan
The complex bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain is finely orchestrated by different systems, including the endocrine, immune, autonomic, and enteric nervous systems. Moreover, increasing evidence supports the role of the microbiome and microbiota-derived molecules in regulating such interactions; however, the mechanisms underpinning such effects are only beginning to be resolved. Microbiota-gut peptide interactions are poised to be of great significance in the regulation of gut-brain signaling...
November 13, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129623/alterations-of-brain-volumes-in-women-with-early-life-maltreatment-and-their-associations-with-oxytocin
#15
Emilia L Mielke, Corinne Neukel, Katja Bertsch, Corinna Reck, Eva Möhler, Sabine C Herpertz
Early life maltreatment (ELM) is associated with different neurobiological alterations. Lower oxytocin and altered grey matter volumes (GMV) in brain regions associated with the central oxytocin system, such as the hypothalamus, amygdala, and nucleus accumbens, have been reported in women with ELM. However, the association between peripheral oxytocin and brain morphometry in women with ELM has not been studied yet. We therefore collected blood samples from 33 women with and 25 women without ELM, all without current mental disorders to measure and compare oxytocin levels between the two groups...
November 9, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128108/rebalancing-the-addicted-brain-oxytocin-interference-with-the-neural-substrates-of-addiction
#16
REVIEW
Michael T Bowen, Inga D Neumann
Drugs that act on the brain oxytocin (OXT) system may provide a much-needed treatment breakthrough for substance-use disorders. Targeting the brain OXT system has the potential to treat addiction to all major classes of addictive substance and to intervene across all stages of the addiction cycle. Emerging evidence suggests that OXT is able to interfere with such a wide range of addictive behaviours for such a wide range of addictive substances by rebalancing core neural systems that become dysregulated over the course of addiction...
December 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118105/neuropeptide-s-activates-paraventricular-oxytocin-neurons-to-induce-anxiolysis
#17
Thomas Grund, Stephanie Goyon, Yuting Li, Marina Eliava, Haikun Liu, Alexandre Charlet, Valery Grinevich, Inga D Neumann
Neuropeptides, such as neuropeptide S (NPS) and oxytocin (OXT) represent potential options for the treatment of anxiety disorders due to their potent anxiolytic profile. In this study, we aimed to reveal the mechanisms underlying the behavioral action of NPS, and present a chain of evidence that the effects of NPS within the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are mediated via actions on local OXT neurons in male Wistar rats. First, retrograde studies identified NPS fibers originating in the brainstem locus coeruleus and projecting to the PVN...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109676/oxytocin-removes-estrous-female-vs-male-preference-of-virgin-male-rats-mediation-of-the-supraoptic-nucleus-via-olfactory-bulbs
#18
Xiao-Yu Liu, Dan Cui, Dongyang Li, Runsheng Jiao, Xiaoran Wang, Shuwei Jia, Dan Hou, Tong Li, Haitao Liu, Ping Wang, Yu-Feng Wang
Social functions of oxytocin (OT) have been explored extensively; however, relationship between the effect of intranasally applied OT (nasal OT) on the social preference (SP) and intracerebral actions of endogenous OT remains unclear. To resolve this question, we first observed effects of nasal OT on the SP of virgin young adult male rats toward unfamiliar virgin estrous female (EF) vs. virgin male rats. The results showed that the test male rats exhibited significantly more times and longer duration accessing the female than the male, which were acutely eliminated by nasal OT...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107332/neuronal-representation-of-social-information-in-the-medial-amygdala-of-awake-behaving-mice
#19
Ying Li, Alexander Mathis, Benjamin F Grewe, Jessica A Osterhout, Biafra Ahanonu, Mark J Schnitzer, Venkatesh N Murthy, Catherine Dulac
The medial amygdala (MeA) plays a critical role in processing species- and sex-specific signals that trigger social and defensive behaviors. However, the principles by which this deep brain structure encodes social information is poorly understood. We used a miniature microscope to image the Ca(2+) dynamics of large neural ensembles in awake behaving mice and tracked the responses of MeA neurons over several months. These recordings revealed spatially intermingled subsets of MeA neurons with distinct temporal dynamics...
November 16, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107289/disruption-of-the-homeodomain-transcription-factor-orthopedia-homeobox-otp-is-associated-with-obesity-and-anxiety
#20
Lee Moir, Elena G Bochukova, Rebecca Dumbell, Gareth Banks, Rasneer S Bains, Patrick M Nolan, Cheryl Scudamore, Michelle Simon, Kimberly A Watson, Julia Keogh, Elana Henning, Audrey Hendricks, Stephen O'Rahilly, Inês Barroso, Adrienne E Sullivan, David C Bersten, Murray L Whitelaw, Susan Kirsch, Elizabeth Bentley, I Sadaf Farooqi, Roger D Cox
OBJECTIVE: Genetic studies in obese rodents and humans can provide novel insights into the mechanisms involved in energy homeostasis. METHODS: In this study, we genetically mapped the chromosomal region underlying the development of severe obesity in a mouse line identified as part of a dominant N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen. We characterized the metabolic and behavioral phenotype of obese mutant mice and examined changes in hypothalamic gene expression...
November 2017: Molecular Metabolism
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