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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214580/localization-of-oxytocin-receptors-in-the-prairie-vole-microtus-ochrogaster-neocortex
#1
Auriane Duchemin, Adele M H Seelke, Trenton C Simmons, Sara M Freeman, Karen L Bales
Early experience and social context interact to alter the phenotype of complex social behaviors. These early experiences can also result in alterations to cortical organization and connections. Given the ability of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) to modulate social and reproductive behavior, OT is likely involved in these cortical processes. However, little is known about the distribution of OT and OT receptors (OTR) within the neocortex. Using autoradiographic and neuroanatomical techniques, we characterized the cortical distribution of oxytocin receptors (OTR) in prairie voles, a socially monogamous rodent species...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185482/suckling-induced-activation-pattern-in-the-brain-of-rat-pups
#2
János Barna, Eva Renner, Antónia Arszovszki, Melinda Cservenák, Zsolt Kovács, Miklós Palkovits, Arpád Dobolyi
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to understand the effects of suckling on the brain of the pups by mapping their brain activation pattern in response to suckling. METHODS: The c-fos method was applied to identify activated neurons. Fasted rat pups were returned to their mothers for suckling and sacrificed 2 hours later for Fos immunohistochemistry. Double labeling was also performed to characterize some of the activated neurons. For comparison, another group of fasted pups were given dry food before Fos mapping...
February 10, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174180/suprachiasmatic-vasopressin-to-paraventricular-oxytocin-neurocircuit-in-the-hypothalamus-relays-light-reception-to-inhibition-of-feeding-behavior
#3
Putra Santoso, Masanori Nakata, Yoichi Ueta, Toshihiko Yada
Light syncronizes body's circadian rhythms by modulating the master clock located in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the hypothalamus. In modern life, the extended and/or irregular light exposure impairs circadian rhythms and consequently promotes feeding and metabolic disorders. However, the neuronal pathway through which light is coupled to feeding behavior is less elucidated. The present study employed the light exposure during dark phase of the day in rats and observed its effect on neuronal activity and feeding behavior...
February 7, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161387/intranasal-oxytocin-but-not-vasopressin-augments-neural-responses-to-toddlers-in-human-fathers
#4
Ting Li, Xu Chen, Jennifer Mascaro, Ebrahim Haroon, James K Rilling
This study investigates paternal brain function with the hope of better understanding the neural basis for variation in caregiving involvement among men. The neuropeptides oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (AVP) are implicated in paternal caregiving in humans and other species. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, within-subject pharmaco-functional MRI experiment, we randomized 30 fathers of 1-2year old children to receive either 24IU intranasal OT before one scan and placebo before the other scan (n=15) or 20IU intranasal AVP before one scan and placebo before the other scan (n=15)...
February 1, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138261/the-effects-of-exercise-training-and-caloric-restriction-on-the-cardiac-oxytocin-natriuretic-peptide-system-in-the-diabetic-mouse
#5
Tom L Broderick, Marek Jankowski, Jolanta Gutkowska
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise training (ET) and caloric restriction (CR) are the frontline strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the aim at reducing cardiometabolic risk. ET and CR improve body weight and glycemic control, and experimental studies indicate that these paradigms afford cardioprotection. In this study, the effects of combined ET and CR on the cardioprotective oxytocin (OT)-natriuretic peptide (NP) system were determined in the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and obesity...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135005/dendritic-release-of-neurotransmitters
#6
Mike Ludwig, David Apps, John Menzies, Jyoti C Patel, Margaret E Rice
Release of neuroactive substances by exocytosis from dendrites is surprisingly widespread and is not confined to a particular class of transmitters: it occurs in multiple brain regions, and includes a range of neuropeptides, classical neurotransmitters, and signaling molecules, such as nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, ATP, and arachidonic acid. This review is focused on hypothalamic neuroendocrine cells that release vasopressin and oxytocin and midbrain neurons that release dopamine. For these two model systems, the stimuli, mechanisms, and physiological functions of dendritic release have been explored in greater detail than is yet available for other neurons and neuroactive substances...
December 6, 2016: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133419/mice-with-catalytically-inactive-cathepsin-a-display-neurobehavioral-alterations
#7
O Y Calhan, V Seyrantepe
The lysosomal carboxypeptidase A, Cathepsin A (CathA), is a serine protease with two distinct functions. CathA protects β-galactosidase and sialidase Neu1 against proteolytic degradation by forming a multienzyme complex and activates sialidase Neu1. CathA deficiency causes the lysosomal storage disease, galactosialidosis. These patients present with a broad range of clinical phenotypes, including growth retardation, and neurological deterioration along with the accumulation of the vasoactive peptide, endothelin-1, in the brain...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110691/is-insulin-growth-factor-1-the-future-for-treating-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-or-schizophrenia
#8
Rami Bou Khalil
To date, no curative psychopharmacologic treatment exists for the core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) as well as for schizophrenia. Bumatenide is a specific antagonist of the first isoform of the Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC1). It is usually used as a diuretic but may also promote a decrease in intraneuronal chloride ion concentration leading to hyperpolarization in neuronal membrane and subsequent decrease in neuronal hyperexcitability. This physiologic effect has been considered to be behind the relative efficacy of bumetanide in improving symptoms of ASD and, to a lesser extent, schizophrenia...
February 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100688/the-use-of-oxytocin-to-improve-feeding-and-social-skills-in-infants-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#9
Maïthé Tauber, Kader Boulanouar, Gwenaelle Diene, Sophie Çabal-Berthoumieu, Virginie Ehlinger, Pascale Fichaux-Bourin, Catherine Molinas, Sandy Faye, Marion Valette, Jeanne Pourrinet, Catie Cessans, Sylvie Viaux-Sauvelon, Céline Bascoul, Antoine Guedeney, Patric Delhanty, Vincent Geenen, Henri Martens, Françoise Muscatelli, David Cohen, Angèle Consoli, Pierre Payoux, Catherine Arnaud, Jean-Pierre Salles
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) display poor feeding and social skills as infants and fewer hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT)-producing neurons were documented in adults. Animal data demonstrated that early treatment with OXT restores sucking after birth. Our aim is to reproduce these data in infants with PWS. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2 escalating dose study of a short course (7 days) of intranasal OXT administration. We enrolled 18 infants with PWS under 6 months old (6 infants in each step) who received 4 IU of OXT either every other day, daily, or twice daily...
January 18, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098344/inhibition-of-oxytocin-and-vasopressin-neuron-activity-in-rat-hypothalamic-paraventricular-nucleus-by-relaxin-3-rxfp3-signalling
#10
Alan Kania, Anna Czerw, Agnieszka Grabowiecka, Camila de Ávila, Tomasz Blasiak, Zenon Rajfur, Marian H Lewandowski, Grzegorz Hess, Elena Timofeeva, Andrew L Gundlach, Anna Blasiak
KEY-POINTS: Relaxin-3 is a stress-responsive neuropeptide that acts at its cognate receptor, RXFP3, to alter behaviours including feeding. In this study, we have demonstrated a direct, RXFP3-dependent, inhibitory action of relaxin-3 on oxytocin and vasopressin PVN neuron electrical activity, a putative cellular mechanism of orexinergic actions of relaxin-3. We observed a Gαi/o -protein-dependent inhibitory influence of selective RXFP3 activation on PVN neuronal activity in vitro and demonstrated a direct action of RXFP3 activation on oxytocin and vasopressin PVN neurons, confirmed by their abundant expression of RXFP3 mRNA...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093220/increased-oxytocin-levels-among-abstinent-heroin-addicts-association-with-aggressiveness-psychiatric-symptoms-and-perceived-childhood-neglect
#11
Lidia M Gerra, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Chiara M Pieri, Maina Antonioni, Michele Protti, Paolo Ossola, Carlo Marchesi
A disruption of the oxytocin system seems to affect a variety of brain functions including emotions, mood and social behavior possibly underlying severe social deficits and susceptibility for substance use and mental health disorders. Early life adversity, such as insecure attachment in childhood, has been suggested to influence oxytocin tone contributing to a condition of neurobiological vulnerability. Aim of the present study was to investigate oxytocin serum levels in abstinent heroin addicted patients, in comparison with healthy controls, and the possible correlation with co-occurring psychiatric symptoms, aggressiveness and perception of parental neglect...
January 16, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073330/the-eyes-as-windows-into-other-minds
#12
Tobias Grossmann
Eyes have been shown to play a key role during human social interactions. However, to date, no comprehensive cross-discipline model has provided a framework that can account for uniquely human responses to eye cues. In this review, I present a framework that brings together work on the phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and neural bases of perceiving and responding to eyes. Specifically, I argue for a two-process model: a first process that ensures privileged attention to information encoded in the eyes and is important for the detection of other minds and a second process that permits the decoding of information contained in the eyes concerning another person's emotional and mental states...
January 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064086/forced-swimming-induced-oxytocin-release-into-blood-and-brain-effects-of-adrenalectomy-and-corticosterone-treatment
#13
Luz Torner, Paul M Plotsky, Inga D Neumann, Trynke R de Jong
The oxytocin (OXT) system is functionally linked to the HPA axis in a reciprocal and complex manner. Certain stressors are known to cause the simultaneous release of OXT and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) followed by corticosterone (CORT). Furthermore, brain OXT attenuates ACTH and CORT responses. Although there are some indications of CORT influencing OXT neurotransmission, specific effects of CORT on neurohypophyseal or intra-hypothalamic release of OXT have not been studied in detail. In the present set of experiments, adult male rats were adrenalectomized (ADX) or sham-operated and fitted with a jugular vein catheter and/or microdialysis probe targeting the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN)...
December 16, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041836/the-neurobiology-of-human-attachments
#14
REVIEW
Ruth Feldman
Attachment bonds are a defining feature of mammals. A conceptual framework on human attachments is presented, integrating insights from animal research with neuroimaging studies. Four mammalian bonds are described, including parent-infant, pair-bonds, peers, and conspecifics, all built upon systems shaped by maternal provisions during sensitive periods, and evolution from rodents to humans is detailed. Bonding is underpinned by crosstalk of oxytocin and dopamine in striatum, combining motivation and vigor with social focus, and their time sensitivity/pulsatility enables reorganization of neural networks...
February 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035472/insulin-regulated-aminopeptidase-immunoreactivity-is-abundantly-present-in-human-hypothalamus-and-posterior-pituitary-gland-with-reduced-expression-in-paraventricular-and-suprachiasmatic-neurons-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#15
Hans-Gert Bernstein, Susan Müller, Hendrik Dobrowolny, Carmen Wolke, Uwe Lendeckel, Alicja Bukowska, Gerburg Keilhoff, Axel Becker, Kurt Trübner, Johann Steiner, Bernhard Bogerts
The vasopressin- and oxytocin-degrading enzyme insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP) is expressed in various organs including the brain. However, knowledge about its presence in human hypothalamus is fragmentary. Functionally, for a number of reasons (genetic linkage, hydrolysis of oxytocin and vasopressin, its role as angiotensin IV receptor in learning and memory and others) IRAP might play a role in schizophrenia. We studied the regional and cellular localization of IRAP in normal human brain with special emphasis on the hypothalamus and determined numerical densities of IRAP-expressing cells in the paraventricular, supraoptic and suprachiasmatic nuclei in schizophrenia patients and controls...
December 29, 2016: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024707/oxytocin-and-the-social-brain
#16
Sarah K Fineberg, David A Ross
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 1, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018255/an-affective-neuroscience-framework-for-the-molecular-study-of-internet-addiction
#17
Christian Montag, Cornelia Sindermann, Benjamin Becker, Jaak Panksepp
Internet addiction represents an emerging global health issue. Increasing efforts have been made to characterize risk factors for the development of Internet addiction and consequences of excessive Internet use. During the last years, classic research approaches from psychology considering personality variables as vulnerability factor, especially in conjunction with neuroscience approaches such as brain imaging, have led to coherent theoretical conceptualizations of Internet addiction. Although such conceptualizations can be valuable aid, the research field is currently lacking a comprehensive framework for determining brain-based and neurochemical markers of Internet addiction...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017919/relationship-of-a-common-oxtr-gene-variant-to-brain-structure-and-default-mode-network-function-in-healthy-humans
#18
Junping Wang, Meredith N Braskie, George W Hafzalla, Joshua Faskowitz, Katie L McMahon, Greig I de Zubicaray, Margaret J Wright, Chunshui Yu, Paul M Thompson
A large body of research suggests that oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene polymorphisms may influence both social behaviors and psychiatric conditions related to social deficits, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), schizophrenia, and mood and anxiety disorders. However, the neural mechanism underlying these associations is still unclear. Relative to controls, patients with these psychiatric conditions show differences in brain structure, and in resting state fMRI (rs-fMRI) signal synchronicity among default mode network (DMN) regions (also known as functional connectivity)...
February 15, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28013044/involvement-of-salsolinol-in-the-suckling-induced-oxytocin-surge-in-sheep
#19
K Górski, T Misztal, E Marciniak, M K Zielińska-Górska, F Fülöp, K Romanowicz
During lactation, the main surge of oxytocin is induced by a suckling stimulus. Previous studies have shown that salsolinol (1-methyl-6,7-dihydroxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline), a dopamine-derived compound, stimulates both the synthesis and the release of oxytocin in lactating sheep. The objective of the present study was to verify the hypothesis that salsolinol is involved in the mechanism that generates the oxytocin surge that occurs during suckling. Thus, a structural analogue of salsolinol, 1-methyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline (1MeDIQ), known to antagonize some of its actions, was infused into the third ventricle of the brain of lactating sheep nursing their offspring...
November 11, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009464/effect-of-melanotan-ii-on-brain-fos-immunoreactivity-and-oxytocin-neuronal-activity-and-secretion-in-rats
#20
Luis Paiva, Nancy Sabatier, Gareth Leng, Mike Ludwig
Melanocortins stimulate the central oxytocin systems which are involved in regulating social behaviours. Alterations in central oxytocin have been linked to neurological disorders such as autism, and melanocortins have been proposed for therapeutic treatment. Here, we investigated how systemic administration of melanotan-II (MT-II), a melanocortin agonist, affects oxytocin neuronal activity and secretion in rats. Our results show that intravenous (i.v.), but not intranasal, administration of MT-II markedly induced Fos expression in magnocellular neurones of the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular nuclei (PVN) of the hypothalamus, and this response was attenuated by prior intracerebroventricular (i...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
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