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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767353/influences-of-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-temporal-lobe-resection-on-olfaction
#1
Richard L Doty, Isabelle Tourbier, Jessica K Neff, Jonathan Silas, Bruce Turetsky, Paul Moberg, Taehoon Kim, John Pluta, Jaqueline French, Ashwini D Sharan, Michael J Sperling, Natasha Mirza, Anthony Risser, Gordon Baltuch, John A Detre
Although temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and resection (TLR) impact olfactory eloquent brain structures, their influences on olfaction remain enigmatic. We sought to more definitively assess the influences of TLE and TLR on olfaction using three well-validated olfactory tests and measuring  the tests' associations with the volume of numerous temporal lobe brain structures. The University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test and an odor detection threshold test were administered to 71 TLE patients and 71 age- and sex-matched controls; 69 TLE patients and controls received an odor discrimination/memory test...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720937/the-nlrp3-caspase-1-inflammasome-negatively-regulates-autophagy-via-tlr4-trif-in-prion-peptide-infected-microglia
#2
Mengyu Lai, Hao Yao, Syed Zahid Ali Shah, Wei Wu, Di Wang, Ying Zhao, Lu Wang, Xiangmei Zhou, Deming Zhao, Lifeng Yang
Prion diseases are neurodegenerative disorders characterized by the accumulation of misfolded prion protein, spongiform changes in the brain, and brain inflammation as a result of the wide-spread activation of microglia. Autophagy is a highly conserved catabolic process for the clearance of cytoplasmic components, including protein aggregates and damaged organelles; this process also eliminates pathological PrPSc as it accumulates during prion infection. The NALP3 inflammasome is a multiprotein complex that is a component of the innate immune system and is responsible for the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683870/isosteviol-sodium-injection-improves-outcomes-by-modulating-tlrs-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-dependent-inflammatory-responses-following-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#3
Jie Zan, Hao Zhang, Min-Yi Lu, Hui-Min Beng, Kai-Lun Zhong, Xiao-Ou Sun, Wen Tan
Previous studies have shown that isosteviol sodium (STVNa) protects against permanent cerebral ischemia injury by inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-mediated inflammatory responses. Overwhelming evidence shows that toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the upstream regulators of NF-κB. On the basis of the similarity of the pathology caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI) and stroke, we speculated that STVNa may have a therapeutic effect against TBI through regulation of the TLRs/NF-κB signaling-mediated inflammatory response...
April 20, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649428/connections-of-annexin-a1-and-translocator-protein-18-kda-on-toll-like-receptor-stimulated-bv-2-cells
#4
Lorena Pantaleão, Gustavo Henrique Oliveira da Rocha, Chris Reutelingsperger, Manoela Tiago, Silvya Stucchi Maria-Engler, Egle Solito, Sandra P Farsky
BACKGROUND: Annexin A1 (ANXA1) and Translocator Protein-18KDa (TSPO) down-regulate neuroinflammation. We investigated the role of recombinant ANXA1 (rANXA) on TSPO functions on Toll Like Receptor (TLR) activated microglia. METHODS: BV-2 cells (murine microglia), were stimulated by E. coli Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and treated with rANXA1 in order to measure TSPO expression and inflammatory parameters. Anti-sense ANXA1 and TLR4 and TSPO shRNA, as well as pharmacological treatments, were employed to assess the mechanisms involved...
April 9, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606967/effects-of-oregano-essential-oil-on-brain-tlr4-and-tlr2-gene-expression-and-depressive-like-behavior-in-a-rat-model
#5
Azam Amiresmaeili, Samira Roohollahi, Ali Mostafavi, Nayere Askari
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of oregano essential oil (OEO) on the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex TLR 2/4 gene expression and depressive like behavior induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Sucrose preference and forced swim tests were adopted to examine the antidepressant effect. Control (CON), OEO, CUS, and CUS + OEO groups were used. The OEO and CUS + OEO groups received OEO (0.2 mL/kg, i.p.), CON and CUS received saline (0.2 mL/kg, i.p.), and the positive drug groups of CUS rats received fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) and diazepam (3 mg/kg) once daily for 14 days...
April 2018: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605000/toll-like-receptors-and-cytokines-in-the-brain-and-in-spleen-of-dogs-with-visceral-leishmaniosis
#6
Fernanda G Grano, José Eduardo Dos S Silva, Guilherme D Melo, Milena S de Souza, Valéria M F Lima, Gisele F Machado
Visceral leishmaniosis (VL) is a multisystem disease that affects domestic dogs and can have several clinical manifestations, including some rare reports of neurological clinical signs, or it may remain asymptomatic, depending on the individual immune response against the Leishmania parasite. VL involves immune system sensors, such as the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), that are related to innate immunity and inflammation. Previously, we have reported the presence of brain inflammation in infected dogs. Here, we investigated the gene expression profile of TLRs 1-10 in the brain and the spleen of infected dogs, along with the production of proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β and IL-6) with the aim of explaining the origin of brain inflammation...
April 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561292/behavioral-effects-of-toll-like-receptor-4-antagonist-eritoran-in-an-experimental-model-of-depression-role-of-prefrontal-and-hippocampal-neurogenesis-and-%C3%AE-aminobutyric-acid-glutamate-balance
#7
Sawsan Aboul-Fotouh, Mohamed Habib, Tarek Asaad, Samar K Kassim, Mohamed H Ghanem
Depression is the disease of the modern era. The lack of response to the available antidepressants, which were developed on the basis of the monoaminergic deficit hypothesis of depression, has encouraged scientists to think about new mechanisms explaining the pathogenesis of depression. In this context, the inflammatory theory has emerged to clarify many aspects of depression that the previous theories have failed to explain. Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) has a regulatory role in the brain's immune response to stress, and its activation is suggested to play a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of depression...
March 20, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471127/targeting-cd14-on-blood-derived-cells-improves-intracortical-microelectrode-performance
#8
Hillary W Bedell, John K Hermann, Madhumitha Ravikumar, Shushen Lin, Ashley Rein, Xujia Li, Emily Molinich, Patrick D Smith, Stephen M Selkirk, Robert H Miller, Steven Sidik, Dawn M Taylor, Jeffrey R Capadona
Intracortical microelectrodes afford researchers an effective tool to precisely monitor neural spiking activity. Additionally, intracortical microelectrodes have the ability to return function to individuals with paralysis as part of a brain computer interface. Unfortunately, the neural signals recorded by these electrodes degrade over time. Many strategies which target the biological and/or materials mediating failure modes of this decline of function are currently under investigation. The goal of this study is to identify a precise cellular target for future intervention to sustain chronic intracortical microelectrode performance...
May 2018: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427811/new-cytokines-and-tlr-pathway-signaling-molecules-in-chinese-rare-minnow-gobiocypris-rarus-molecular-characterization-basal-expression-and-their-response-to-chlorpyrifos
#9
Xu Zhao, Xiangsheng Hong, Rui Chen, Lilai Yuan, Jinmiao Zha, Jianhui Qin
In this study, the cDNA fragments of cytokines (il-8) and toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway signaling molecules (myd88, irak-1, irf5, and irf7) in the Chinese rare minnow were cloned and exhibited a high amino-acid sequence identity compared to other cyprinid fish orthologs. The mRNA expressions of these genes in the different tissues (liver, brain, spleen, kidney, and skin) were observed. The highest expression levels of myd88, irak-1, and irf5 were detected in the spleen, whereas il-8 and irf7 were detected in the kidney and liver respectively...
May 2018: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423064/melatonin-attenuated-brain-death-tissue-extract-induced-cardiac-damage-by-suppressing-damp-signaling
#10
Pei-Hsun Sung, Fan-Yen Lee, Ling-Chun Lin, Kuan-Hung Chen, Hung-Sheng Lin, Pei-Lin Shao, Yi-Chen Li, Yi-Ling Chen, Kun-Chen Lin, Chun-Man Yuen, Hsueh-Wen Chang, Mel S Lee, Hon-Kan Yip
We tested the hypothesis that melatonin prevents brain death (BD) tissue extract (BDEX)-induced cardiac damage by suppressing inflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) signaling in rats. Six hours after BD induction, levels of a DAMP component (HMGB1) and inflammatory markers (TLR-2, TLR-4, MYD88, IκB, NF-κB, IL-1β, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-6) were higher in brain tissue from BD animals than controls. Levels of HMGB1 and inflammatory markers were higher in BDEX-treated H9C2 cardiac myoblasts than in cells treated with healthy brain tissue extract...
January 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29414031/unfolded-protein-response-and-associated-alterations-in-toll-like-receptor-expression-and-interaction-in-the-hippocampus-of-restraint-rats
#11
Matthew Timberlake, Kevin Prall, Bhaskar Roy, Yogesh Dwivedi
Recent evidence suggests that the cellular response to stress often elicits the unfolded protein response (UPR), which has an active role in major depression in emotionally relevant regions of the brain, such as the hippocampus. Much of the UPR activity has been found to be coalesced with the pro-inflammatory environment of the depressed brain. Specifically, downstream transcriptions of pro-inflammatory cytokines and increased regulation of candidate inflammatory mediators, such as toll-like receptors (TLRs), are promoted by the UPR...
March 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405769/thymoquinone-alleviates-the-experimentally-induced-alzheimer-s-disease-inflammation-by-modulation-of-tlrs-signaling
#12
Y S Abulfadl, N N El-Maraghy, Aa Eissa Ahmed, S Nofal, Y Abdel-Mottaleb, O A Badary
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by a robust inflammatory response elicited by the accumulation and deposition of amyloid-β (Aβ) within the brain. Aβ induces detrimental inflammatory responses through toll-like receptors (TLRs) signaling pathway. Thymoquinone (TQ), the main active constituent of Nigella sativa oil, has been reported by several previous studies for its potent anti-inflammatory effect. The aim of this study is to elucidate the effect of TQ in improving learning and memory, using a rat model of AD induced by a combination of aluminum chloride (AlCl3 ) and d-galactose (d-Gal)...
January 1, 2018: Human & Experimental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29358565/microglia-activation-mediated-by-toll-like-receptor-4-impairs-brain-white-matter-tracts-in-rats
#13
Xing-Long Yang, Jing-Dong Zhang, Lian Duan, Huan-Gui Xiong, Yan-Ping Jiang, Hou-Cheng Liang
Microglia activation and white matter injury coexist after repeated episodes of mild brain trauma and ischemic stroke. Axon degeneration and demyelination can activate microglia; however, it is unclear whether early microglia activation can impair the function of white matter tracts and lead to injury. Rat corpus callosum (CC) slices were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or LPS + Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS)-LPS that is a toll-like receptor 4 (TLR-4) antagonist. Functional changes reflected by the change of axon compound action potentials (CAPs) and the accumulation of β-amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) in CC nerve fibers...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331320/zika-dengue-and-yellow-fever-viruses-induce-differential-anti-viral-immune-responses-in-human-monocytic-and-first-trimester-trophoblast-cells
#14
Huanle Luo, Evandro R Winkelmann, Ildefonso Fernandez-Salas, Li Li, Sandra V Mayer, Rogelio Danis-Lozano, Rosa Ma Sanchez-Casas, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert Tesh, Alan D Barrett, Scott C Weaver, Tian Wang
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus associated with severe neonatal birth defects, but the causative mechanism is incompletely understood. ZIKV shares sequence homology and early clinical manifestations with yellow fever virus (YFV) and dengue virus (DENV) and are all transmitted in urban cycles by the same species of mosquitoes. However, YFV and DENV have been rarely reported to cause congenital diseases. Here, we compared infection with a contemporary ZIKV strain (FSS13025) to YFV17D and DENV-4 in human monocytic cells (THP-1) and first-trimester trophoblasts (HTR-8)...
March 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321652/innate-ifn-%C3%AE-ameliorates-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-and-promotes-myeloid-expansion-and-pdl-1-expression
#15
Madeleine P J White, Gill Webster, Faith Leonard, Anne Camille La Flamme
The innate immune system plays a central role in the immune-mediated pathology of multiple sclerosis, and is a therapeutic target for progressive disease. Recently, it has been demonstrated that MIS416, a novel immunomodulatory microparticle that activates NOD-2 and TLR-9-signaling, has disease-modifying activity in multiple sclerosis models. This activity is dependent on innate IFN-γ; however, the precise immune regulatory mechanisms amplified by MIS416 have not previously been determined. Using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model, MIS416 treatment was associated with IFN-γ-dependant expansion of Treg number and increased suppressive function; however, these cells did not account for disease reduction...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305335/identification-and-functional-characterization-of-toll-like-receptor-13-from-orange-spotted-grouper-epinephelus-coioides
#16
Yaosi Liang, Xu Ding, Xue Yu, Yu Wang, Ying Zhou, Jianan He, Yu Shi, Yong Zhang, Haoran Lin, Danqi Lu
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are one of the most important innate immune receptors, which recognize various pathogen-associated molecular patterns and activate the downstream immune response. Mouse TLR13 has been found to recognize a highly conserved sequence from bacterial or viral RNA and activate the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88-dependent signaling response. The function of teleost tlr13 is still not fully understood, especially its relationship with bacterial RNA. In our study, we identified and characterized a tlr13 from Epinephelus coioides (orange-spotted grouper)...
March 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301276/rosiglitazone-as-a-modulator-of-tlr4-and-tlr3-signaling-pathways-in-rat-primary-neurons-and-astrocytes
#17
Dmitry V Chistyakov, Nadezda V Azbukina, Alexandr V Lopachev, Ksenia N Kulichenkova, Alina A Astakhova, Marina G Sergeeva
An antidiabetic drug of the thiazolidinedione class, rosiglitazone (RG) demonstrates anti-inflammatory properties in various brain pathologies. The mechanism of RG action in brain cells is not fully known. To unravel mechanisms of RG modulation of toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways, we compare primary rat neuron and astrocyte cultures stimulated with the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the TLR3 agonist poly I:C (PIC). Both TLR agonists induced tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) release in astrocytes, but not in neurons...
January 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295636/caffeine-prevents-bilirubin-induced-cytotoxicity-in-cultured-newborn-rat-astrocytes
#18
Mehmet Deliktaş, Hacer Ergin, Aydın Demiray, Hakan Akça, Özmert M A Özdemir, Mehmet Bülent Özdemir
OBJECTIVE: Unconjugated bilirubin (UCB) may cause neurotoxicity in preterm neonates due to immaturity of UGT1A1 leading to bilirubin accumulation in the brain. Caffeine used in the treatment of apnea of prematurity was reported to decrease mechanical ventilation requirement, the frequencies of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, patent ductus arteriosus, cerebral palsy and neurodevelopmental disorders in very low birth weight infants. However, the effect of caffeine on hyperbilirubinemia was not yet clarified...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274625/inhibition-of-myocardial-hypertrophy-by-magnesium-isoglycyrrhizinate-through-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-pathway-in-mice
#19
REVIEW
Donglai Ma, Jianping Zhang, Yuanyuan Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Xue Han, Tao Song, Ying Zhang, Li Chu
Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate (MgIG) is a magnesium salt of the 18-α glycyrrhizic acid stereoisomer that has exhibited hepato-protective effects and has anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral activities. Here, we have investigated the effects and potential mechanisms of action of MgIG, with respect to myocardial fibrosis induced by isoproterenol (ISO) in mice. Mice were administered MgIG for 14days, with concurrent ISO dosing, and were sacrificed two weeks later. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) concentrations were measured in the blood...
February 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221855/toll-like-receptor-4-regulates-anxiety-like-behavior-and-darpp-32-phosphorylation
#20
T Femenia, Y Qian, T Arentsen, H Forssberg, R Diaz Heijtz
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a crucial role in early innate immune responses to inflammatory agents and pathogens. In the brain, some members of the TLR family are expressed in glial cells and neurons. In particular, TLR4 has been involved in learning and memory processes, stress-induced adaptations, and pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the role of TLR4 in emotional behaviors and their underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of TLR4 in emotional and social behavior by using different behavioral approaches, and assessed potential molecular alterations in important brain areas involved in emotional responses...
December 6, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
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