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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115440/aspirin-ameliorates-cerebral-infarction-through-regulation-of-tlr4-nf%C3%A2-%C3%AE%C2%BAb%C3%A2-mediated-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-in-mouse-model
#1
Xin Wang, Bin Shen, Dezhou Sun, Xiangyu Cui
Cerebral infarction is a cerebrovascular disease caused by local brain ischemic necrosis or softening, which is associated with diabetes, obesity, hypertension and rheumatic heart arrhythmia. Previous studies have indicated that aspirin is a potential oral anticoagulant in the treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke. However, the potential mechanism mediated by aspirin in cerebral infarction therapy is not well understood. The present study analyzed the therapeutic effects of aspirin on cerebral infarction and investigated the underlying molecular mechanism of aspirin‑ameliorated benefits for thrombolysis...
October 25, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113341/knockout-of-toll-like-receptor-impairs-nerve-regeneration-after-a-crush-injury
#2
Ching-Hua Hsieh, Cheng-Shyuan Rau, Pao-Jen Kuo, Shu-Hsuan Liu, Chia-Jung Wu, Tsu-Hsiang Lu, Yi-Chan Wu, Chia-Wei Lin
Background: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are involved in the initiation of Schwann cell activation and subsequent recruitment of macrophages for clearance of degenerated myelin and neuronal debris after nerve injury. The present study was designed to investigate the regenerative outcome and expression of myelination-related factors in Tlr-knockout mice following a sciatic nerve crush injury. Materials and methods: A standard sciatic nerve crush injury, induced by applying constant pressure to the nerve with a No...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113143/sevoflurane-postconditioning-induced-anti-inflammation-via-inhibition-of-the-toll-like-receptor-4-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-pathway-contributes-to-neuroprotection-against-transient-global-cerebral-ischemia-in-rats
#3
Jung-Won Hwang, Young-Tae Jeon, Young-Jin Lim, Hee-Pyoung Park
The anti-inflammatory actions of sevoflurane postconditioning are suggested as an important mechanism of sevoflurane postconditioning-induced neuroprotection against cerebral ischemia. Here, we determined whether the anti-inflammatory effects of sevoflurane postconditioning were mediated via inhibition of the toll-like receptor (TLR)-4/nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway after global transient cerebral ischemia in rats. Forty-five rats were randomly assigned to five groups as follows: (1) control (10 min of ischemia, n = 10); (2) sevoflurane postconditioning (two periods of sevoflurane inhalation after ischemia for 10 min with a wash period of 10 min, n = 10); (3) resatorvid (intraperitoneal injection of a selective TLR-4 antagonist (3 mg/kg) 30 min before ischemia, n = 10); (4) sevoflurane postconditioning plus resatorvid (n = 10), and sham (n = 5)...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107071/role-of-tlr4-in-olfactory-based-spatial-learning-activity-of-neonatal-mice-after-developmental-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-origin-secondary-organic-aerosol
#4
Nay Chi Nway, Yuji Fujitani, Seishiro Hirano, Ohn Mar, Tin-Tin Win-Shwe
Exposure to ambient air pollutants has been reported to have various adverse health impacts. Ambient particulate matter comprises primary particles released directly via engine exhaust and secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) formed from oxidative reactions of the ultrafine particle fraction of diesel exhaust (DE). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is well known to initiate the inflammatory cascade in the central nervous system. However, whether and how DE and DE-SOA exposure influences TLR4 signaling in the immature brain remains unclear...
October 26, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096641/acute-in-utero-exposure-to-lipopolysaccharide-induces-inflammation-in-the-pre-and-postnatal-brain-and-alters-the-glial-cytoarchitecture-in-the-developing-amygdala
#5
Elaine O'Loughlin, Janelle M P Pakan, Deniz Yilmazer-Hanke, Kieran W McDermott
BACKGROUND: Maternal immune activation (MIA) is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as seizure development. The amygdala is a brain region involved in the regulation of emotions, and amygdalar maldevelopment due to infection-induced MIA may lead to amygdala-related disorders. MIA priming of glial cells during development has been linked to abnormalities seen in later life; however, little is known about its effects on amygdalar biochemical and cytoarchitecture integrity...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080695/improvement-in-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-through-the-tlr4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-after-kudiezi-injection-in-rats
#6
Xuemei Liu, Xinyang Zhang, Fengli Wang, Xiao Liang, Zixiu Zeng, Jiayi Zhao, Hong Zheng, Xiangning Jiang, Yunling Zhang
AIM: Kudiezi injection (KDZ) can improve the clinical outcomes of patients with stroke, but the mechanisms remain unclear. This study aimed to investigate whether KDZ could modulate the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways in rat models of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to tMCAO and randomized to Sham (sham-operated), tMCAO (tMCAO+0.9% saline), and KDZ (tMCAO+7.2mL/kg KDZ) groups...
October 28, 2017: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043065/cns-cell-type-localization-and-lps-response-of-tlr-signaling-pathways
#7
Gizelle M McCarthy, Courtney R Bridges, Yuri A Blednov, R Adron Harris
Background: Innate immune signaling in the brain has emerged as a contributor to many central nervous system (CNS) pathologies, including mood disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, neurodevelopmental disorders, and addiction. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a key component of the innate immune response, are particularly implicated in neuroimmune dysfunction. However, most of our understanding about TLR signaling comes from the peripheral immune response, and it is becoming clear that the CNS immune response is unique...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030613/lipopolysaccharide-enters-the-rat-brain-by-a-lipoprotein-mediated-transport-mechanism-in-physiological-conditions
#8
Alejandra Vargas-Caraveo, Aline Sayd, Sandra R Maus, Javier R Caso, José L M Madrigal, Borja García-Bueno, Juan C Leza
Physiologically, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is present in the bloodstream and can be bound to several proteins for its transport (i.e.) LPS binding protein (LBP) and plasma lipoproteins). LPS receptors CD14 and TLR-4 are constitutively expressed in the Central Nervous System (CNS). To our knowledge, LPS infiltration in CNS has not been clearly demonstrated. A naturalistic experiment with healthy rats was performed to investigate whether LPS is present with its receptors in brain. Immunofluorescences showed that lipid A and core LPS were present in circumventricular organs, choroid plexus, meningeal cells, astrocytes, tanycytes and endothelial cells...
October 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958395/the-role-of-astrocytes-in-multiple-sclerosis-pathogenesis
#9
J J Guerrero-García
INTRODUCTION: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), in which astrocytes play an important role as CNS immune cells. However, the activity of astrocytes as antigen-presenting cells (APC) continues to be subject to debate. DEVELOPMENT: This review analyses the existing evidence on the participation of astrocytes in CNS inflammation in MS and on several mechanisms that modify astrocyte activity in the disease...
September 25, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901374/ferulic-acid-exerts-neuroprotective-effects-against-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-injury-via-antioxidant-and-anti-apoptotic-mechanisms-in%C3%A2-vitro-and-in%C3%A2-vivo
#10
Zhongkun Ren, Rongping Zhang, Yuanyuan Li, Yu Li, Zhiyong Yang, Hui Yang
Ferulic acid (FA) is a derivative of cinnamic acid. It is used in the treatment of heart head blood-vessel disease and exerts protective effects against hypoxia/ischemia-induced cell injury in the brain. This study investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of FA against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced brain injury in vivo and in vitro through hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Nissl staining assays, flow cytometry, Hoechst 33258 staining, quantitative PCR, western blot analysis and fluorescence microscopic analysis...
November 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840972/chronic-ethanol-consumption-role-of-tlr3-trif-dependent-signaling
#11
Gizelle M McCarthy, Anna S Warden, Courtney R Bridges, Yuri A Blednov, R Adron Harris
Chronic ethanol consumption stimulates neuroimmune signaling in the brain, and Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation plays a key role in ethanol-induced inflammation. However, it is unknown which of the TLR signaling pathways, the myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) dependent or the TIR-domain-containing adapter-inducing interferon-β (TRIF) dependent, is activated in response to chronic ethanol. We used voluntary (every-other-day) chronic ethanol consumption in adult C57BL/6J mice and measured expression of TLRs and their signaling molecules immediately following consumption and 24 hours after removing alcohol...
August 25, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711717/phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase-%C3%AE-contributes-to-toll-like-receptor-2-mediated-immune-responses-in-microglial-cells-stimulated-with-lipoteichoic-acid
#12
Tu Thi Ngoc Nguyen, Eunjeong Seo, Juyong Choi, Oanh Thi Tu Le, Ji Yun Kim, Ilo Jou, Sang Yoon Lee
Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) is an important lipid regulator of membrane signaling and remodeling processes. Accumulating evidence indicates a link between PIP2 metabolism and Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling, a key transducer of immune responses such as inflammation, phagocytosis, and autophagy. Microglia are immune effector cells that serve as macrophages in the brain. Here, we examined the potential role of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate 5-kinase α (PIP5Kα), a PIP2-producing enzyme, in TLR2 signaling in microglial cells...
July 13, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671693/transcriptomic-analysis-of-purified-human-cortical-microglia-reveals-age-associated-changes
#13
Thais F Galatro, Inge R Holtman, Antonio M Lerario, Ilia D Vainchtein, Nieske Brouwer, Paula R Sola, Mariana M Veras, Tulio F Pereira, Renata E P Leite, Thomas Möller, Paul D Wes, Mari C Sogayar, Jon D Laman, Wilfred den Dunnen, Carlos A Pasqualucci, Sueli M Oba-Shinjo, Erik W G M Boddeke, Suely K N Marie, Bart J L Eggen
Microglia are essential for CNS homeostasis and innate neuroimmune function, and play important roles in neurodegeneration and brain aging. Here we present gene expression profiles of purified microglia isolated at autopsy from the parietal cortex of 39 human subjects with intact cognition. Overall, genes expressed by human microglia were similar to those in mouse, including established microglial genes CX3CR1, P2RY12 and ITGAM (CD11B). However, a number of immune genes, not identified as part of the mouse microglial signature, were abundantly expressed in human microglia, including TLR, Fcγ and SIGLEC receptors, as well as TAL1 and IFI16, regulators of proliferation and cell cycle...
August 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620294/gestational-exposure-to-air-pollution-alters-cortical-volume-microglial-morphology-and-microglia-neuron-interactions-in-a-sex-specific-manner
#14
Jessica L Bolton, Steven Marinero, Tania Hassanzadeh, Divya Natesan, Dominic Le, Christine Belliveau, S N Mason, Richard L Auten, Staci D Bilbo
Microglia are the resident immune cells of the brain, important for normal neural development in addition to host defense in response to inflammatory stimuli. Air pollution is one of the most pervasive and harmful environmental toxicants in the modern world, and several large scale epidemiological studies have recently linked prenatal air pollution exposure with an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) are a primary toxic component of air pollution, and markedly activate microglia in vitro and in vivo in adult rodents...
2017: Frontiers in Synaptic Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612531/-plasma-free-mtdna-and-expression-of-tlr-9-mapk-in-brain-tissues-of-rats-with-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#15
Jin-Ping Liu, Yong Xia, Jin Li, Chao You
OBJECTIVES: To determine the plasma level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the expression of Toll like receptor-9/mitogen-activated protein kinase (TLR-9/MAPK) in the brain tissues of rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish SAH models with a modified method of endovascular perforation. Twenty four hours after the establishment of the models, the plasma level of mtDNA in the rats was detected by real-time PCR; the expressions of TLR-9 and P38 MAPK in the brain tissues were detected by reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining...
March 2017: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571545/potential-medications-or-compounds-acting-on-toll-like-receptors-in-cerebral-ischemia
#16
Man Li, Jing Liu, Ying Bi, Jixiang Chen, Lei Zhao
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been suggested to play an integral role in the process of inflammatory response after ischemic injury. Amongst all 9 TLRs present in the brain, functions of TLR2, TLR3, TLR4, TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 have been studied in recent years. The MyD88 pathway and TIR domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon pathway are involved in these pathophysiological changes. For its important role, the therapeutic potential of strategies acting on TLRs needs further evaluation. Feasible approaches may function in the following respects, such as methods acting on TLRs directly, modulations of MyD88 or TRIF signaling pathway, and the ischemic tolerance induced by the preconditioning or post conditioning with TLR ligands or minor cerebral ischemia...
June 1, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495370/an-optimized-method-for-enumerating-cns-derived-memory-b-cells-during-viral-induced-inflammation
#17
Krista D DiSano, Stephen A Stohlman, Cornelia C Bergmann
BACKGROUND: CNS inflammation resulting from infection, injury, or neurodegeneration leads to accumulation of diverse B cell subsets. Although antibody secreting cells (ASC) within the inflamed CNS have been extensively examined, memory B cell (Bmem) characterization has been limited as they do not secrete antibody without stimulation. Moreover, unlike human Bmem, reliable surface markers for murine Bmem remain elusive. NEW METHOD: Using a viral encephalomyelitis model we developed a modified limiting dilution in vitro stimulation assay to convert CNS-derived virus specific Bmem into ASC...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474563/opioids-and-the-blood-brain-barrier-a-dynamic-interaction-with-consequences-on-drug-disposition-in-brain
#18
Catarina Chaves, Fernando Remião, Salvatore Cisternino, Xavier Declèves
Opioids are widely used in pain management whose effects are due to binding to classical opioid receptors and/or Toll-like receptors (TLR) present at the central nervous system (CNS). At the blood-brain barrier (BBB), several influx and/or efflux transporters are expressed, such as the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) P-glycoprotein (P-gp, ABCB1), Breast Cancer Resistance Protein (BCRP, ABCG2) and multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRP, ABCC) transporters, and solute carrier transporters (SLC), and are responsible for the transport of many xenobiotics from the brain into the bloodstream or vice versa...
May 3, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446773/therapeutic-effects-of-anti-hmgb1-monoclonal-antibody-on-pilocarpine-induced-status-epilepticus-in-mice
#19
Li Fu, Keyue Liu, Hidenori Wake, Kiyoshi Teshigawara, Tadashi Yoshino, Hideo Takahashi, Shuji Mori, Masahiro Nishibori
Inflammatory processes in brain tissue have been described in human epilepsy of various etiologies and in experimental models of seizures. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) is now recognized as representative of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). In the present study, we focused on whether anti-HMGB1 antibody treatment could relieve status epilepticus- triggered BBB breakdown and inflammation response in addition to the seizure behavior itself. Pilocarpine and methyl-scopolamine were used to establish the acute seizure model...
April 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421541/systemic-inflammation-as-a-driver-of-brain-injury-the-astrocyte-as-an-emerging-player
#20
Bruna Bellaver, João Paulo Dos Santos, Douglas Teixeira Leffa, Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Paola Haack Amaral Roppa, Iraci Lucena da Silva Torres, Carlos-Alberto Gonçalves, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Severe systemic inflammation has strong effects on brain functions, promoting permanent neurocognitive dysfunction and high mortality rates. Additionally, hippocampal damage seems to be directly involved in this process and astrocytes play an important role in neuroinflammation and in the neuroimmune response. However, the contribution of the astrocytes to the pathology of acute brain dysfunction is not well understood. Recently, our group established a protocol for obtaining astrocyte cultures from mature brain to allow the characterization of these cells and their functions under pathologic conditions...
April 18, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
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