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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138242/role-of-ecmo-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#1
REVIEW
Merrill McHoney, Philip Hammond
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) is typified morphologically by failure of diaphragmatic development with accompanying lung hypoplasia and persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). Patients who have labile physiology and low preductal saturations despite optimal ventilatory and inotropic support may be considered for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). Systematic reviews into the benefits of ECMO in CDH concluded that any benefit is unclear. Few randomised trials exist to demonstrate clear benefit and guide management...
November 14, 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137397/dna-mismatch-repair-protein-mlh1-is-required-for-tetravalent-chromium-intermediate-induced-dna-damage
#2
Timothy P Wakeman, Aimin Yang, Naresh S Dalal, Rebecca J Boohaker, Qinghua Zeng, Qiang Ding, Bo Xu
Hexavalent chromium (Cr[VI]) is associated with occupational lung cancer and poses a significant public health concern. When exposed to Cr[VI], cells rapidly internalize this compound and metabolize it to Cr[III]. Byproducts of Cr[VI] metabolism include unstable Cr[V] and Cr[IV] intermediates that are believed to be directly responsible for the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity caused by Cr[VI] exposure; however, the carcinogenic potential of the Cr intermediates and the mechanisms of Cr-induced carcinogenesis remain to be further defined...
October 13, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137219/functional-characterization-of-lysine-specific-demethylase-2-lsd2-kdm1b-in-breast-cancer-progression
#3
Lin Chen, Shauna N Vasilatos, Ye Qin, Tiffany A Katz, Chunyu Cao, Hao Wu, Nilgun Tasdemir, Kevin M Levine, Steffi Oesterreich, Nancy E Davidson, Yi Huang
Flavin-dependent histone demethylases govern histone H3K4 methylation and act as important chromatin modulators that are extensively involved in regulation of DNA replication, gene transcription, DNA repair, and heterochromatin gene silencing. While the activities of lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1/KDM1A) in facilitating breast cancer progression have been well characterized, the roles of its homolog LSD2 (KDM1B) in breast oncogenesis are relatively less understood. In this study, we showed that LSD2 protein level was significantly elevated in malignant breast cell lines compared with normal breast epithelial cell line...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134637/ercc4-regulatory-variant-predict-grade-3-or-4-toxicities-in-patients-with-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-treated-by-platinum-based-therapy
#4
Ruoxin Zhang, Ming Jia, Yuan Xu, Danwen Qian, Mengyun Wang, Meiling Zhu, Menghong Sun, Jianhua Chang, Qingyi Wei
Platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) in combination with the 3(rd) generation drugs is the first-line treatment for patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC); however, the efficacy is severely hampered by grade 3-4 toxicities. Nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is the main mechanism of removing platinum-induced DNA adducts, contributing to the toxicity and outcome of PBC. We analyzed data from 710 Chinese NSCLC patients treated with PBC and assessed the associations of 25 potentially functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in eight NER core genes with overall, gastrointestinal and hematologic toxicities...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133960/divergent-roles-for-clusterin-in-lung-injury-and-repair
#5
David M Habiel, Ana Camelo, Milena Espindola, Timothy Burwell, Richard Hanna, Elena Miranda, Alan Carruthers, Matthew Bell, Ana Lucia Coelho, Hao Liu, Fernanda Pilataxi, Lori Clarke, Ethan Grant, Arthur Lewis, Bethany Moore, Darryl A Knight, Cory M Hogaboam, Lynne A Murray
Lung fibrosis is an unabated wound healing response characterized by the loss and aberrant function of lung epithelial cells. Herein, we report that extracellular Clusterin promoted epithelial cell apoptosis whereas intracellular Clusterin maintained epithelium viability during lung repair. Unlike normal and COPD lungs, IPF lungs were characterized by significantly increased extracellular Clusterin whereas the inverse was evident for intracellular Clusterin. In vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated that extracellular Clusterin promoted epithelial cell apoptosis while intercellular Clusterin modulated the expression of the DNA repair proteins, MSH2, MSH6, OGG1 and BRCA1...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122847/human-airway-trypsin-like-protease-exerts-potent-antifibrotic-action-in-pulmonary-fibrosis
#6
Awen Menou, Pauline Flajolet, JanWillem Duitman, Aurélien Justet, Sophie Moog, Madeleine Jaillet, Laure Tabèze, Brigitte Solhonne, Marc Garnier, Hervé Mal, Pierre Mordant, Yves Castier, Aurélie Cazes, Jean-Michel Sallenave, Arnaud A Mailleux, Bruno Crestani
Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is characterized by the deposition of excessive extracellular matrix and the destruction of lung parenchyma, resulting from an aberrant wound-healing response. Although IPF is often associated with an imbalance in protease activity, the mechanisms underlying the sustained repair mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we addressed the role of the recently identified, membrane-anchored serine protease human airway trypsin-like protease (HAT). In the present study, we show that both HAT expression and activity were up-regulated in human IPF specimens...
November 9, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121081/intraoperative-ventilatory-leak-predicts-prolonged-air-leak-after-lung-resection-a-retrospective-observational-study
#7
Won Ho Kim, Hyung-Chul Lee, Ho-Geol Ryu, Hyun-Kyu Yoon, Chul-Woo Jung
Prolonged air leak (PAL), defined as air leak more than 5 days after lung resection, has been associated with various adverse outcomes. However, studies on intraoperative risk factors for PAL are not sufficient. We investigated whether the intraoperative ventilatory leak (VL) can predict PAL. A retrospective study of 1060 patients with chest tubes after lung resection was conducted. Tidal volume data were retrieved from the electronic anesthesia records. Ventilatory leak (%) was calculated as [(inspiratory tidal volume-expiratory tidal volume)/ inspiratory tidal volume × 100] and was measured after restart of two-lung ventilation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120224/is-there-a-role-for-programmed-death-ligand-1-testing-and-immunotherapy-in-colorectal-cancer-with-microsatellite-instability-part-ii-the-challenge-of-programmed-death-ligand-1-testing-and-its-role-in-microsatellite-instability-high-colorectal-cancer
#8
Esmeralda Celia Marginean, Barbara Melosky
CONTEXT: - The world of oncology has changed dramatically in the past few years with the introduction of checkpoint inhibitors and immunotherapy. The promising findings of a small, phase 2 clinical trial that led to the US Food and Drug Administration breakthrough designation and approval of the anti-programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1) drug pembrolizumab (Keytruda, Merck, Kenilworth, New Jersey) to treat metastatic/refractory microsatellite instability-high colorectal cancer (CRC) has significantly boosted interest in immunomodulatory therapies in microsatellite instability-high CRC...
November 9, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118324/suppression-of-the-fa-pathway-combined-with-chk1-inhibitor-hypersensitize-lung-cancer-cells-to-gemcitabine
#9
Chun-Hua Dai, Yi Wang, Ping Chen, Qian Jiang, Ting Lan, Mei-Yu Li, Jin-Yu Su, Yan Wu, Jian Li
The combination of platinum and gemcitabine is one of the standard regimens in the treatment of advanced lung squamous carcinoma (LSC). Resistance to gemcitabine is main barrier to the successful treatment of LSC. In this study, we showed that suppression of the Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway increased the sensitivity of two LSC cell lines SK-MES-1 and KLN205 to gemcitabine. Moreover, we found that the CHK1 pathway and the FA pathway are functionally compensatory in the repair of DNA damage in the LSC cell lines...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118161/dietary-nutrient-intake-ethnicity-and-epigenetic-silencing-of-lung-cancer-genes-detected-in-sputum-in-new-mexican-smokers
#10
Shuguang Leng, Maria A Picchi, Huining Kang, Guodong Wu, Piotr T Filipczak, Daniel E Juri, Xiequn Zhang, W James Gauderman, Frank D Gilliland, Steven A Belinsky
Lung cancer (LC) gene methylation detected in sputum assesses field cancerization and predicts LC incidence. Hispanic smokers have higher LC susceptibility compared to non-Hispanic Whites (NHW). We aimed to identify novel dietary nutrients affecting LC gene methylation and determine the degree of ethnic disparity in methylation explained by diet. Dietary intakes of 139 nutrients were assessed using a validated Harvard food frequency questionnaire in 327 Hispanics and 1502 NHWs from the Lovelace Smokers cohort (LSC)...
November 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111769/xpc-deficiency-alters-cigarette-smoke-dna-damage-cell-fate-and-accelerates-emphysema-development
#11
Catherine R Sears, Huaxin Zhou, Matthew J Justice, Amanda J Fisher, Jacob Saliba, Isaac Lamb, Jessica Wicker, Kelly S Schweitzer, Irina Petrache
Cigarette smoke (CS) exposure is a major risk factor for the development of emphysema, a common disease characterized by loss of cells comprising the lung parenchyma. The mechanisms of cell injury leading to emphysema are not completely understood but are thought to involve persistent cytotoxic or mutagenic DNA damage induced by CS. Using complementary cell culture and mouse models of CS exposure, we investigated the role of the DNA repair protein xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XPC) on CS-induced DNA damage repair and emphysema...
November 7, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111365/autologous-fat-tissue-grafting-improves-pulmonary-healing-after-laser-metastasectomy
#12
Simone Furia, Pierfrancesco Cadenelli, Francesca Andriani, Paolo Scanagatta, Leonardo Duranti, Andrea Spano, Carlotta Galeone, Luca Porcu, Ugo Pastorino
BACKGROUND: Extensive clinical experience has demonstrated the potential usefulness of autologous fat tissue (AFT) graft in tissue reconstruction, repair or regeneration. In the present study, we evaluated the feasibility and safety of AFT in the repair of surgically injured lung surface. METHODS: Eighty consecutive procedures of pulmonary metastasectomy by laser precision resection, were performed in 66 patients between March 2010 and December 2012. In the first 20 procedures, AFT graft was applied on the wounded pulmonary surface without closure of parenchymal surface...
October 16, 2017: European Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109913/comparative-analysis-of-the-microrna-transcriptome-between-yak-and-cattle-provides-insight-into-high-altitude-adaptation
#13
Jiuqiang Guan, Keren Long, Jideng Ma, Jinwei Zhang, Dafang He, Long Jin, Qianzi Tang, Anan Jiang, Xun Wang, Yaodong Hu, Shilin Tian, Zhi Jiang, Mingzhou Li, Xiaolin Luo
Extensive and in-depth investigations of high-altitude adaptation have been carried out at the level of morphology, anatomy, physiology and genomics, but few investigations focused on the roles of microRNA (miRNA) in high-altitude adaptation. We examined the differences in the miRNA transcriptomes of two representative hypoxia-sensitive tissues (heart and lung) between yak and cattle, two closely related species that live in high and low altitudes, respectively. In this study, we identified a total of 808 mature miRNAs, which corresponded to 715 pre-miRNAs in the two species...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109057/broncho-pleural-fistula-after-pneumonectomy-risk-factors-and-management-focusing-on-open-window-thoracostomy
#14
Antonio Mazzella, Alessandro Pardolesi, Patrick Maisonneuve, Francesco Petrella, Domenico Galetta, Roberto Gasparri, Lorenzo Spaggiari
OBJECTIVE: We evaluated principal risk factors and different therapeutic approaches for post-pneumonectomy broncho-pleural fistula (BPF), focusing on open window thoracostomy (OWT). METHODS: We have retrospectively reviewed all patients treated by pneumonectomy for lung cancer from 1999 to 2014; we evaluated preoperative, operative and postoperative data, time between operation and fistula formation, size, treatment and predicting factors of BPF. Cumulative incidence curves for the development of BPF were drawn according to the Kaplan-Meier Method...
November 3, 2017: Seminars in Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107893/lung-regeneration-after-toxic-injury-is-improved-in-absence-of-dioxin-receptor
#15
Antonio Morales-Hernández, Ana Nacarino-Palma, Nuria Moreno-Marín, Eva Barrasa, Beroé Paniagua-Quiñones, Inmaculada Catalina-Fernández, Alberto Alvarez-Barrientos, Xosé R Bustelo, Jaime M Merino, Pedro M Fernández-Salguero
Recent experimental evidences from cellular systems and from mammalian and non-mammalian animal models highlight novel functions for the aryl hydrocarbon/dioxin receptor (AhR) in maintaining cell differentiation and tissue homeostasis. Notably, AhR depletion stimulates an undifferentiated and pluripotent phenotype likely associated to a mesenchymal transition in epithelial cells and to increased primary tumorigenesis and metastasis in melanoma. In this work, we have used a lung model of epithelial regeneration to investigate whether AhR regulates proper tissue repair by adjusting the expansion of undifferentiated stem-like cells...
October 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107335/analysis-of-chromatin-opening-in-heterochromatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-tumor-initiating-cells-in-relation-to-dna-damaging-antitumor-treatment
#16
Mina Eriksson, Petra Hååg, Beata Brzozowska, Magdalena Lipka, Halina Lisowska, Rolf Lewensohn, Andrzej Wojcik, Kristina Viktorsson, Lovisa Lundholm
PURPOSE: We previously reported that sphere-forming non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tumor-initiating cells (TICs) have an altered activation of DNA damage response- and repair proteins and are refractory to DNA-damaging treatments. We analyzed whether chromatin organization plays a role in the observed refractoriness. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Bulk cells and TICs from the NSCLC H23 and H1299 cell lines were examined using cell viability, clonogenic survival, Western blot, short interfering RNA analysis, and micronucleus assay...
September 22, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101533/efficacy-of-a-sheet-combined-with-fibrin-glue-in-repair-of-pleural-defect-at-the-early-phase-after-lung-surgery-in-a-canine-model
#17
Takashi Sakai, Noriyuki Matsutani, Eiichi Kanai, Yoshikane Yamauchi, Hirofumi Uehara, Hisae Iinuma, Masafumi Kawamura
OBJECTIVE: Polyglycolic acid and oxidized regenerated cellulose have been widely used as a sealant for repairing pulmonary air leakage during respiratory surgery. However, fundamental research of these materials has not been sufficiently conducted. Therefore, we conducted studies to assess the pressure resistance ability of these materials using a canine visceral pleural defect model at the early phase. METHOD: The 6-mm circular defect and the 12-mm square defect were created on the visceral pleura of anesthetized beagles...
November 3, 2017: General Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100430/novel-naprt-specific-antibody-identifies-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-neuronal-cancers-as-promising-clinical-indications-for-a-nampt-inhibitor-niacin-co-administration-strategy
#18
Jonathan Cole, Marie-Christine Guiot, Michel Gravel, Cynthia Bernier, Gordon C Shore, Anne Roulston
Tumor cells are particularly dependent on NAD(+) due to higher rates of metabolism, DNA synthesis and repair. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibitors (NAMPTis) inhibit NAD(+) biosynthesis and represent promising new anti-cancer agents. However, clinical efficacy has been limited by toxicities demonstrating the need for drug combinations to broaden the therapeutic index. One potential combination involves niacin/NAMPTi co-administration. Niacin can rescue NAD(+) biosynthesis through a parallel pathway that depends on nicotinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (NAPRT) expression...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097844/ataxia-telangiectasia-and-rad3-related-atr-promyelocytic-leukemia-protein-pml-pathway-of-the-dna-damage-response-in-the-brain-of-rats-administered-arsenic-trioxide
#19
Ryo Watanabe, Kana Unuma, Kanako Noritake, Takeshi Funakoshi, Toshihiko Aki, Koichi Uemura
To examine the in vivo responses of promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) to arsenic, rats (male, 6 weeks old, Sprague Dawley) were administered a single intraperitoneal dose of 5 mg/kg arsenic trioxide (ATO). The protein was examined in the heart, lung, liver, and brain 6 and 48 hours after administration: a significant response of PML was observed in the brain. Oxidative DNA modification was also observed in the brain as revealed by increased immunoreactivity to anti-8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) antibody...
October 2017: Journal of Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097425/docosahexaenoic-acid-enhances-amphiregulin-mediated-bronchial-epithelial-cell-repair-processes-following-organic-dust-exposure
#20
Tara M Nordgren, Art J Heires, Kristina L Bailey, Dawn M Katafiasz, Myron L Toews, Christopher S Wichman, Debra J Romberger
Injurious dust exposures in the agricultural workplace involve the release of inflammatory mediators and activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in the respiratory epithelium. Amphiregulin, an EGFR ligand, mediates tissue repair and wound healing in the lung epithelium. Omega-3 fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are also known modulators of repair and resolution of inflammatory injury. This study investigated how AREG, DHA and EGFR modulate lung repair processes following dust-induced injury...
November 2, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
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