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Lung Repair

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648052/anti-cancer-therapeutic-alginate-based-tissue-sealants-for-lung-repair
#1
Spencer Lincoln Fenn, Patrick N Charron, Rachael Ann Oldinski
Injury to the connective tissue that lines the lung, the pleura, or to the lung itself can occur from many causes including trauma or surgery, as well as lung diseases or cancers. To address current limitations for patching lung injuries, to stop air or fluid leaks, an adherent hydrogel sealant patch system was developed, based on methacrylated alginate (AMA) and AMA di-aldehyde (AMA-DA) blends, which is capable of sealing damaged tissues and sustaining physiological pressures. Methacrylation of alginate hydroxyl groups rendered the polysaccharide capable of photo-crosslinking when mixed with an eosin Y-based photo-initiator system, and exposed to visible green light...
June 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646685/a-highly-adhesive-and-naturally-derived-sealant
#2
Alexander Assmann, Andrea Vegh, Mohammad Ghasemi-Rad, Sara Bagherifard, George Cheng, Ehsan Shirzaei Sani, Guillermo U Ruiz-Esparza, Iman Noshadi, Antonio D Lassaletta, Sidhu Gangadharan, Ali Tamayol, Ali Khademhosseini, Nasim Annabi
Conventional surgical techniques to seal and repair defects in highly stressed elastic tissues are insufficient. Therefore, this study aimed to engineer an inexpensive, highly adhesive, biocompatible, and biodegradable sealant based on a modified and naturally derived biopolymer, gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA). We tuned the degree of gelatin modification, prepolymer concentration, photoinitiator concentration, and crosslinking conditions to optimize the physical properties and adhesion of the photocrosslinked GelMA sealants...
June 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646553/epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-emt-a-spectrum-of-states-role-in-lung-development-homeostasis-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Mohit Kumar Jolly, Chris Ward, Mathew Suji Eapen, Stephen Myers, Oskar Hallgren, Herbert Levine, Sukhwinder Singh Sohal
Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) plays key roles during lung development and many lung diseases such as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), lung cancer and pulmonary fibrosis. Here, integrating morphological observations with underlying molecular mechanisms, we highlight the functional role of EMT in lung development and injury repair, and discuss how it can contribute to pathogenesis of chronic lung disease. We discuss the evidence of manifestation of EMT and its potential driving role in COPD, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS), and lung cancer, while noting that all cells need not display a full EMT in any of these contexts, i...
June 24, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646530/pirfenidone-reduces-subchondral-bone-loss-and-fibrosis-after-murine-knee-cartilage-injury
#4
Deva D Chan, Jun Li, Wei Luo, Dan N Predescu, Brian J Cole, Anna Plaas
Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug that has shown efficacy in lung and kidney fibrosis. Because inflammation and fibrosis have been linked to the progression of osteoarthritis, we investigated the effects of oral Pirfenidone in a mouse model of cartilage injury, which results in chronic inflammation and joint-wide fibrosis in mice that lack hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1(-/-) ) in comparison to wild-type. Femoral cartilage was surgically injured in wild-type and Has1(-/-) mice, and Pirfenidone was administered in food starting after 3 days...
June 23, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642860/ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated-atm-polymorphisms-and-risk-of-lung-cancer-in-a-chinese-population
#5
Ajay A Myneni, Shen-Chih Chang, Rungui Niu, Li Liu, Baoxing Zhao, Jianping Shi, Xiaoyou Han, Jiawei Li, Jia Su, Shunzhang Yu, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Lina Mu
BACKGROUND: The ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) gene has a key role in DNA repair including activation and stabilization of p53, which implicates the importance of ATM polymorphisms in the development of cancer. This study aims to investigate the association of two ATM single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with lung cancer, as well as their potential interaction with p53 gene and other known risk factors of lung cancer. METHODS: A population-based case-control study was conducted in Taiyuan city, China with 399 cases and 466 controls matched on the distribution of age and sex of cases...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641756/regenerative-medicine-solutions-in-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#6
Paolo De Coppi, Jan Deprest
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) remains a major challenge and associated mortality is still significant. Patients have benefited from current therapeutic options, but most severe cases are still associated to poor outcome. Regenerative medicine is emerging as a valid option in many diseases and clinical trials are currently happening for various conditions in children and adults. We report here the advancement in the field which will help both in the understanding of further CDH development and in offering new treatment options for the difficult situations such as repair of large diaphragmatic defects and lung hypoplasia...
June 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638454/downregulation-of-mitochondrial-single-stranded-dna-binding-protein-ssbp1-induces-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-increases-the-radiosensitivity-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#7
You Wang, Liu Hu, Ximei Zhang, Hong Zhao, Hui Xu, Yuehua Wei, Huangang Jiang, Conghua Xie, Yunfeng Zhou, Fuxiang Zhou
Radiotherapy is one of the major therapeutic strategies for human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but intrinsic radioresistance of cancer cells makes a further improvement of radiotherapy for NSCLC challenging. Mitochondrial function is frequently dysregulated in cancer cells for adaptation to the changes of tumor microenvironment after exposure to radiation. Therefore, targeting mitochondrial biogenesis and bioenergetics is an attractive strategy to sensitize cancer cells to radiation therapy. In this study, we found that downregulation of single-strand DNA-binding protein 1 (SSBP1) in H1299 cells was associated with inducing mitochondrial dysfunction and increasing radiosensitivity to ionizing radiation...
2017: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637674/oxidative-stress-destabilizes-protein-arginine-methyltransferase-4-via-glycogen-synthase-kinase-3%C3%AE-to-impede-lung-epithelial-cell-migration
#8
Xiuying Li, Yandong Lai, Jin Li, Mingyi Zou, Chunbin Zou
Oxidative stress impacts normal cellular function leading to the pathogenesis of various diseases including pulmonary illnesses. Protein arginine methyltransferase 4 (PRMT4) is critical for normal lung alveolar epithelial cell development; however, the regulation of PRMT4 within such pulmonary diseases has yet to be elucidated. Using biochemical approaches, we uncovered that peroxide (H2O2) treatment decreases PRMT4 protein stability in murine lung epithelial (MLE12) cells to impede cell migration. Protein kinase glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK-3β) interacts with PRMT4 and catalyzes PRMT4 T132 phosphorylation that protects PRMT4 from ubiquitin proteasomal degradation...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636254/pirfenidone-reduces-subchondral-bone-loss-and-fibrosis-after-murine-knee-cartilage-injury
#9
Deva D Chan, Jun Li, Wei Luo, Dan N Predescu, Brian J Cole, Anna Plaas
Pirfenidone is an anti-inflammatory and anti-fibrotic drug that has shown efficacy in lung and kidney fibrosis. Because inflammation and fibrosis have been linked to the progression of osteoarthritis, we investigated the effects of oral Pirfenidone in a mouse model of cartilage injury, which results in chronic inflammation and joint-wide fibrosis in mice that lack hyaluronan synthase 1 (Has1(-/-) ) in comparison to wild-type. Femoral cartilage was surgically injured in wild-type and Has1(-/-) mice, and Pirfenidone was administered in food starting after 3 days...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635172/doxorubicin-kinetics-and-effects-on-lung-cancer-cell-lines-using-in-vitro-raman-micro-spectroscopy-binding-signatures-drug-resistance-and-dna-repair
#10
Zeineb Farhane, Franck Bonnier, Orla Howe, Alan Casey, Hugh J Byrne
Raman micro-spectroscopy is a non-invasive analytical tool, whose potential in cellular analysis and monitoring drug mechanisms of action has already been demonstrated, and which can potentially be used in pre-clinical and clinical applications for the prediction of chemotherapeutic efficacy. To further investigate such potential clinical application, it is important to demonstrate its capability to differentiate drug mechanisms of action and cellular resistances. Using the example of Doxorubicin (DOX), in this study, it was used to probe the cellular uptake, signatures of chemical binding and subsequent cellular responses, of the chemotherapeutic drug in two lung cancer cell lines, A549 and Calu-1...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629590/bulky-dna-adducts-tobacco-smoking-genetic-susceptibility-and-lung-cancer-risk
#11
Armelle Munnia, Roger W Giese, Simone Polvani, Andrea Galli, Filippo Cellai, Marco E M Peluso
The generation of bulky DNA adducts consists of conjugates formed between large reactive electrophiles and DNA-binding sites. The term "bulky DNA adducts" comes from early experiments that employed a (32)P-DNA postlabeling approach. This technique has long been used to elucidate the association between adducts and carcinogen exposure in tobacco smoke studies and assess the predictive value of adducts in cancer risk. Molecular data showed increased DNA adducts in respiratory tracts of smokers vs nonsmokers. Experimental studies and meta-analysis demonstrated that the relationship between adducts and carcinogens was linear at low doses, but reached steady state at high exposure, possibly due to metabolic and DNA repair pathway saturation and increased apoptosis...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629122/age-related-changes-in-immunological-and-physiological-responses-following-pulmonary-challenge
#12
REVIEW
Edmund J Miller, Helena M Linge
This review examines the current status of knowledge of sepsis and pneumonia in the elderly population and how the dynamics of the pulmonary challenge affects outcome and consequences. Led by an unprecedented shift in demographics, where a larger proportion of the population will reach an older age, clinical and experimental research shows that aging is associated with certain pulmonary changes, but it is during infectious insult of the lungs, as in the case of pneumonia, that the age-related differences in responsiveness and endurance become obvious and lead to a worse outcome than in the younger population...
June 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624813/down-regulation-of-human-positive-coactivator-4-suppress-tumorigenesis-and-lung-metastasis-of-osteosarcoma
#13
Xu Hu, Chao Zhang, Ying Zhang, Christopher S Hong, Wugui Chen, Weiwei Shen, Hongkai Wang, Jianrong He, Pei Chen, Yue Zhou, Chunmeng Shi, Tongwei Chu
Osteosarcoma is a kind of primary malignant bone tumor with the highest incidence and an extraordinarily poor prognosis and early pulmonary metastasis formation as a frequent occurrence. Transcriptional positive coactivator 4 (PC4) has multiple functions in DNA replication, transcription, repair and chromatin organization, even in tumorigenesis. However, the precise function of PC4 in osteosarcoma is still unclear and controversial. In this paper we found PC4 was upregulated in patient-derived osteosarcoma tissues compared to normal...
May 30, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622179/paucicellular-fibrointimal-proliferation-characterizes-pediatric-pulmonary-vein-stenosis-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-213-samples-from-97-patients
#14
Alexandra E Kovach, Philip M Magcalas, Christina Ireland, Kerry McEnany, Andre M Oliveira, Mark W Kieran, Christopher W Baird, Kathy Jenkins, Sara O Vargas
Pulmonary vein stenosis (PVS) is a luminal narrowing of extrapulmonary pulmonary veins. In pediatric patients, it arises following repair of congenital heart disease, particularly anomalous pulmonary venous return; in lung disease, especially prematurity; and rarely in isolation. The etiology is unknown and the course often fatal without lung transplantation. We hypothesized that systematic clinicopathologic review of pediatric PVS could provide further pathogenic insight. We included patients who underwent first resection of pulmonary venous tissue for symptomatic PVS at our pediatric referral center from 1995 to 2014...
June 15, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621617/intrathoracic-meningocele-associated-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1-and-a-novel-technique-for-surgical-repair-case-report
#15
Paramita Das, Tarini Goyal, Matthew A Hunt
Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) is a neurocutaneous disorder that can have associated spinal abnormalities related to both bone and dural dysplasia. Thoracic meningoceles are one spine anomaly associated with NF1, although they are a fairly uncommon pathology. Surgical techniques to treat these meningoceles, usually undertaken only when the patient is symptomatic, are targeted at decreasing the size of the protrusion and improving lung capacity. Surgical interventions discussed in the literature include shunting the pseudomeningocele, primary repair with laminectomy, thoracoscopic plication, and reinforcement of the closure with cement, muscle, or fascia...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621167/interview-with-darrell-kotton
#16
Darrell Kotton
Dr Kotton is the David Seldin Professor of Medicine and the founding Director of the Center for Regenerative Medicine of Boston University and Boston Medical Center. He conducts basic stem cell research as an NIH-funded Principle Investigator in the Kotton Laboratory (focused on stem cell biology and gene therapy related to lung injury and repair). In addition, he attends in the Medical Intensive Care Unit, the Pulmonary Consultation Service, the Alpha-1 Center and the Pulmonary Outpatient Clinic, all at Boston Medical Center...
June 16, 2017: Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620747/amniotic-fluid-cells-current-progress-and-emerging-challenges-in-renal-regeneration
#17
REVIEW
Stefano Da Sacco, Laura Perin, Sargis Sedrakyan
Amniotic fluid (AF) contains a heterogeneous population of cells that have been identified to possess pluripotent and progenitor-like characteristics. These cells have been applied in various regenerative medicine applications ranging from in vitro cell differentiation to tissue engineering to cellular therapies for different organs including the heart, the liver, the lung, and the kidneys. In this review, we examine the different methodologies used for the derivation of amniotic fluid stem cells and renal progenitors, and their application in renal repair and regeneration...
June 15, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620597/feeding-problems-and-their-underlying-mechanisms-in-the-esophageal-atresia-tracheoesophageal-fistula-patient
#18
REVIEW
Lisa Mahoney, Rachel Rosen
Feeding difficulties such as dysphagia, coughing, choking, or vomiting during meals, slow eating, oral aversion, food refusal, and stressful mealtimes are common in children with repaired esophageal atresia (EA) and the reasons for this are often multifactorial. The aim of this review is to describe the possible underlying mechanisms contributing to feeding difficulties in patients with EA and approaches to management. Underlying mechanisms for these feeding difficulties include esophageal dysphagia, oropharyngeal dysphagia and aspiration, and aversions related to prolonged gastrostomy tube feeding...
2017: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619646/time-dependent-effects-of-hjp272-an-endothelin-receptor-antagonist-in-bleomycin-induced-pulmonary-fibrosis
#19
Xingjian Liu, Nikhil Khadtare, Hardek Patel, Ralph Stephani, Jerome Cantor
Using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model of acute lung injury, we have previously shown that endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent mediator of vasoconstriction, may act as a "gatekeeper" for the influx of inflammatory cells into the lung. To further investigate the potential of ET-1 to limit the progression of lung injury, hamsters were treated with an endothelin receptor antagonist (ERA), HJP272, either 1 h prior to intratracheal instillation of bleomycin (BLM) or 24 h afterwards. Lung injury and repair were examined by measuring the following parameters: 1) histopathological changes; 2) neutrophil content in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF); 3) lung collagen content; 4) tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) expression by BALF macrophages; 5) BALF levels of: a) transforming growth factor beta-1 (TGF-β1), b) stromal cell-derived factor 1 (commonly referred to as CXCL12), and c) platelet-derived growth factor BB (PDGF-BB); 6) alveolar septal cell apoptosis (as measured by the TUNEL assay)...
June 12, 2017: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618253/hypoxia-inducible-factor-1%C3%AE-signaling-promotes-repair-of-the-alveolar-epithelium-after-acute-lung-injury
#20
Jazalle McClendon, Nicole L Jansing, Elizabeth F Redente, Aneta Gandjeva, Yoko Ito, Sean P Colgan, Aftab Ahmad, David W H Riches, Harold A Chapman, Robert J Mason, Rubin M Tuder, Rachel L Zemans
During acute respiratory distress syndrome, epithelial cells, primarily alveolar type (AT) I cells, die and slough off the basement membrane, resulting in enhanced permeability. ATII cells proliferate and spread onto the denuded basement membrane to reseal the barrier. Repair of the alveolar epithelium is critical for clinical recovery; however, the mechanisms underlying ATII cell proliferation and spreading are not well understood. We hypothesized that hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)1α promotes proliferation and spreading of ATII cells during repair after lung injury...
June 12, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
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