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Lung Repair

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780730/robotic-left-lower-sleeve-lobectomy-with-bronchoplasty-for-the-removal-of-a-carcinoid-tumour
#1
Gerald J S Tan, Jun Shang Poon, Paul L Z Khoo, Andrel W H Yoong, Marco Nardini, Joel Dunning
Lung carcinoid tumours constitute approximately 1-2% of all pulmonary tumours. They are derived from enterochromaffin cells, which are also known as 'Kulchitsky cells' and generally have indolent growth and development patterns. Carcinoid tumours are categorized as typical or atypical, depending on the number of mitoses per high power field and the presence of necrosis. In terms of management, surgical resection has been recognized to be the standard treatment for pulmonary carcinoid tumours. To our knowledge, the da Vinci system and robotic surgery have not been applied in sleeve lobectomies and bronchoplasty for the removal of carcinoid tumours in the United Kingdom...
2018: Journal of Visualized Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774196/common-carotid-artery-dissection-in-multiple-extracranial-injury-a-case-report
#2
Jin Sang Kil, Mi Kyung Lee, Ki Seong Eom
Traumatic common carotid artery dissection (CCAD) is rare. To our knowledge, only 14 case reports have described traumatic CCAD previously. Here, we report a case of CCAD in a patient with severe trauma. A 50-year-old man was lying on the road after drinking alcohol when a car drove over him. Computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple rib fractures with hemopneumothorax, lung contusion, flail chest, large amount of hematoma with bladder rupture, and fractures on the C6 spinous process, sacral ala, iliac bone, and pubic ramus...
April 2018: Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771724/early-impact-of-medicare-accountable-care-organizations-on-inpatient-surgical-spending
#3
Hari Nathan, Jyothi R Thumma, Andrew M Ryan, Justin B Dimick
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether hospital participation in accountable care organizations (ACOs) is associated with reduced Medicare spending for inpatient surgery. BACKGROUND: ACOs have proliferated rapidly and now cover more than 32 million Americans. Medicare Shared Savings Program (MSSP) ACOs have shown modest success in reducing medical spending. Whether they have reduced surgical spending remains unknown. METHODS: We used 100% Medicare claims from 2010 to 2014 for patients aged 65 to 99 years undergoing 6 common elective surgical procedures [abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, colectomy, coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), hip or knee replacement, or lung resection]...
May 16, 2018: Annals of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770473/icotinib-enhances-lung-cancer-cell-radiosensitivity-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-by-inhibiting-mapk-erk-and-akt-activation
#4
Yonghong Fu, Sen Zhang, Dongjie Wang, Jing Wang
Icotinib hydrochloride is a small epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that was developed by Chinese scientists. While clinical trials have revealed its efficacy in the treatment of lung cancer, very little is known about its role in enhancing radiosensitivity. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of Icotinib in enhancing lung cancer cell radiosensitivity and have detailed its underlying molecular mechanism. The lung cancer cell line H1650 was pretreated with or without Icotinib for 24 hours before radiation, and clonogenic survival assay was performed...
May 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769669/diverse-mechanisms-for-endogenous-regeneration-and-repair-in-mammalian-organs
#5
REVIEW
James M Wells, Fiona M Watt
Mammalian organs comprise an extraordinary diversity of cell and tissue types. Regenerative organs, such as the skin and gastrointestinal tract, use resident stem cells to maintain tissue function. Organs with a lower cellular turnover, such as the liver and lungs, mostly rely on proliferation of committed progenitor cells. In many organs, injury reveals the plasticity of both resident stem cells and differentiated cells. The ability of resident cells to maintain and repair organs diminishes with age, whereas, paradoxically, the risk of cancer increases...
May 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768183/ndrg1-disruption-alleviates-cisplatin-sodium-glycididazole-induced-dna-damage-response-and-apoptosis-in-ercc1-defective-lung-cancer-cells
#6
Lang He, Kang Liu, Xiaoshan Wang, Hong Chen, Jin Zhou, Xun Wu, Tao Liu, Yongxue Yang, Xuemei Yang, Dandan Cui, Guiqin Song, Jianguo Lei, Jun Wang
BACKGROUND: Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy becomes a major obstacle in lung cancer treatment. Compensatory activation of nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway is the major mechanism accounting for cisplatin-resistance. We aimed at identifying additional regulators in NER-mediated chemoresistance in a hypoxic setting induced by sodium glycididazole (CMNa)-sensitized cisplatin chemotherapy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: We performed an RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis to identify the genes whose expression had been differentially regulated in NER-deficient cells that had been treated by cisplatin/CMNa...
May 13, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767749/association-of-brca2-k3326-with-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-squamous-cell-cancer-of-the-skin
#7
Thorunn Rafnar, Gudbjorg R Sigurjonsdottir, Simon N Stacey, Gisli Halldorsson, Patrick Sulem, Luba M Pardo, Hannes Helgason, Stefan T Sigurdsson, Thorkell Gudjonsson, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Gudridur H Olafsdottir, Jon G Jonasson, Kristin Alexiusdottir, Asgeir Sigurdsson, Julius Gudmundsson, Jona Saemundsdottir, Jon K Sigurdsson, Hrefna Johannsdottir, Andre Uitterlinden, Sita H Vermeulen, Tessel E Galesloot, Dawn C Allain, Martin Lacko, Bardur Sigurgeirsson, Kristin Thorisdottir, Oskar T Johannsson, Fridbjorn Sigurdsson, Gunnar B Ragnarsson, Helgi Isaksson, Hronn Hardardottir, Tomas Gudbjartsson, Daniel F Gudbjartsson, Gisli Masson, Lambertus A M L Kiemeney, Amanda Ewart Toland, Tamar Nijsten, Wilbert H M Peters, Jon H Olafsson, Steinn Jonsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Kari Stefansson
Background: Most pathogenic mutations in the BRCA2 gene carry a high risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC). However, a stop-gain mutation, K3326* (rs11571833), confers risk of lung cancer and cancers of the upper-aero-digestive tract but only a modest risk of breast or ovarian cancer. The Icelandic population provides an opportunity for comprehensive characterization of the cancer risk profiles of K3326* and HBOC mutations because a single mutation, BRCA2 999del5, is responsible for almost all BRCA2-related HBOC in the population...
May 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755072/-primary-pulmonary-vein-stenosis-developed-after-bidirectional-glenn-procedure-report-of-two-cases
#8
Masatsugu Terada, Yukihiro Yoshimura, Yusuke Yamamoto, Akinori Hirano, Koichi Miyata, Naoya Fukushima, Hirotaka Oki, Masaru Miura
We experienced 2 cases of primary pulmonary vein stenosis(PVS),which developed after a bidirectional Glenn procedure was performed for complex heart defects with normal pulmonary venous return. Although the patients successfully underwent primary sutureless repair for left PVS, restenosis of the affected pulmonary veins occurred several months after surgery in both patients. Stent implantation followed by balloon angioplasty was performed for stent stenosis in 1 patient without effect. However, the patient later underwent a successful fenestrated Fontan procedure...
March 2018: Kyobu Geka. the Japanese Journal of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752549/promising-new-agents-for-colorectal-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Satya Das, Kristen K Ciombor, Sigurdis Haraldsdottir, Richard M Goldberg
Choosing the optimal treatment approach for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) demands that oncologists assess both clinical and genomic variables and individualize care based upon the findings. Clinically, choices depend on assessing the side of the colon in which the primary tumor originates, the sites and burden of metastatic disease, the patient's performance status, and their individual comorbidities. Genomic assessment of the tumor to discern the mutational status of genes such as RAS/RAF, HER2, and TRK, as well as assessing whether tumors have defective mismatch repair (dMMR) or high microsatellite instability (MSI-H), all factor in to potential treatment options and can determine clinical trial eligibility...
May 11, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751558/connexin-communication-compartments-and-wound-repair-in-epithelial-tissue
#10
REVIEW
Marc Chanson, Masakatsu Watanabe, Erin M O'Shaughnessy, Alice Zoso, Patricia E Martin
Epithelial tissues line the lumen of tracts and ducts connecting to the external environment. They are critical in forming an interface between the internal and external environment and, following assault from environmental factors and pathogens, they must rapidly repair to maintain cellular homeostasis. These tissue networks, that range from a single cell layer, such as in airway epithelium, to highly stratified and differentiated epithelial surfaces, such as the epidermis, are held together by a junctional nexus of proteins including adherens, tight and gap junctions, often forming unique and localised communication compartments activated for localised tissue repair...
May 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750778/correlations-between-mrna-levels-of-centrosomal-protein-55-cep55-and-clinical-features-of-patients-with-lung-cancer
#11
Xue-Ping Ma, Wenping Zhang, Bu-Qiang Wu, Jun Qin
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic relevance of CEP55 in lung cancer (LC). MATERIAL AND METHODS LC microarray profile GSE30219 was obtained from the GEO database. The 2-sample t test was performed to clarify the difference in CEP55 expression between LC and normal lung tissue. The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were preformed to investigate the relationship between CEP55 expression and the clinical features of LC patients. Log-rank test and Cox proportional hazards regression analysis were conducted to evaluate the disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) of LC patients...
May 11, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748005/genomic-alterations-of-plasma-cell-free-dnas-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-their-clinical-relevance
#12
Meijun Du, Jonathan Thompson, Hannah Fisher, Peng Zhang, Chiang-Ching Huang, Liang Wang
OBJECTIVES: To identify genomic variations in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and evaluate their clinical utility in small cell lung cancer (SCLC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed whole genome sequencing using plasma cfDNAs derived from 24 SCLC patients for copy number variation (CNV) analysis, and targeted sequencing using 17 pairs of plasma cfDNA and their matched gDNA for mutation analysis. We defined somatic mutations by comparing cfDNA to its matched gDNA with 5% variant alleles as the cutoff for mutation calls...
June 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747634/regulation-of-fibroblast-fas-expression-by-soluble-and-mechanical-pro-fibrotic-stimuli
#13
Amos E Dodi, Iyabode O Ajayi, Christine Chang, Meghan Beard, Shanna L Ashley, Steven K Huang, Victor J Thannickal, Daniel J Tschumperlin, Thomas H Sisson, Jeffrey C Horowitz
BACKGROUND: Fibroblast apoptosis is a critical component of normal repair and the acquisition of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype contributes to the pathogenesis of fibrotic repair. Fibroblasts from fibrotic lungs of humans and mice demonstrate resistance to apoptosis induced by Fas-ligand and prior studies have shown that susceptibility to apoptosis is enhanced when Fas (CD95) expression is increased in these cells. Moreover, prior work shows thatĀ Fas expression in fibrotic lung fibroblasts is reduced by epigenetic silencing of the Fas promoter...
May 10, 2018: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745252/changes-in-the-pattern-of-fibrosis-in-the-rat-lung-with-repetitive-orotracheal-instillations-of-gastric-contents-evidence-of-persistent-collagen-accumulation
#14
Pedro Ayala, Jorge Torres, Raul Vivar, Pablo R Olmos, Manuel Meneses, Gisella R Borzone
Recurrent aspiration of gastric contents has been associated with several interstitial lung diseases. Despite this association, the pathogenic role of aspiration in these diseases has been poorly studied and little is known about extracellular matrix (ECM) changes in animal models of repetitive events of aspiration. Our aim was to study the repair phase of lung injury induced by each of several instillations of gastric fluid in Sprague-Dawley rats to evaluate changes in ECM and their reversibility. Anesthetized animals received weekly orotracheal instillations of gastric fluid for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks and were sacrificed at day 7 after last instillation...
May 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744218/machine-perfusion-of-thoracic-organs
#15
REVIEW
Dirk Van Raemdonck, Filip Rega, Steffen Rex, Arne Neyrinck
This article summarizes recent knowledge and clinical advances in machine perfusion (MP) of thoracic organs. MP of thoracic organs has gained much attention during the last decade. Clinical studies are investigating the role of MP to preserve, resuscitate, and assess heart and lungs prior to transplantation. Currently, MP of the cardiac allograft is essential in all type DCD heart transplantation while MP of the pulmonary allograft is mandatory in uncontrolled DCD lung transplantation. MP of thoracic organs also offers an exciting platform to further investigate downregulation of the innate and adaptive immunity prior to reperfusion of the allograft in recipients...
April 2018: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740711/new-avenues-for-nanoparticle-related-therapies
#16
Michael Zhao, Mingyao Liu
Development of nanoparticle-based drug delivery systems has been attempted for the treatment of cancer over the past decade. The enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect is the major mechanism to passively deliver nanodrugs to tumor tissue. However, a recent systematic review demonstrated limited success of these studies, with the clearance of nanoparticles by the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) being a major hurdle. Herein, we propose that nanotechnologists should reconsider their research focuses, aiming for therapeutic targets other than cancer...
May 8, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738754/closure-of-a-post-transplant-bronchial-dehiscence-with-endobronchial-fibrin-sealant
#17
Branden W Luna, Luca Paoletti, Chadrick E Denlinger, Nicholas J Pastis, Timothy P Whelan
Airway complications following lung transplantation are well described and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment options for anastomotic dehiscence include expectant management, placement of endobronchial stents, or surgical repair. The use of fibrin sealant instilled via bronchoscopy to seal a dehiscence has not been well described. Our patient is a 57 year old male who underwent orthotropic bilateral lung transplantation for end stage COPD. He was found to have a partial bronchial anastomosis dehiscence and subsequently treated with endobronchial fibrin sealant glue instillation...
May 5, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734152/cell-sheet-engineering-and-kidney-diseases
#18
Masatoshi Oka, Yoei Miyabe, Naoko Sugiura, Kosaku Nitta
Treatment using the cell sheet technology has been applied to various organs, including the cornea, heart, esophagus, periodontium, cartilage, middle ear, and lungs. It has been shown that the therapeutic efficacy of cell sheet transplantation involves 2 aspects, supplementation of cells and provision of cytokines to the affected organ. In addition, cell sheet transplantation also promotes repair of damage through the paracrine effects of cytokines derived from the transplanted cells. It is known that in cases of cell transplantation by injection, the transplanted cells are less likely to differentiate into renal tissue to supply cells, but repair is promoted by the actions of the transplanted cell-derived renotropic factors...
2018: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29731780/lung-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorate-elastase-induced-damage-in-an-animal-model-of-emphysema
#19
Donato Cappetta, Antonella De Angelis, Giuseppe Spaziano, Gioia Tartaglione, Elena Piegari, Grazia Esposito, Loreta Pia Ciuffreda, Angela Liparulo, Manuela Sgambato, Teresa Palmira Russo, Francesco Rossi, Liberato Berrino, Konrad Urbanek, Bruno D'Agostino
Pulmonary emphysema is a respiratory condition characterized by alveolar destruction that leads to airflow limitation and reduced lung function. Although with extensive research, the pathophysiology of emphysema is poorly understood and effective treatments are still missing. Evidence suggests that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) possess the ability to engraft the injured tissues and induce repair via a paracrine effect. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the effects of the intratracheal administration of lung-derived mouse MSCs in a model of elastase-induced emphysema...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730892/activation-of-p70s6-kinase-1-in-mesenchymal-stem-cells-is-essential-to-lung-tissue-repair
#20
Katsuyuki Takeda, Fangkun Ning, Joanne Domenico, Masakazu Okamoto, Shigeru Ashino, Sang-Ha Kim, Yi Yeong Jeong, Yoshiki Shiraishi, Naohiro Terada, Everett Rand Sutherland, Erwin W Gelfand
All-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been shown to promote lung tissue regeneration in animal models of emphysema. However, the reparative effects of the combination of the two and the role of p70S6 kinase-1 (p70S6k1) activation in the repair process have not been defined. Twenty-one days after intratracheal instillation of porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE), MSC and/or 10 days of ATRA treatment was initiated. Thirty-two days later, static lung compliance (Cst), mean linear intercepts (MLIs), and alveolar surface area (S) were measured...
May 5, 2018: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
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