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spinal cord infarction

Dong-Hee Choi, Jin-Hee Ahn, In-Ae Choi, Ji-Hye Kim, Bo-Ram Kim, Jongmin Lee
Recent evidence indicates that the ephrin receptors and ephrin ligands (Eph/ephrin) expression modulates axonal reorganization and synaptic plasticity in stroke recovery. To investigate the effect of task-specific training (TST) on Eph/ephrin expression in the corticospinal tract (CST) after stroke, we compared Eph/ephrin expression in the peri-infarct cortex, pyramid, and spinal cord of the photothrombotic stroke rats treated with or without TST. The TST treatment showed significantly better recovery in the behavioral tests...
October 19, 2016: BMB Reports
Matthew Harris, Grigoris V Karamasis, Shayna Chotai, Kare H Tang, Gerald J Clesham, Paul A Kelly
Intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is commonly used as a cardiac assist device in various clinical situations: cardiogenic shock, mechanical complications of acute myocardial infarction, high risk percutaneous coronary interventions, coronary artery bypass graft surgery and refractory unstable angina and ventricular arrhythmias as bridge to therapy. Although current data support its safety, there is limited or no support for its efficacy. We present the case of spinal cord infarction after IABP use in a patient who presented with ST elevation myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest and we discuss the potential mechanism of such a devastating complication...
October 13, 2016: Acute Cardiac Care
Lucian Beer, Michael Mildner, Mariann Gyöngyösi, Hendrik Jan Ankersmit
For almost two decades, cell-based therapies have been tested in modern regenerative medicine to either replace or regenerate human cells, tissues, or organs and restore normal function. Secreted paracrine factors are increasingly accepted to exert beneficial biological effects that promote tissue regeneration. These factors are called the cell secretome and include a variety of proteins, lipids, microRNAs, and extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes and microparticles. The stem cell secretome has most commonly been investigated in pre-clinical settings...
October 1, 2016: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
Diya Goorah, Shernaz K Hurlong, Gizelda T Casella
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
Mark Bauernfeind, Kristen M Brusky, Jean L Nickels
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
I Kister, E Johnson, E Raz, J Babb, J Loh, T M Shepherd
BACKGROUND: There is substantial overlap between MRI of acute spinal cord lesions from neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and spinal cord infarct (SCI) in clinical practice. However, early differentiation is important since management approaches to minimize morbidity from NMO or SCI differ significantly. OBJECTIVE: To identify MRI features at initial presentation that may help to differentiate NMO acute myelitis from SCI. METHODS: 2 board-certified neuroradiologists, blinded to final diagnosis, retrospectively characterized MRI features at symptom onset for subjects with serologically-proven NMO (N=13) or SCI (N=11) from a single institution...
September 2016: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Ernesto Doncel-Pérez, Manuel Nieto-Sampedro
A combined approach in spinal cord injury (SCI) therapy is the modulation of the cellular and molecular processes involved in glial scarring. Aldaynoglial cells are neural cell precursors with a high capacity to differentiate into neurons, promote axonal growth, wrapping and myelination of resident neurons. These important characteristics of aldaynoglia can be combined with specific inhibition of the RhoGTPase activity in astroglia and microglia that cause reduction of glial proliferation, retraction of glial cell processes and myelin production by oligodendrocytes...
July 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
RoseMarie Kearsley, John Galbraith, David Dalton, Catherine Motherway
Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a rare and potentially fatal complication occurring most often after long bone or pelvic fractures and orthopaedic procedures. It can consist of pulmonary, central nervous system and cutaneous manifestations. The exact pathophysiology of emboli reaching the arterial circulation is poorly understood.1 It is suggested that this may occur by either 'paradoxical' embolism or microembolism.2 3 Its true incidence is unknown but increases in the presence of multiple closed fractures...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
Shawn M Vuong, William J Jeong, Humberto Morales, Todd A Abruzzo
Vascular pathologies of the spinal cord are rare and often overlooked. This article presents clinical and imaging approaches to the diagnosis and management of spinal vascular conditions most commonly encountered in clinical practice. Ischemia, infarction, hemorrhage, aneurysms, and vascular malformations of the spine and spinal cord are discussed. Pathophysiologic mechanisms, clinical classification schemes, clinical presentations, imaging findings, and treatment modalities are considered. Recent advances in genetic and syndromic vascular pathologies of the spinal cord are also discussed...
October 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Natalie Ullman, Lydia Gregg, Daniel Becker, Carlos Pardo, Philippe Gailloud
INTRODUCTION: This article describes anterior disco-osteo-arterial conflict as an insofar unsuspected mechanism of arterial flow impairment potentially leading to spinal cord ischemia and infarction. METHODS: The anterior disco-osteo-arterial conflict described in this report is illustrated with angiographic observations of patients presenting with spinal cord ischemia documented by MRI, and radiculomedullary flow impairment diagnosed by spinal digital subtraction angiography and spinal CTA...
September 10, 2016: Neuroradiology
Bin Mei, Wanhong Li, Xinqi Cheng, Xuesheng Liu, Erwei Gu, Ye Zhang
BACKGROUND: Remote precoditioning of trauma (RPCT) confers cardioprotective effects against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury, which are mediated by spinal opioid receptors. The aim of this study was to identify the roles of opioid receptor subtypes in the cardioprotective effect of RPCT and possible mechanisms. METHODS: In this study, 192 Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to 12 groups. Except for the sham group, rats in all groups were subjected to myocardial ischemia reperfusion...
September 2, 2016: Cardiology Journal
Rafael De la Garza Ramos, C Rory Goodwin, Nancy Abu-Bonsrah, Amit Jain, Emily K Miller, Nicole Huang, Khaled M Kebaish, Paul D Sponseller, Daniel M Sciubba
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of and factors associated with complications following idiopathic scoliosis surgery in adolescents. METHODS The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was used to identify patients 10-18 years of age who had undergone spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) from 2002 to 2011. Twenty-three unique in-hospital postoperative complications, including death, were examined. A series of logistic regressions was used to determine if any demographic, comorbid, or surgical parameter was associated with complication development...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
Makoto Kobayashi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2016: Neurology
Spyridon N Mylonas, Gerhard Rümenapf, Hubert Schelzig, Jörg Heckenkamp, Marwan Youssef, Jost Philipp Schäfer, Wael Ahmad, Jan Sigge Brunkwall
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the 1-year safety and efficacy of a new iliac side-branched device (IBD) for revascularization of the hypogastric arteries. METHODS: Patients receiving the E-liac (Jotec GmbH, Hechingen, Germany) side-branched device at six German vascular centers either as a stand-alone procedure or in combination with abdominal aortic aneurysm exclusion were included in a prospectively created data bank. Collected data were analyzed for baseline characteristics, procedural events, and clinical follow-up; variables included endoleaks, reinterventions, and internal iliac artery (IIA) patency...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Fredrik Romi, Halvor Naess
Spinal cord stroke is rare accounting for 0.3-1% of all strokes and is classified into upper (cervical) and lower (thoracolumbar) strokes. Patients present with severe deficits but later often show good functional improvement. On admission, younger age, male gender, hypertension, diabetes mellitus and elevated blood glucose indicate more severe spinal cord strokes. Treatment of these risk factors is essential in the acute phase. Biphasic spinal cord strokes are seen in one-fifth of the patients. These present with acute or transient sensory spinal cord deficits often preceded by radiating pain between the shoulders, and should be considered and treated as imminent spinal cord strokes...
August 4, 2016: European Neurology
Ryan Eid, Ashok Raj, Darren Farber, Vinay Puri, Salvatore Bertolone
Spinal cord infarction (SCI) is extremely rare in children, and only 2 other reports have described the occurrence of SCI in patients with hemoglobin SC disease (HbSC). Amusement park accidents are serious injuries. Patients with preexisting conditions, such as hypertension, cardiac disease, and recent back or neck injuries, may be at an increased risk. We report the case of a 12-year-old girl with HbSC with a past history of only 2 admissions for pain crises, who presented to the emergency department with symptoms of SCI after riding a roller coaster...
September 2016: Pediatrics
E Aidinoff, V Bluvshtein, U Bierman, I Gelernter, L Front, A Catz
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective observational comparative study. OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to assess the atherosclerosis diseases and risk factors prevalence after spinal cored injury (SCI). SETTING: Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital, Israel. METHODS: Data of 154 traumatic and non-traumatic SCI patients were retrospectively collected. Coronary artery disease (CAD), myocardial infarction (MI), hypertension (HT) and risk factors for atherosclerotic diseases were examined after SCI for prevalence and effects, and compared with published corresponding data of the general population...
July 19, 2016: Spinal Cord
Kathleen K Kelly, Amber M MacPherson, Himmat Grewal, Frank Strnad, Jace W Jones, Jianshi Yu, Keely Pierzchalski, Maureen A Kane, Paco S Herson, Julie A Siegenthaler
BACKGROUND: Perivascular stromal cells (PSCs) are a recently identified cell type that comprises a small percentage of the platelet derived growth factor receptor-β+ cells within the CNS perivascular space. PSCs are activated following injury to the brain or spinal cord, expand in number and contribute to fibrotic scar formation within the injury site. Beyond fibrosis, their high density in the lesion core makes them a potential significant source of signals that act on neural cells adjacent to the lesion site...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Derick D Jones, Robert E Watson, Heather A Heaton
BACKGROUND: Fibrocartilaginous embolism is an exceedingly rare condition that was formerly a clinical diagnosis based on mechanism of injury, physical examination findings, and older magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technologies without a specific histologic diagnosis. Spinal cord MRI diffusion-weighted imaging allows for a more specific diagnosis. CASE REPORT: A 14-year-old male felt a sudden pop in his back while running sprints in his gym class. He slowly developed bilateral lower extremity weakness and urinary incontinence, prompting an emergency department evaluation...
September 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Mohammed H Alanazy
Absent F wave in the stage of spinal shock has been described in cases of traumatic spinal cord injury. The role of F wave in predicting prognosis after conus medullaris infarct has not been described. We describe herein a middle aged-man with a conus medullaris infarct. Both tibial and peroneal F waves were absent on day 4. The left tibial F wave reappeared in the following study on day 18. All F waves reappeared on day 56 at which time the patient was still wheelchair bound. He regained walking on day 105...
July 2016: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
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