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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559753/clinical-evaluation-of-measuring-the-act-during-elective-cardiac-surgery-with-two-different-devices
#1
Florian Falter, Nabeel Razzaq, Martin John, Jens Fassl, Markus Maurer, Sean Ewing, Ross Hofmeyr
Unfractionated heparin is the mainstay of anticoagulation during cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) due to its low cost, quick onset, and ease of reversal. Since over 30 years, the activated clotting time (ACT) has been used to assess the level of heparin activity both before and after CPB. We compared two different methods of measuring the ACT: i-STAT, which uses amperometric detection of thrombin cleavage, and Hemochron Jr, which is based on detecting viscoelastic changes in blood. We included 402 patients from three institutions (Papworth Hospital, Cambridge, UK; Groote Schuur, Cape Town, South Africa; University Hospital Basel, Basel, Switzerland) undergoing elective cardiac surgery on CPB in our study...
March 2018: Journal of Extra-corporeal Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541067/defeating-antibiotic-and-phage-resistant-enterococcus-faecalis-using-a-phage-cocktail-in-vitro-and-in-a-clot-model
#2
Leron Khalifa, Daniel Gelman, Mor Shlezinger, Axel Lionel Dessal, Shunit Coppenhagen-Glazer, Nurit Beyth, Ronen Hazan
The deteriorating effectiveness of antibiotics is propelling researchers worldwide towards alternative techniques such as phage therapy: curing infectious diseases using viruses of bacteria called bacteriophages. In a previous paper, we isolated phage EFDG1, highly effective against both planktonic and biofilm cultures of one of the most challenging pathogenic species, the vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE). Thus, it is a promising phage to be used in phage therapy. Further experimentation revealed the emergence of a mutant resistant to EFDG1 phage: EFDG1r ...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514041/recombinant-batroxobin-coated-nonwoven-chitosan-as-hemostatic-dressing-for-initial-hemorrhage-control
#3
Gyeung Mi Seon, Mi Hee Lee, Byeong-Ju Kwon, Min Sung Kim, Min-Ah Koo, Young Seomun, Jong-Tak Kim, Tae Hee Kim, Jong-Chul Park
The choice of hemostat is determined by the situation and the degree of hemorrhage. One common hemostat, the nonwoven dressing, is easy to handled and controls severe bleeding on wider wounds. In this study, chitosan-based nonwoven dressings with recombinant batroxobin (rBat) were used as efficacious hemostatic dressing agents. Hemostatic agents need to absorb blood quickly in the early stages of blood coagulation cascade to rapidly and effectively control of excessive hemorrhages. To date, most studies of hemostatic agents focused on a single material and hemostats composed of multiple materials have not been studied sufficiently...
March 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420211/translational-implications-of-platelets-as-vascular-first-responders
#4
REVIEW
Richard C Becker, Travis Sexton, Susan S Smyth
Platelets play a vital role in normal hemostasis to stem blood loss at sites of vascular injury by tethering and adhering to sites of injury, recruiting other platelets and blood cells to the developing clot, releasing vasoactive small molecules and proteins, and assembling and activating plasma coagulation proteins in a tightly regulated temporal and spatial manner. In synchrony with specific end products of coagulation, primarily cross-linked fibrin, a stable thrombus quickly forms. Far beyond physiological hemostasis and pathological thrombosis, emerging evidence supports platelets playing a pivotal role in vascular homeostasis, inflammation, cellular repair, regeneration, and wide range of autocrine and paracrine functions...
February 2, 2018: Circulation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407692/blood-clot-parameters-prejudgment-of-fibrinolysis-in-thromboelastography
#5
Qiongyao Mou, Qi Zhou, Shengxiong Liu
BACKGROUND: Thromboelastography (TEG) is a physical method to simulate the whole process of coagulation and fibrinolysis in the human body environment, and then it also can quickly determine whether patients with hypercoagulable, low coagulation, fibrinolysis or other symptoms. The first step in the diagnosis is based on two parameters: Estimated percentage of lysis (EPL) or the Lysis at 30 min (LY30). These two parameters are used to determine whether the sample has fibrinolysis. However, the determination of LY30 takes a long time, although EPL can reflect real-time fibrinolysis, sometimes the secondary fibrinolysis is not obvious...
February 1, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407154/porous-chitosan-microspheres-containing-zinc-ion-for-enhanced-thrombosis-and-hemostasis
#6
Meng Pan, Zonghao Tang, Jianbing Tu, Zhengchao Wang, Qinhui Chen, Rongdong Xiao, Haiqing Liu
Quick hemostats for non-lethal massive traumatic bleeding in battlefield and civilian accidents are important for reducing mortality and medical costs. Chitosan (CS) has been widely used as a clinic hemostat. To enhance its hemostatic efficiency, Zn2+ in the form of zinc alginate (ZnAlg) was introduced to CS to make porous CS@ZnAlg microspheres with ZnAlg component on the surface. Such microspheres were prepared by successive steps of micro-emulsion, polyelectrolyte adhesion, and thermally induced phase separation...
April 1, 2018: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344007/four-factor-prothrombin-complex-concentrate-improves-thrombin-generation-and-prothrombin-time-in-patients-with-bleeding-complications-related-to-rivaroxaban-a-single-center-pilot-trial
#7
Bettina Schenk, Stephanie Goerke, Ronny Beer, Raimund Helbok, Dietmar Fries, Mirjam Bachler
Background: Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) pose a great challenge for physicians in life-threatening bleeding events. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of reversing the DOAC rivaroxaban using four-factor PCC (prothrombin complex concentrate), a non-specific reversing agent. Methods: Patients with life-threatening bleeding events during rivaroxaban treatment were included and administered 25 U kg-1 of PCC. Blood samples were collected immediately prior to as well as after PCC treatment at predefined time intervals...
2018: Thrombosis Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339370/nature-s-wastebasket-the-role-of-the-external-carotid-artery-in-acute-stroke
#8
Jesse Jones, Conrad William Liang, Nima Ramezan-Arab, Gary Duckwiler, Satoshi Tateshima
We describe a novel technical approach to acute stroke illustrated by the case of a 41 year old male who presented with tandem right common carotid artery (CCA) and M1 occlusions. His NIHSS was 17 and Alberta stroke programe early CT score (ASPECTs) was 8. Thrombectomy initially proved challenging due to large volume CCA thrombus that repeatedly occluded the aspiration catheters. However, by inflating a balloon distally and pulling clot into the adjacent ECA, we were able to quickly restore distal contrast flow to the intracranial circulation and achieve Thrombolysis In Cerebral Infarction/Arterial Occlusive Lesion (TICI2C/AOL3) revascularization...
January 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249197/evaluation-of-the-hemocompatibility-of-rada-16-i-peptide
#9
Laleh Taghavi, Asieh Aramvash, Mansooreh Sadat Seyedkarimi, Narges Malek Sabet
RADA 16-I is an ionic self-assembling peptide that can form macroscopic scaffolds through β-sheet structures which are used in favor of cell growth and tissue engineering. This peptide has also the ability to stop bleeding effectively and quickly (∼20 seconds) when applied directly to the injuries. This study is focused on coagulation process, platelet aggregation, C3 and C4 concentrations, CBC counting, hemolysis, and white blood cell morphology tests to analyze hemocompatibility of RADA 16-I at different concentrations - 0...
March 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125171/nanomechanical-clinical-coagulation-diagnostics-and-monitoring-of-therapies
#10
Francesco Padovani, James Duffy, Martin Hegner
Clinical coagulation diagnostics often requires multiple tests. Coagulation times are a first indication of an abnormal coagulation process, such as a coagulation factor deficiency. To determine the specific deficient factor, additional immuno- and/or enzyme assays are necessary. Currently, every clinical laboratory has to normalize their assays (international normalized ratio, INR), and therefore, certain variability within the clinical analytics exists. We report a novel strategy for a quick, reliable and quantitative diagnosis of blood coagulation diseases (e...
November 23, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065860/assessment-of-haemostasis-in-patients-undergoing-emergent-neurosurgery-by-rotational-elastometry-and-standard-coagulation-tests-a-prospective-observational-study
#11
Christoph Ellenberger, Najia Garofano, Gleicy Barcelos, John Diaper, Gordana Pavlovic, Marc Licker
BACKGROUND: Rotational elastometry (ROTEM) has been shown useful to monitor coagulation in trauma patients and in major elective surgery. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the utility of ROTEM to identify hemostatic disturbances and to predict the need for transfusion, compared with standard coagulation tests (SCTs) in patients undergoing emergent neurosurgery. METHODS: Over a four-year period, adult patients who met criteria for emergent neurosurgery lasting more than 90 min were included in the study...
October 24, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962752/chitosan-kaolin-composite-porous-microspheres-with-high-hemostatic-efficacy
#12
Xun Sun, Zonghao Tang, Meng Pan, Zhengchao Wang, Hongqin Yang, Haiqing Liu
The hemostatic performance of chitosan was greatly improved by blending it with kaolin to fabricate porous composite microspheres (CSMS-K) through inverse emulsion method combining with thermally induced phase separation. The CSMS-K had high amount of interior and surface pores. The synergetic hemostatic competence of chitosan and kaolin components made the hemostatic efficacy of CSMS-K superior to chitosan porous microspheres (CSMS). The hemostatic time of CSMS-K3 in the rat tail amputation and liver laceration models was down to respective 120 and 99s from 183 and 134s of CSMS, and the blood loss of CSMS-K3 was respectively 65% and 36% of that of CSMS in the rat tail amputation and liver laceration models...
December 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799290/visualizing-correlated-motion-with-hdbscan-clustering
#13
Ryan L Melvin, Jiajie Xiao, Ryan C Godwin, Kenneth S Berenhaut, Freddie R Salsbury
Correlated motion analysis provides a method for understanding communication between and dynamic similarities of biopolymer residues and domains. The typical equal-time correlation matrices-frequently visualized with pseudo-colorings or heat maps-quickly convey large regions of highly correlated motion but hide more subtle similarities of motion. Here we propose a complementary method for visualizing correlations within proteins (or general biopolymers) that quickly conveys intuition about which residues have a similar dynamic behavior...
January 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745251/-using-thromboelastography-to-measure-coagulation-following-massive-blood-loss
#14
M C A Müller, G A E Ponjee
Thromboelastography is becoming increasingly important for diagnosing coagulation disorders in patients with massive blood loss. This whole-blood measurement provides information about the speed of clot formation, clot strength, and degree of fibrinolysis. The result can be used as a basis for making a faster and better choice of a suitable blood product for the patient with severe blood loss. This technique can be carried out simply and quickly as a rapid test ('point-of-care test') or in a central laboratory...
2017: Nederlands Tijdschrift Voor Geneeskunde
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731369/experimental-evaluation-of-tranexamic-acid-loaded-porous-starch-as-a-hemostatic-powder
#15
Chaoyun Xi, Liguo Zhu, Yuan Zhuang, Shufang Wang, Guixiang Sun, Yaqian Liu, Deqing Wang
We evaluated the effectiveness of a novel hemostatic powder called Tranexamic Acid-loaded Porous Starch (TAPS) developed recently on blood clotting activity and hemostasis. The effectiveness of TAPS was evaluated by comparing hemostatic properties with those of Quick-acting Styptic Powder (QSP) and Compound Microporous Polysaccharide Haemostatic powder (CMPHP). The blood clotting activities of human blood were analyzed by thromboela-stogram (TEG) assays in vitro. The hemostatic effectiveness in vivo was evaluated using a rat model with hepatic traumatic hemorrhage...
March 2018: Clinical and Applied Thrombosis/hemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730545/platelet-first-responders-in-wound-response-cancer-and-metastasis
#16
REVIEW
David G Menter, Scott Kopetz, Ernest Hawk, Anil K Sood, Jonathan M Loree, Paolo Gresele, Kenneth V Honn
Platelets serve as "first responders" during normal wounding and homeostasis. Arising from bone marrow stem cell lineage megakaryocytes, anucleate platelets can influence inflammation and immune regulation. Biophysically, platelets are optimized due to size and discoid morphology to distribute near vessel walls, monitor vascular integrity, and initiate quick responses to vascular lesions. Adhesion receptors linked to a highly reactive filopodia-generating cytoskeleton maximizes their vascular surface contact allowing rapid response capabilities...
June 2017: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727354/-endovascular-treatment-for-acute-ischemic-stroke
#17
Zsolt Kulcsar, Emmanuel Carrera, Patrik Michel
The benefit of endovascular treatment (ET) after acute ischemic stroke has long been debated. Recent studies have demonstrated the clinical benefit of ET up to approximately 8 hours after stroke onset, mainly in association with intranenous thrombolysis. The positive effect is higher if ET is initiated early and performed by an experienced team. Current ET techniques include thrombectomy with clot removal using stentretriever technques or local thromboaspiration of the clot. ET seems to be so efficient that stroke care networks have to be organised to offer ET as quickly as possible in all patients who could benefit from this therapy...
April 26, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686914/an-optimized-drvvt-based-assay-to-estimate-the-intensity-of-anticoagulation-in-patients-treated-with-direct-oral-anticoagulants
#18
Anne-Laure Sennesael, Thomas Exner, Bernard Chatelain, Sarah Lessire, Anne-Sophie Larock, Christelle Vancraeynest, Lionel Pochet, Jean-Michel Dogné, Anne Spinewine, François Mullier, Jonathan Douxfils
BACKGROUND: The dilute Russell's viper venom time (dRVVT) has been suggested for the assessment of the intensity of anticoagulation of all direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). This study aimed to compare the performance of an optimized liquid-stable dRVVT-based DOAC assay (DRVV-DOAC) on clinical samples before and after mixing these with normal pooled plasma (NPP). METHODS: Forty-one apixaban, 25 dabigatran, 56 rivaroxaban and 49 vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) plasma samples were included for retrospective analysis...
June 28, 2017: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592490/functional-analyses-yield-detailed-insight-into-the-mechanism-of-thrombin-inhibition-by-the-antihemostatic-salivary-protein-ce5-from-anopheles-gambiae
#19
Luciano Pirone, Jorge Ripoll-Rozada, Marilisa Leone, Raffaele Ronca, Fabrizio Lombardo, Gabriella Fiorentino, John F Andersen, Pedro José Barbosa Pereira, Bruno Arcà, Emilia Pedone
Saliva of blood-feeding arthropods carries several antihemostatic compounds whose physiological role is to facilitate successful acquisition of blood. The identification of novel natural anticoagulants and the understanding of their mechanism of action may offer opportunities for designing new antithrombotics disrupting blood clotting. We report here an in-depth structural and functional analysis of the anophelin family member cE5, a salivary protein from the major African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae that specifically, tightly, and quickly binds and inhibits thrombin...
July 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566834/the-utility-of-computed-tomographic-angiography-in-a-neonate-on-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-with-extreme-cyanosis-after-blalock-taussig-shunt
#20
Jess D Rames, Minoo N Kavarana, U Joseph Schoepf, Anthony Marcus Hlavacek
A modified Blalock-Taussig shunt (mBTS) is often employed to provide pulmonary blood flow in neonates that are born with cyanotic congenital heart defects. However, acute shunt thrombosis can occur in the postoperative period, resulting in profound cyanosis. In this case report, we describe the utility of computed tomographic angiography (CTA) in the management of a neonate with extreme cyanosis after placement of a mBTS while on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Using CTA, several small clots were identified in the shunt as well as stenosis of the left pulmonary artery; neither of which were identified with echocardiography...
May 2017: Annals of Pediatric Cardiology
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