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Dina Cortes, Rune Holt, Victoria Elizabeth de Knegt
A normal functioning hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular axis is required for normal testicular descent. The percentage of cases that result from a disturbance in this axis remains controversial. Much has yet to be learnt about cryptorchidism, but is seems that the existence of A dark spermatogonia (Ad spermatogonia) is essential for later fertility. Bilateral cryptorchid patients have a high risk of later infertility, even though they undergo early surgery for cryptorchidism. It is possible today to distinguish-to a certain extent-between three different groups of cryptorchid patients based on testicular histology, gonadotropins, and inhibin B at the time of early surgery: Group 1, patients suspected of prepubertal transient hypothalamic-pituitary-testicular hypofunction and a high risk of later infertility; Group 2, patients with hypergonadotropic hypogonadism and a primary testicular dysfunction; and Group 3, patients with normal histology and normal serum levels of inhibin B and gonadotropins at the time of early surgery and a low risk of later infertility...
October 2016: European Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Hiroshi Okada, Takeshi Shin, Yoshitomo Kobori
Hypogonadism is classified into two major clinical entities, namely early-onset hypogonadism and late-onset hypogonadism. The former is characterized by the malfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal(testicular)axis or by the primary hypofunction of testes(e.g. Klinefelter's syndrome). The latter is summarized as LOH syndrome which is attributed to the dropped level of bioavailable testosterone. In these diseases testosterone is the key molecule which may cause various symptoms relating not only to physical health but also to mental or psychologic health...
July 2016: Clinical Calcium
A Ghosh, K Jana, B P Pakhira, D Ghosh
This study was designed to focus the genetic regulation of diabetes-induced testicular hypofunction and its amelioration by ethyl acetate fraction of seed of Eugenia jambolana. In this regard, we have assessed relevant biosensors such as biochemical, spermiological, histological and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes, germ cell apoptosis and androgenic key enzymes along with in situ end labelling and DNA fragmentation study. After 60 days administration of said fraction, significant recovery in the glycated haemoglobin, serum testosterone, sperm viability, hypo-osmotic swelling and nuclear chromatin decondensation were noted in fraction-treated diabetic group in comparison with diabetic control...
April 2016: Andrologia
M Liang, J Wen, Q Dong, L-G Zhao, B-K Shi
We investigated the mechanism of the testicular hypofunction induced by hypoxia in varicocele rats. Varicocele was induced by partial ligation of the left renal vein. Seven weeks later, left testis mass index was measured. The sperm counts and motility were tested by CASA. The change of seminiferous tubule tissue was observed by HE staining. The reactive oxygen species (ROS) level in left testicular tissue was measured by ELISA, and the expressions of HIF-1α and p53 were detected by immunohistochemistry and Western blot...
December 2015: Andrologia
Lucia Pedace, Luigi Laino, Nicoletta Preziosi, Maria Stella Valentini, Salvatore Scommegna, Anna Maria Rapone, Nino Guarino, Brunetto Boscherini, Carmelilia De Bernardo, Giacinto Marrocco, Silvia Majore, Paola Grammatico
Steroidogenic factor 1 (encoded by the NR5A1 gene) is a critical regulator of reproduction, controlling transcription of key genes involved in sexual dimorphism. To date, NR5A1 variants have been found in individuals with a 46,XY karyotype and gonadal dysgenesis, as well as with a wide spectrum of genital anomalies and, in some patients, with adrenal insufficiency. We describe evolution of gonadal function, from the neonatal period to puberty, in a patient with a 46,XY karyotype, a disorder of sexual development, and a mutation (c...
November 2014: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
Julia Pakpoor, Raph Goldacre, Klaus Schmierer, Gavin Giovannoni, Michael J Goldacre
The influence of gonadal hormones on multiple sclerosis (MS) is not well characterized and has thus far been investigated primarily in animal models or as a proposed therapeutic approach. We investigated a potential association between testicular hypofunction, as a proxy for low testosterone levels, and MS risk through analysis of linked English national Hospital Episode Statistics from 1999 to 2011. We report a strong positive association between testicular hypofunction and subsequent MS (rate ratio = 4.62, 95% confidence interval = 2...
October 2014: Annals of Neurology
Sofie de Fine Licht, Jeanette Falck Winther, Thorgerdur Gudmundsdottir, Anna Sällfors Holmqvist, Trine Gade Bonnesen, Peter Haubjerg Asdahl, Laufey Tryggvadottir, Harald Anderson, Finn Wesenberg, Nea Malila, Kirsten Holm, Henrik Hasle, Jørgen Helge Olsen
BACKGROUND: The pattern of endocrine disorders in long-term survivors of childhood cancer has not been investigated comprehensively. Here, we aimed to assess the lifetime risk of these disorders in Nordic survivors of childhood cancer. METHODS: From the national cancer registries of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, we identified 31,723 1-year survivors of childhood cancer, notified since the start of registration in the 1940s and 1950s. From the national population registries, we randomly selected a comparison cohort of people matched by age, sex, and country...
June 7, 2014: Lancet
B Qi, J A Diez-Pardo, M Nistal, J A Tovar
In the rat model of nitrofen-induced congenital diaphragmatic hernia, we found the testicles in a high abdominal position in many male animals, and undertook to investigate whether the teratogen interferes with testicular descent and development. Male fetuses from time-mated Wistar rats treated intragastrically with 100 mg nitrofen dissolved in oil on day 9.5 of gestation were compared with control fetuses from mothers receiving only vehicle. The litters were recovered by cesarean section on days 17, 19, and 21 of gestation; the position of the testicles in male animals was recorded, and their volume was measured prior to histological assessment of mean tubular diameter, number of germ cells per tubule, and degree of collagenization of the tunica albuginea...
April 1996: Pediatric Surgery International
Jorgen Thorup, Bodil Laub Petersen, Kolja Kvist, Dina Cortes
PURPOSE: In recent series of boys with cryptorchidism gonadotropin levels have been higher and serum inhibin B levels have been lower than normal. To some extent the serum values of inhibin B reflect the state of germinative epithelium in cryptorchid testes. We evaluated whether blood samples of gonadotropins and inhibin B as well as histopathology could be used to classify undescended testes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 69 boys (median age 2 years) who underwent surgery for bilateral cryptorchidism had blood samples taken preoperatively and 3 months to 2...
October 2012: Journal of Urology
S Gold
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1943: Canadian Medical Association Journal
T H Ting, L L Wu
INTRODUCTION: Micropenis may be an important sign of underlying hypogonadism or pituitary hypofunction in the neonatal period. Penile lengths of normal newborns have been reported in many Western populations. However, the data may not be applicable in the Asian or the multiracial Malaysian population. Our study aimed to establish the normal penile length and testicular volume in term newborn infants in the major ethnic groups in Malaysia. METHODS: The stretched penile length and testicular volume were measured in 340 normal term newborn infants (195 Malays, 129 Chinese and 16 Indians)...
August 2009: Singapore Medical Journal
E O Ewuola
In a 196-day feeding trial, 48 male crossbred rabbits (New Zealand × Chinchilla) were randomly assigned and fed varied dietary fumonisin levels of 0.13, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 mg fumonisin B(1)/kg diet constituting treatments 1 (control), 2, 3 and 4 respectively. Five animals were randomly selected, stunned and killed per treatment. Relative weight of various visceral organs examined except heart and adrenal gland were significantly (p < 0.05) influenced by the dietary treatments. Liver and spleen weights of rabbits fed 10...
December 2009: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Stuart N Seidman
In contrast to women, men do not experience a sudden cessation of gonadal function comparable to menopause. However, there is a progressive reduction in male hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function: testosterone levels decline through both central (pituitary) and peripheral (testicular) mechanisms, and there is a loss of the circadian rhythm of testosterone secretion. The progressive decline in testosterone levels has been demonstrated in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies, and overall at least 25% of men over age 70 meet laboratory criteria for hypogonadism (ie, testosterone deficiency)...
2007: Psychopharmacology Bulletin
Wakako Ogino, Yasuhiro Takeshima, Atsushi Nishiyama, Mariko Yagi, Nobutoshi Oka, Masafumi Matsuo
Tetrasomy 9p is a rare clinical syndrome and about 30% of known cases exhibit chromosome mosaicism. The cases with tetrasomy 9p mosaicism have been reported to show the various phenotypes. On the other hand, Klinefelter syndrome is well recognized chromosomal abnormality caused by an additional X chromosome in males (47,XXY), and the characteristic clinical findings include tall stature, immaturity of external genitalia, testicular dysfunction. Here, we report a 10-year-old male with tetrasomy of 9p mosaicism, whose phenotypic feature is mimicking Klinefelter syndrome...
2007: Kobe Journal of Medical Sciences
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1963: Nihon Hinyōkika Gakkai Zasshi. the Japanese Journal of Urology
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
1956: Acta Physiologica Polonica
Stuart N Seidman
In contrast to women, men do not experience a sudden cessation of gonadal function comparable to menopause. However, there is a progressive reduction in hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) function in aging men: testosterone (T) levels decline through both central (pituitary) and peripheral (testicular) mechanisms and there is a loss of the circadian rhythm of T secretion. In cohorts of men 75 years of age, mean plasma T levels are 35% lower than comparable young men, and more than 25% of men over 75 appear to be T-deficient...
January 2003: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
M P Waalkes, M Anver, B A Diwan
Cadmium is a known human carcinogen based on findings of lung cancer in exposed populations. A more controversial target site for cadmium is the human prostate gland, for which some studies indicate a link between cadmium exposure and cancer. Our work in various strains of Wistar rats has shown that cadmium can induce tumors in the ventral lobe of the prostate. The relevance of this type of lesion to human prostate cancer has been questioned because the ventral lobe of the rat prostate, unlike the dorsolateral lobe, has no embryological homolog in the human gland...
December 1999: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
M P Waalkes, M R Anver, B A Diwan
Based on the occurrence of pulmonary cancers in exposed populations, cadmium is classified as a human carcinogen. More controversial target sites for cadmium in humans include the prostate and kidney, where some studies have shown a link between cadmium and cancer. In Wistar rats cadmium induces tumors in the ventral prostate. The relevance of such lesions to humans is debated since the rat ventral lobe, unlike the dorsolateral lobe, has no embryological homolog in the human prostate. Cadmium has not been linked with renal tumors in rodents but is a potent nephrotoxin...
October 29, 1999: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
M Talas, J Dostál, I Oborná, L Chrastinová, J Barborík, J Psotová, A Dostál, M Krsková, M Kudela, P Petrová, K Machovská, J Vyslouzilová
Based on a comparative study in a group of healthy men and men suffering from oligospermia and azoospermia, the authors consider it useful to examine FSH, LH, PRL and testosterone serum levels for possible evidence of testicular hypofunction and for detection of stress situations associated with raised PRL levels. As to seminal plasma, the authors consider it useful and relevant to assess citric acid levels, total acid phosphatases and in particular fructose with alpha-glucosidase.
October 1997: Ceská Gynekologie
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