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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775807/fir-efficacy-safety-and-biomarker-analysis-of-a-phase-ii-open-label-study-of-atezolizumab-in-pd-l1-selected-patients-with-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#1
David R Spigel, Jamie E Chaft, Scott Gettinger, Bo H Chao, Luc Dirix, Peter Schmid, Laura Q M Chow, Rodney J Hicks, Larry Leon, Jill Fredrickson, Marcin Kowanetz, Alan Sandler, Roel Funke, Naiyer A Rizvi
INTRODUCTION: The FIR phase II study (NCT01846416) evaluated the efficacy and safety of anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) atezolizumab in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) selected by tumor cell (TC) or tumor-infiltrating immune cell (IC) PD-L1 expression. METHODS: Patients with PD-L1 TC2/3 (PD-L1 staining on ≥5% of TC) or IC2/3 tumors (PD-L1 staining on ≥5% of IC; determined by SP142 PD-L1 immunohistochemistry assay) with paired fresh and archival histology samples were recruited into Cohort 1 (chemotherapy-naïve/>6 months between adjuvant chemotherapy and recurrence), Cohort 2 (≥ second-line without brain metastases), or Cohort 3 (≥ second-line with treated brain metastases)...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774061/immunotherapy-in-non-metastatic-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-can-the-benefits-of-stage-iv-therapy-be-translated-into-earlier-stages
#2
REVIEW
Griet Deslypere, Dorothée Gullentops, Els Wauters, Johan Vansteenkiste
Over the last decade, several steps forward in the treatment of patients with stage IV non-small cell lung cancer (NCSLC) were made. Examples are the use of pemetrexed, pemetrexed maintenance therapy, or bevacizumab for patients with nonsquamous NSCLC. A big leap forward was the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in patients selected on the basis of an activating oncogene, such as epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) activating mutations or anaplastic lymphoma kinase ( ALK ) translocations. However, all of these achievements could not be translated into survival benefits when studied in randomized controlled trials in patients with nonmetastatic NSCLC...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774057/ocrelizumab-a-new-milestone-in-multiple-sclerosis-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Patricia Mulero, Luciana Midaglia, Xavier Montalban
B cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS): they are involved in the activation of pro-inflammatory T cells, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines and production of autoantibodies directed against myelin. Hence, the use of B cell-depleting monoclonal antibodies as therapy for autoimmune diseases, including MS, has increased in recent years. Previous results with rituximab, the first therapeutic B cell-depleting chimeric monoclonal antibody that showed efficacy in MS clinical trials, encouraged researchers to evaluate the efficacy of a humanized anti-CD20 antibody, ocrelizumab, in MS...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774030/changes-in-the-tcr%C3%AE-repertoire-and-tumor-immune-signature-from-a-cutaneous-melanoma-patient-immunized-with-the-csf-470-vaccine-a-case-report
#4
Mariana Aris, Alicia Inés Bravo, María Betina Pampena, Paula Alejandra Blanco, Ibel Carri, Daniel Koile, Patricio Yankilevich, Estrella Mariel Levy, María Marcela Barrio, José Mordoh
The allogeneic therapeutic vaccine CSF-470 has demonstrated a significant benefit over medium-dose IFNα2b in the distant metastasis-free survival for stages IIB-IIC-III cutaneous melanoma patients in a randomized phase II/III clinical trial (CASVAC-0401, NCT01729663). At the end of the 2-year CSF-470 immunization protocol, patient #006 developed several lung and one subcutaneous melanoma metastases; this later was excised. In this report, we analyzed the changes throughout vaccination of immune populations in blood and in the tumor tissue, with special focus on the T-cell repertoire...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773991/first-biologic-drug-in-the-treatment-of-ras-wild-type-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-anti-egfr-or-bevacizumab-results-from-a-meta-analysis
#5
REVIEW
Alessandro Ottaiano, Alfonso De Stefano, Monica Capozzi, Anna Nappi, Chiara De Divitiis, Carmela Romano, Lucrezia Silvestro, Antonino Cassata, Rossana Casaretti, Salvatore Tafuto, Michele Caraglia, Massimiliano Berretta, Guglielmo Nasti, Antonio Avallone
Introduction: We performed a meta-analysis in order to analyze and quantify the effect on survival of starting therapy in RAS wild-type (wt) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with anti-EGFR agents or bevacizumab. Patients and Methods: Randomized, phase II or III, clinical trials reporting overall survival (OS) in RAS wt mCRC patients treated with first-line chemotherapy (CT) associated with bevacizumab or anti-EGFR agents were selected. The primary end-point of this meta-analysis was OS; findings were depicted in classical Forest plots...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773080/adjuvant-ny-eso-1-vaccine-immunotherapy-in-high-risk-resected-melanoma-a-retrospective-cohort-analysis
#6
Michael Lattanzi, Joseph Han, Una Moran, Kierstin Utter, Jeremy Tchack, Rachel Lubong Sabado, Russell Berman, Richard Shapiro, Hsin-Hui Huang, Iman Osman, Nina Bhardwaj, Anna C Pavlick
BACKGROUND: Cancer-testis antigen NY-ESO-1 is a highly immunogenic melanoma antigen which has been incorporated into adjuvant vaccine clinical trials. Three such early-phase trials were conducted at our center among patients with high-risk resected melanoma. We herein report on the pooled long-term survival outcomes of these patients in comparison to historical controls. METHODS: All melanoma patients treated at NYU Langone Health under any of three prospective adjuvant NY-ESO-1 vaccine trials were retrospectively pooled into a single cohort...
May 18, 2018: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769293/emerging-multitarget-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-neuroendocrine-neoplasms
#7
Federica Grillo, Tullio Florio, Francesco Ferraù, Elda Kara, Giuseppe Fanciulli, Antongiulio Faggiano, Annamaria A L Colao
In the last few years, the therapeutic approach for neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has changed dramatically following the approval of several novel targeted treatments. The multi-target tyrosine kinase inhibitor (MTKI), sunitinib malate, has been approved by regulatory agencies in pancreatic NENs. The MTKI class, however, includes several other molecules (approved for other conditions), which are currently being studied in NENs. An in depth review on the studies published on the following MTKIs in neuroendocrine tumours: axitinib, cabozantinib, famitinib, lenvatinib, nintedanib, pazopanib, sorafenib and sulfatinib was performed...
May 16, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768967/interleukin-1-receptor-1-deletion-in-focal-and-diffuse-experimental-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#8
Joon Yong Chung, Nicolas Krapp, Limin Wu, Sevda Lule, Lauren McAllister, William Edmiston Iii, Samantha Martin, Emily Levy, Tanya Songtachalert, John Sherwood, Erin Buckley, Bharat Sanders, Saef Izzy, Suzanne Hickman, Shuzhen Guo, Josephine Lok, Joseph El Khoury, Eng Lo, David Kaplan, Michael Whalen
Important differences in the biology of focal and diffuse traumatic brain injury (TBI) subtypes may result in unique pathophysiological responses to shared molecular mechanisms. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) signaling has been tested as a potential therapeutic target in preclinical models of cerebral contusion and diffuse TBI, and in a phase II clinical trial, but no published studies have examined IL-1 signaling in an impact/acceleration closed head injury (CHI) model. We hypothesized that genetic deletion of IL-1 receptor-1 (IL-1R1 KO) would be beneficial in focal (contusion) and CHI in mice...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768064/a-look-at-treatment-strategies-for-relapsed-multiple-myeloma
#9
Giusy Cetani, Mario Boccadoro, Stefania Oliva
Multiple myeloma treatment considerably improved during the past decade, thanks to novel effective drugs, a better understanding of myeloma biology and clonal heterogeneity, and an improved management of toxicities. The choice of regimen at relapse is usually based on prior response, toxicities, age and comorbidities of relapsed patients. Areas covered: A review was performed of the most recent and effective therapeutic strategies for the relapsed myeloma setting, by documenting the latest clinical evidence from phase II and III clinical trials...
May 16, 2018: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766570/melatonin-improves-endothelial-function-in-vitro-and-prolongs-pregnancy-in-women-with-early-onset-preeclampsia
#10
Sebastian R Hobson, Seshi Gurusinghe, Rebecca Lim, Nicole O Alers, Suzanne L Miller, John C Kingdom, Euan M Wallace
Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. There have been no material advances in the treatment of preeclampsia for nearly 50 years. Combining in vitro studies and a clinical trial, we aimed to determine if melatonin could be a useful adjuvant therapy. In a xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XO) placental explant model, melatonin reduced oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) and enhanced antioxidant markers (Nrf2 translocation, HO-1), but did not affect explant production of anti-angiogenic factors (sFlt, sEng, activin A)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765474/on-the-design-principles-of-peptide-drug-conjugates-for-targeted-drug-delivery-to-the-malignant-tumor-site
#11
REVIEW
Eirinaios I Vrettos, Gábor Mező, Andreas G Tzakos
Cancer is the second leading cause of death affecting nearly one in two people, and the appearance of new cases is projected to rise by >70% by 2030. To effectively combat the menace of cancer, a variety of strategies have been exploited. Among them, the development of peptide-drug conjugates (PDCs) is considered as an inextricable part of this armamentarium and is continuously explored as a viable approach to target malignant tumors. The general architecture of PDCs consists of three building blocks: the tumor-homing peptide, the cytotoxic agent and the biodegradable connecting linker...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765249/is-progression-free-survival-a-more-relevant-endpoint-than-overall-survival-in-first-line-hr-her2-metastatic-breast-cancer
#12
Anna Forsythe, David Chandiwana, Janina Barth, Marroon Thabane, Johan Baeck, Anastasiya Shor, Gabriel Tremblay
Background: Hormone receptor-positive (HR+), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-negative (HER2-), metastatic breast cancer (MBC) accounts for 73% of all MBCs. Endocrine therapy (ET) is the basis of first-line (1L) therapy for patients with HR+/HER2- MBC. Novel therapies have demonstrated improvements in progression-free survival (PFS) compared to ET. The clinical relevance of PFS is being debated, as there is no proven direct correlation with overall survival (OS) benefit to date...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764892/intense-exercise-for-survival-among-men-with-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-interval-gap4-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-phase-iii-study-protocol
#13
Robert U Newton, Stacey A Kenfield, Nicolas H Hart, June M Chan, Kerry S Courneya, James Catto, Stephen P Finn, Rosemary Greenwood, Daniel C Hughes, Lorelei Mucci, Stephen R Plymate, Stephan F E Praet, Emer M Guinan, Erin L Van Blarigan, Orla Casey, Mark Buzza, Sam Gledhill, Li Zhang, Daniel A Galvão, Charles J Ryan, Fred Saad
INTRODUCTION: Preliminary evidence supports the beneficial role of physical activity on prostate cancer outcomes. This phase III randomised controlled trial (RCT) is designed to determine if supervised high-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise increases overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Participants (n=866) must have histologically documented metastatic prostate cancer with evidence of progressive disease on androgen deprivation therapy (defined as mCRPC)...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764419/pyronaridine-artesunate-and-artemether-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-kenyan-children-a-randomized-controlled-non-inferiority-trial
#14
Johanna M Roth, Patrick Sawa, Nicodemus Makio, George Omweri, Victor Osoti, Selpha Okach, Felix Choy, Henk D F H Schallig, Pètra Mens
BACKGROUND: Pyronaridine-artesunate is a novel artemisinin-based combination therapy. The efficacy and safety of pyronaridine-artesunate were compared with artemether-lumefantrine for the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children. METHODS: This phase III open-label randomized controlled non-inferiority trial was conducted in Western Kenya. Children aged 6 months to ≤ 12 years with a bodyweight > 5 kg and microscopically confirmed P...
May 15, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764261/ragweed-sublingual-tablet-immunotherapy-part-ii-practical-considerations-and-pertinent-issues
#15
Oliver Pfaar, Peter Socrates Creticos
Sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) has been demonstrated to be both efficacious and safe for the treatment of respiratory allergies such as allergic rhinoconjunctivitis or allergic asthma. Based on the clinical documentation of SLIT ragweed tablets, they have gained marketing authorization in the USA by the US FDA in 2014 for adult patients. Following clinical data from (pivotal) multicenter Phase II and III trials as performed in the USA and Canada and real life experience after registration in 2014, SLIT ragweed tablets can be recommended as efficacious and safe treatment option with disease modifying potential when adequately indicated and performed...
May 16, 2018: Immunotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762545/marine-microalgae-with-anti-cancer-properties
#16
REVIEW
Kevin A Martínez Andrade, Chiara Lauritano, Giovanna Romano, Adrianna Ianora
Cancer is the leading cause of death globally and finding new therapeutic agents for cancer treatment remains a major challenge in the pursuit for a cure. This paper presents an overview on microalgae with anti-cancer activities. Microalgae are eukaryotic unicellular plants that contribute up to 40% of global primary productivity. They are excellent sources of pigments, lipids, carotenoids, omega-3 fatty acids, polysaccharides, vitamins and other fine chemicals, and there is an increasing demand for their use as nutraceuticals and food supplements...
May 15, 2018: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761420/long-term-radiographic-and-patient-reported-outcomes-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis-treated-with-tofacitinib-oral-start-and-oral-scan-post-hoc-analyses
#17
Vibeke Strand, Arthur Kavanaugh, Alan J Kivitz, Désirée van der Heijde, Kenneth Kwok, Ermeg Akylbekova, Arif Soonasra, Mark Snyder, Carol Connell, Eustratios Bananis, Josef S Smolen
INTRODUCTION: Here we examine the relationship between achieving different levels of disease activity with tofacitinib (an oral Janus kinase inhibitor for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis), long-term structural progression, and patient-reported physical function. METHODS: This was a post hoc analysis of two 24-month, phase III randomized controlled trials in methotrexate (MTX)-naïve (ORAL Start [NCT01039688]) or MTX-inadequate responder (IR) patients (ORAL Scan [NCT00847613]) receiving tofacitinib 5 or 10 mg twice daily as either monotherapy or with background MTX...
May 14, 2018: Rheumatology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758036/benzoxaborole-treatment-perturbs-s-adenosyl-l-methionine-metabolism-in-trypanosoma-brucei
#18
Pieter C Steketee, Isabel M Vincent, Fiona Achcar, Federica Giordani, Dong-Hyun Kim, Darren J Creek, Yvonne Freund, Robert Jacobs, Kevin Rattigan, David Horn, Mark C Field, Annette MacLeod, Michael P Barrett
The parasitic protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes Human African Trypanosomiasis and Nagana in other mammals. These diseases present a major socio-economic burden to large areas of sub-Saharan Africa. Current therapies involve complex and toxic regimens, which can lead to fatal side-effects. In addition, there is emerging evidence for drug resistance. AN5568 (SCYX-7158) is a novel benzoxaborole class compound that has been selected as a lead compound for the treatment of HAT, and has demonstrated effective clearance of both early and late stage trypanosomiasis in vivo...
May 14, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756633/immunotherapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer-scientific-rationale-current-treatment-options-and-future-directions
#19
Uta Rothschild, Laurent Muller, Axel Lechner, Hans A Schlösser, Dirk Beutner, Heinz Läubli, Alfred Zippelius, Sacha I Rothschild
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a frequent tumour arising from multiple anatomical subsites in the head and neck region. The treatment for early-stage disease is generally single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy. The treatment for locally advanced tumours is multimodal. For recurrent/metastatic HNSCC palliative chemotherapy is standard of care. The prognosis is limited and novel treatment approaches are urgently needed. HNSCC evades immune responses through multiple resistance mechanisms...
May 14, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756308/improving-adolescents-periodontal-health-evaluation-of-a-mobile-oral-health-app-associated-with-conventional-educational-methods-a-cluster-randomized-trial
#20
Gisele Marchetti, Fabian Calixto Fraiz, Willian Muniz do Nascimento, Geisla Mary Silva Soares, Luciana Reichert da Silva Assunção
BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a decisive period in the construction of new conduits. OBJECTIVE: The influence of an App associated with conventional educational methods in adolescents' oral health. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial including 291 participants (mean age = 16.1 years) in baseline. The study consisted of four phases. Interventions were evaluated through the knowledge score (KS) and oral indexes (OHI-S/GBI). KS was obtained through five affirmations about periodontal diseases applied in different moments (pre-test, post-test, and follow-up test)...
May 13, 2018: International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry
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