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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098569/human-papillomavirus-genotyping-of-incidental-malignant-and-premalignant-lesions-on-hemorrhoidectomy-specimens
#1
Yiang Hui, M Ruhul Quddus, Jayasimha N Murthy, Dongfang Yang, C James Sung, Shaolei Lu, Murray B Resnick, Li Juan Wang
Routine histopathologic examination of hemorrhoidectomy specimens is controversial having been described as not useful and expensive with few of these common cases demonstrating incidental lesions. However, unexpected premalignant and malignant lesions have been detected on excised hemorrhoids. The high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) types associated with these incidentally identified high-grade lesions are presently unknown. We aimed to identify cases of incidental high-grade anal intraepithelial neoplasia (HG-AIN) and anal squamous cell carcinoma incidentally discovered on hemorrhoidectomy specimens, genotype HR-HPVs from these lesions, and assess p53 and p16 expression by immunohistochemistry to identify risk factors for their development...
January 16, 2017: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094565/the-decline-in-hiv-1-drug-resistance-in-heavily-antiretroviral-experienced-patients-is-associated-with-optimized-prescriptions-in-a-treatment-roll-out-program-in-mexico
#2
Juan J Calva, Silvana Larrea, Marco A Tapia-Maltos, Mauricio Ostrosky-Frid, Carolina Lara, Pedro Aguilar-Salinas, Héctor Rivera, Juan P Ramírez
A decrease in the rate of acquired antiretroviral (ARV) drug-resistance (ADR) over time has been documented in high-income settings, but data on the determinants of this phenomenon are lacking. We tested the hypothesis that in heavily ARV-experienced patients in the Mexican ARV therapy (ART) roll-out program, the drop in ADR would be associated with changes in ARV drug usage. Genotypic resistance tests obtained from 974 HIV-infected patients with virologic failure and at least 2 previously failed ARV regimens from throughout the country were analyzed for the presence of nRTI, NNRTI and PI resistance-associated mutations (RAMs)...
January 17, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088884/dual-raltegravir-etravirine-combination-as-maintenance-regimen-in-virologically-suppressed-hiv-1-infected-patients
#3
Leonardo Calza, Eleonora Magistrelli, Vincenzo Colangeli, Roberto Manfredi, Marco Borderi, Nicolò Rossi, Matteo Conti, Rita Mancini, Pierluigi Viale
BACKGROUND: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)- and protease inhibitor (PI)-sparing antiretroviral regimens may be useful in selected HIV-infected patients with resistance or intolerance to these drug classes. METHODS: This was an observational prospective study of patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy containing two NRTIs plus one ritonavir-boosted PI who switched to a dual regimen containing raltegravir plus etravirine. Patients were required not to have prior virological failure to raltegravir and to have efficacy of etravirine showed through the genotypic resistance assay in case of prior non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) virological failure...
January 15, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087069/safety-tolerability-and-antiviral-effect-of-rg-101-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-a-phase-1b-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Meike H van der Ree, J Marleen de Vree, Femke Stelma, Sophie Willemse, Marc van der Valk, Svend Rietdijk, Richard Molenkamp, Janke Schinkel, Ad C van Nuenen, Ulrich Beuers, Salah Hadi, Marten Harbers, Eva van der Veer, Kai Liu, John Grundy, Amy K Patick, Adam Pavlicek, Jacqueline Blem, Michael Huang, Paul Grint, Steven Neben, Neil W Gibson, Neeltje A Kootstra, Hendrik W Reesink
BACKGROUND: miR-122 is an important host factor for hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and antiviral effect of a single dose of RG-101, a hepatocyte targeted N-acetylgalactosamine conjugated oligonucleotide that antagonises miR-122, in patients with chronic HCV infection with various genotypes. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre, phase 1B study, patients were randomly assigned to RG-101 or placebo (7:1)...
January 10, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086933/self-collection-based-hpv-testing-for-cervical-cancer-screening-among-women-living-with-hiv-in-uganda-a-descriptive-analysis-of-knowledge-intentions-to-screen-and-factors-associated-with-hpv-positivity
#5
Sheona M Mitchell, Heather N Pedersen, Evelyn Eng Stime, Musa Sekikubo, Erin Moses, David Mwesigwa, Christine Biryabarema, Jan Christilaw, Josaphat K Byamugisha, Deborah M Money, Gina S Ogilvie
BACKGROUND: Women living with HIV (WHIV) are disproportionately impacted by cervical dysplasia and cancer. The burden is greatest in low-income countries where limited or no access to screening exists. The goal of this study was to describe knowledge and intentions of WHIV towards HPV self-collection for cervical cancer screening, and to report on factors related to HPV positivity among women who participated in testing. METHODS: A validated survey was administered to 87 HIV positive women attending the Kisenyi Health Unit aged 30-69 years old, and data was abstracted from chart review...
January 13, 2017: BMC Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086929/early-virological-failure-and-hiv-drug-resistance-in-ugandan-adults-co-infected-with-tuberculosis
#6
Amrei von Braun, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Alexandra U Scherrer, Brian Magambo, Andrew Kambugu, Jan Fehr, Barbara Castelnuovo
PURPOSE: This cross-sectional study took place in the integrated tuberculosis (TB) clinic of a large outpatient clinic for HIV-infected patients in Kampala, Uganda. The purpose of this study was to describe the proportion of TB/HIV co-infected adults with virological failure, type and frequency of HIV drug resistance-associated mutations, and the proportion of patients with suboptimal efavirenz levels. METHODS: HIV-1 plasma viral loads, CD4 cell count measurements, and efavirenz serum concentrations were done in TB/HIV co-infected adults...
January 5, 2017: AIDS Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078644/eight-or-12-week-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-ledipasvir-sofosbuvir-real-world-experience-in-a-large-integrated-health-system
#7
Jennifer B Lai, Maxwell A Witt, Mary Patricia Pauly, Joanna Ready, Michael Allerton, Suk Seo, David J Witt
BACKGROUND: Second-generation direct-acting antiviral agents are integral to treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Eight-week courses of ledipasvir/sofosbuvir (LDV/SOF) have been supported in some studies, but data are limited on efficacy in real-world use. Controversy exists regarding applicability of clinical trials to real-world effectiveness. We report virologic responses of patients with HCV genotype 1 infection receiving LDV/SOF for 8 or 12 weeks in a large integrated healthcare system...
January 11, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077634/characterization-of-hcv-envelope-diversification-from-acute-to-chronic-infection-using-smrt-sequencing-within-a-sexually-transmitted-hepatitis-c-virus-cluster
#8
Cynthia K Y Ho, Jayna Raghwani, Sylvie Koekkoek, Richard H Liang, Jan T M Van der Meer, Marc Van Der Valk, Menno De Jong, Oliver G Pybus, Janke Schinkel, Richard Molenkamp
: In contrast to other available next generation sequencing platforms, Pacbio Single Molecule, Real-Time (SMRT) sequencing has the advantage of generating long reads, albeit with a relatively higher error rate in unprocessed data. Using this platform we longitudinally sampled and sequenced the hepatitis C virus (HCV) envelope genome region (1680 nt) from individuals belonging to a cluster of sexually-transmitted cases. All five subjects were HIV-1 coinfected and infected with a closely related strain of HCV genotype 4d...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076335/infrequent-development-of-drug-resistance-in-hiv-1-infected-treatment-naive-subjects-after-96-weeks-of-treatment-with-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-alafenamide-or-elvitegravir-cobicistat-emtricitabine-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate
#9
Nicolas Margot, Stephanie Cox, Moupali Das, Scott McCallister, Michael D Miller, Christian Callebaut
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) is a novel prodrug of the nucleotide RT inhibitor (NtRTI) tenofovir (TFV) that loads lymphocytes with TFV-diphosphate more efficiently than tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF). The single-tablet regimen (STR) composed of elvitegravir/cobicistat/emtricitabine/TAF (E/C/F/TAF) has demonstrated non-inferiority to the STR of E/C/F/TDF in clinical studies, with high proportions of subjects achieving HIV-1 RNA <50 copies/mL at week 48, and maintained through week 96...
January 11, 2017: Antiviral Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075146/five-near-full-length-hepatitis-c-virus-sequences-were-isolated-from-hiv-coinfected-idus-of-china
#10
Fan Li, Yi Feng, Na Ni, Jing Hu, Yuhua Ruan, Yiming Shao, Liying Ma
HIV and HCV share transmission routes including contaminated blood transfusion, sexual intercourse, and needle-sharing in injection drug users (IDUs). We obtained five near full-length genome sequences (NFLGs) of HCV isolated from five HIV-1 coinfected IDUs in Sichuan and Xinjiang province, China. By conducting reconstruction of neighbor-joining (NJ) phylogenetic tree, our results revealed that the five isolates are different genotypes (1b, 3a, 6a and 6n). The amino acid substitutions(170I) in XJN0021 related to resistant to protease inhibitors (Grazoprevir) were also identified...
January 11, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072886/dynamic-change-in-the-ns3-protease-domain-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients-na%C3%A3-ve-to-anti-hcv-protease-inhibitors
#11
Simona Bagaglio, Emanuela Messina, Hamid Hasson, Mario Merli, Andrea Andolina, Adriano Lazzarin, Caterina Uberti-Foppa, Giulia Morsica
The genetic analysis of THE natural protease inhibitors (PI) resistance of HCV genotype (GT)1 involves subtypes 1a and 1b. NS3 protease domain was sequentially analysed in 10 HIV/HCV GT1-coinfected individuals naïve to HCV treatment. Analysis at different time points showed that 2/3 GT1b patients were infected by a GT1a clade1 during follow-up. In one patient a switch from clade1 to clade2 and in one other patient a switch from clade2 to clade1 was revealed. Four out of ten patients had resistance-associated substitutions (RASs) at baseline...
January 5, 2017: New Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070215/multiple-hpv-infections-in-female-sex-workers-in-western-kenya-implications-for-prophylactic-vaccines-within-this-sub-population
#12
Sonia Menon, Davy van den Broeck, Rodolfo Rossi, Emilomo Ogbe, Hillary Mabeya
BACKGROUND: Whilst the imputed role of High Risk (HR) HPV infection in the development of cervical lesions and cancer has been established, the high number of HPV genotypes that Female Sex workers (FSW) harbour warrants that the synergistic effects of potential HR (pHR) and HR HPV genotypes be elucidated to assess the potential impact of prophylactic vaccines. This population in Kenya also harbours a number of other vaginal infections and STIs, including bacterial vaginosis (BV), trichomonas vaginalis (TV) and candida spp...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070175/a-special-meeting-review-edition-advances-in-the-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-from-the-2016-easl-meeting-the-annual-meeting-of-the-european-association-for-the-study-of-the-liver-%C3%A2-april-13-17-2016-%C3%A2-barcelona-spainspecial-reporting-on-%C3%A2-six-weeks
#13
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070174/the-hcv-treatment-revolution-continues-resistance-considerations-pangenotypic-efficacy-and-advances-in-challenging-populations
#14
Ira M Jacobson
The US Food and Drug Administration has now approved 10 direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) for the management of hepatitis C virus (HCV). These therapies are combined into 6 regimens that are given for varying durations, with or without ribavirin, depending on the viral genotype, the presence or absence of baseline resistance-associated variants (RAVs), and the patient type. RAVs may be present before exposure to a drug or may become detectable de novo during exposure to a drug. Emerging resistant strains are the most common cause of failure of HCV DAA regimens...
October 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067990/familial-hepatitis-e-outbreak-linked-to-wild-boar-meat-consumption
#15
A Rivero-Juarez, M Frias, A Martinez-Peinado, M A Risalde, D Rodriguez-Cano, A Camacho, I García-Bocanegra, F Cuenca-Lopez, J C Gomez-Villamandos, A Rivero
An HIV-infected patient was diagnosed with acute hepatitis E infection in our hospital. An epidemiological inquiry was performed to collect demographic, food and animal exposure variables in order to identify the potential route of transmission. The patient reported that his family traditionally hunted wild boar for food. All family members were analysed for hepatitis E virus infection. Additionally, route of transmission by wild boar meat consumption and prevalence of HEV infection among wild boar from the same hunting area were investigated...
January 9, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062211/endosomal-toll-like-receptor-gene-polymorphisms-and-susceptibility-to-hiv-and-hcv-co-infection-differential-influence-in-individuals-with-distinct-ethnic-background
#16
Jacqueline M Valverde-Villegas, Bruno Paiva Dos Santos, Rúbia Marília de Medeiros, Vanessa Suñé Mattevi, Rosmeri Kuhmmer Lazzaretti, Eduardo Sprinz, Regina Kuhmmer, José Artur Bogo Chies
The genetic background of human populations can influence the susceptibility and outcome of infection diseases. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) have been previously associated with susceptibility to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, disease progression and hepatitis C, virus (HCV) co-infection in different populations, although mostly in Europeans. In this study, we investigated the genetic role of endosomal TLRs on susceptibility to HIV infection and HCV co-infection through the analysis of TLR7 rs179008, TLR8 rs3764880, TLR9 rs5743836 and TLR9 rs352140 polymorphisms in 789 Brazilian individuals (374 HIV+ and 415 HIV-), taking into account their ethnic background...
January 3, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061885/diagnostic-yield-of-nontuberculous-mycobacteria-in-patients-booked-for-endoscopy-at-the-university-teaching-hospital-lusaka
#17
Gershom Chongwe, Charles Michelo, Paul Kelly
BACKGROUND: The intestinal carriage of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) is associated with disease, especially in severely immunocompromised individuals. These organisms, although often considered contaminants, have been known to cause various types of illnesses. We aimed to determine the prevalence of and associated factors for NTM among patients booked for colonoscopy at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka. METHODS: We randomly recruited 97 patients attending routine endoscopy procedures between November 2012 and October 2013 and after consent, administered a structured questionnaire...
January 7, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061826/monophylogenetic-hiv-1c-epidemic-in-ethiopia-is-dominated-by-ccr5-tropic-viruses-an-analysis-of-a-prospective-country-wide-cohort
#18
Amare Worku Kalu, Nigus Fikrie Telele, Solomon Gebreselasie, Daniel Fekade, Samir Abdurahman, Gaetano Marrone, Anders Sönnerborg
BACKGROUND: CCR5 coreceptor using HIV-1 subtype C (HIV-1C) has been reported to dominate the Ethiopian epidemic. However, almost all data have been obtained from two large cities in the central and north-west regions and recent data is lacking. METHODS: Plasma were obtained from 420 treatment-naïve patients recruited 2009-2011 to a large country-wide Ethiopian cohort. The V3 region was sequenced and the co-receptor tropism was predicted by the clinical and clonal models of the geno2pheno tool at different false positive rates (fpr) and for subtype...
January 6, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059958/future-technologies-for-monitoring-hiv-drug-resistance-and-cure
#19
Urvi M Parikh, Kevin McCormick, Gert van Zyl, John W Mellors
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Sensitive, scalable and affordable assays are critically needed for monitoring the success of interventions for preventing, treating and attempting to cure HIV infection. This review evaluates current and emerging technologies that are applicable for both surveillance of HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) and characterization of HIV reservoirs that persist despite antiretroviral therapy and are obstacles to curing HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: Next-generation sequencing (NGS) has the potential to be adapted into high-throughput, cost-efficient approaches for HIVDR surveillance and monitoring during continued scale-up of antiretroviral therapy and rollout of preexposure prophylaxis...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057150/-hiv-genetic-subtypes-and-hiv-drug-resistance-in-china-a-meta-analysis
#20
N N Wu, Y Q Yin, R Yuan, B Wang
Objective: To assess the relationship between HIV genetic subtypes and HIV resistance in China. Methods: The literature retrieval was conducted by using Chinese Science-Technology Journal Database (VIP), Wanfang Data, Chinese Journal Full-text Database (CNKI), PubMed and Web of Science to select the papers on the relationship between HIV subtypes and HIV drug resistance in China during 2005-2015. Eligible papers were included according to the inclusion. Meta-analysis was performed by using software Stata 12...
November 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
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