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hiv genotyping

Tshifhiwa Magoro, George Gachara, Lufuno Mavhandu, Emmaculate Lum, Helen K Kimbi, Roland N Ndip, Pascal Bessong
BACKGROUND: HBV and HIV share similar transmission routes. Concurrent infection with the two viruses usually results in more severe and progressive liver disease, and a higher incidence of cirrhosis, liver cancer and mortality. Further, this co-infection may lead to cross-resistance between HIV and HBV drugs and increased liver injury, either due to direct hepatotoxicity or drug-related immune-reconstitution hepatitis. These challenges necessitate continuous surveillance for HBV among HIV infected individuals to guide patient management...
October 21, 2016: Virology Journal
Manan Jhaveri, Nicholas Procaccini, Kris V Kowdley
Chronic Hepatitis C is a major public health problem. The chronicity of the Hepatitis C can lead to advanced liver disease, cirrhosis and even hepatocellular carcinoma. Chronic hepatitis C is the leading indication of for liver transplantation in the United States. Since the introduction of directly acting antiviral agents (DAAs), there have been there have been dramatic advances in treatment of hepatitis C in terms of tolerability, duration of therapy with significant increases in the rates of sustained virology response (SVR)...
October 21, 2016: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Noboru Hirashima, Hiroaki Iwase, Masaaki Shimada, Nobumitsu Ryuge, Junji Imamura, Hiroki Ikeda, Yasuhito Tanaka, Nobuyuki Matsumoto, Chiaki Okuse, Fumio Itoh, Yoshiyuki Yokomaku, Tsunamasa Watanabe
Co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) often accelerates the course of HCV-associated liver disease. Daclatasvir (DCV) plus asunaprevir (ASV) have been shown to be highly effective for HCV-infected patients with genotype 1b. Three patients co-infected with HIV/HCV genotype 1b were enrolled in this study. Prior to initiation of HCV treatment, the variants associated with L31 and Y93 in the non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) region of the HCV genome were confirmed to be absent using a direct sequencing method...
October 20, 2016: Clinical Journal of Gastroenterology
Aditya H Gaur, Hilda Kizito, Wasana Prasitsueubsai, Natella Rakhmanina, Mohammed Rassool, Rana Chakraborty, Jagmohan Batra, Pope Kosalaraksa, Wicharn Luesomboon, Danielle Porter, Yongwu Shao, Michael Myers, Lillian Ting, Devi SenGupta, Erin Quirk, Martin S Rhee
BACKGROUND: The prodrug tenofovir alafenamide is associated with improved renal and bone safety compared with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. We aimed to assess safety, pharmacokinetics, and efficacy of this single-tablet, fixed-dose combination of elvitegravir, cobicistat, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide in HIV-infected, treatment-naive adolescents. METHODS: We did a 48 week, single-arm, open-label trial in treatment-naive adolescents with HIV from ten hospital clinics in South Africa, Thailand, Uganda, and the USA...
October 17, 2016: Lancet HIV
Sonia Menon, Aibibula Wusiman, Marie Claude Boily, Mbabazi Kariisa, Hillary Mabeya, Stanley Luchters, Frode Forland, Rodolfo Rossi, Steven Callens, Davy Vanden Broeck
BACKGROUND: There is a scarcity of data on the distribution of human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes in the HIV positive population and in invasive cervical cancer (ICC) in Kenya. This may be different from genotypes found in abnormal cytology. Yet, with the advent of preventive HPV vaccines that target HPV 16 and 18, and the nonavalent vaccine targeting 90% of all ICC cases, such HPV genotype distribution data are indispensable for predicting the impact of vaccination and HPV screening on prevention...
2016: PloS One
Wenjun Zhang, Junfang Chen, Xiao Hong Pan, Jiafeng Zhang, Zhihong Guo, Yan Luo, Jiezhe Yang, Yan Xia, Lin He, Yun Xu, Ke Xu, Xiaobei Ding
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the HIV-1 molecular epidemiology among young people (18 to 25 years old) in Hangzhou. METHODS: Plasma samples from 262 newly diagnosed HIV-1 infected patients were collected between 2009 and 2013 from Hangzhou of Zhejiang province. HIV-1 nucleotide sequences of pol gene regions were amplified using a nested PCR method and sequenced. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses were used to determine the HIV-1 genotypes. RESULTS: Based on all sequences generated, the subtype/circulating recombinant forms (CRF) distribution was as follows: CRF01_AE (68...
October 20, 2016: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Linda Chang, Gro C Løhaugen, Tamara Andres, Caroline S Jiang, Vanessa Douet, Naomi Tanizaki, Christina Walker, Deborrah Castillo, Ahnate Lim, Jon Skranes, Chad Otoshi, Eric N Miller, Thomas M Ernst
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an adaptive-working memory training (WMT) program, the corresponding neural correlates, and LMX1A-rs4657412 polymorphism on the adaptive-WMT, in HIV-participants compared to seronegative controls (SN). METHODS: 201/206 qualified participants completed baseline assessments before randomization to 25-sessions of adaptive-WMT or non-adaptive-WMT. 74/76 (34HIV, 42SN) completed adaptive-WMT and all 40 completed non-adaptive-WMT (20HIV, 20SN) and were assessed after 1-month, and 55 adaptive-WMT-participants were also assessed after 6-months...
October 19, 2016: Annals of Neurology
Jeni Staykova, Tanja Belovska, Ayla Murad, Sevinch Kakid, Aneta Nacheva, Evelina Shikova
AIM: Although sexually transmitted viral infections are significant and increasing public health concern, little is known about their prevalence among Bulgarian women. The aim of this study was to investigate cervical viral infections in asymptomatic women. METHODS: The study group included 52 randomly selected asymptomatic female volunteers from Bulgarian border town Kardzhali. Cervical specimens were tested by real-time PCR for human papillomaviruses (HPV), herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus (CMV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
September 2016: Central European Journal of Public Health
Zhonglan Wu, Lijia Cui, Weiming Zhao, Dongzhi Yang, Hui Chen, Ruiqing Wang, Xuemin Wang, Linqi Zhang, Tianhua He
BACKGROUND: Current prevalence and genotype distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain unknown in Ningxia, northwest China. METHODS: From June to December 2013, 13,022 individuals were screened in Ningxia HIV/AIDS Sentinel Surveillance System, with their demographic features collected and serum samples tested for HCV antibody. Sero-positive drug users were further subjected to sequencing of NS5B and Core regions of HCV. RESULTS: The anti-HCV prevalence was 0...
October 18, 2016: Virology Journal
Helen A Kelly, Bernard Sawadogo, Admire Chikandiwa, Michel Segondy, Clare Gilham, Olga Lompo, Tanvier Omar, Marie-Noelle Didelot, Nicolas Nagot, Nicolas Meda, Helen A Weiss, Sinead Delany-Moretlwe, Philippe Mayaud
OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and HIV-related factors on high-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) and high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia lesions (CIN2+) among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLHA) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Prospective cohort of WLHA in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso (BF) and Johannesburg, South Africa (SA). Recruitment was stratified by ART status. METHODS: At baseline and endline (median 16 months), cervical samples and biopsies were analyzed for HPV genotyping (InnoLiPA) and by histology...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Gerrit Ahrenstorf, Hui-Zhi Low, Katja Kniesch, David Ordonez, Dirk Meyer-Olson, Fareed Ahmad, Claudia Kücherer, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Matthias Stoll, Torsten Matthias, Reinhold E Schmidt, Torsten Witte
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of LILRA3 and the genetic LILRA3 deletion on transmission and clinical course of HIV infection. DESIGN: Case and control study. METHODS: LILRA3 genotypes were determined by polymerase chain reaction. HIV patients were categorized into short-term progressors, normal progressors and long-term non-progressors according to the clinical course. Functional studies were performed using real-time PCR, intracellular flow cytometry and ELISA...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Qian Wang, Renato Polimanti, Henry R Kranzler, Lindsay A Farrer, Hongyu Zhao, Joel Gelernter
Schizophrenia (SZ) and HIV infection are serious disorders with a complex phenotypic relationship. Observational studies have described their comorbidity; their genetic correlation is not well studied. We performed extensive analysis in search of common genetic factors for SZ and HIV, and their relationship with risky sexual behavior (RSB). Summary statistics from genome-wide association studies of HIV infection and schizophrenia were obtained and 2379 European Americans were genotyped and assessed for RSB score...
October 17, 2016: Human Genetics
Thierry Kammalac Ngouana, Pascal Drakulovski, Donika Krasteva, Rufin Kuipou Toghueo, Charles Kouanfack, Jacques Reynes, Eric Delaporte, Fabrice Fekam Boyom, Michèle Mallié, Sébastien Bertout
The molecular epidemiology and the antifungal susceptibility profiles of Candida albicans are scarce in Cameroon. Authors studied the genetic diversity and the antifungal susceptibility of C. albicans isolates from Yaoundé HIV-infected patients. Clinical isolates were obtained by mycological diagnosis of oropharyngeal swabs, stools, urine, and vaginal swabs from patients. C. albicans isolates were confirmed by the Light cycler real-time PCR of the ITS1 region of the 5.8s ribosomal DNA. The ABC genotypes and the Hwp1 gene amplification were carried out with specific primers...
October 14, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Eva Heger, Alexandra Andrée Theis, Klaus Remmel, Hauke Walter, Alejandro Pironti, Elena Knops, Veronica Di Cristanziano, Björn Jensen, Stefan Esser, Rolf Kaiser, Nadine Lübke
Phenotypic resistance analysis is an indispensable method for determination of HIV-1 resistance and cross-resistance to novel drug compounds. Since integrase inhibitors are essential components of recent antiretroviral combination therapies, phenotypic resistance data, in conjunction with the corresponding genotypes, are needed for improving rules-based and data-driven tools for resistance prediction, such as HIV-Grade and geno2pheno[integrase]. For generation of phenotypic resistance data to recent integrase inhibitors, a recombinant phenotypic integrase susceptibility assay was established...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
Santiago Avila-Ríos, Claudia García-Morales, Margarita Matías-Florentino, Daniela Tapia-Trejo, Bismarck F Hernández-Álvarez, Sumaya E Moreira-López, Carlos J Quant-Durán, Guillermo Porras-Cortés, Gustavo Reyes-Terán
BACKGROUND: Increasing HIV pre-treatment drug resistance (PDR) levels have been observed in regions with increasing antiretroviral treatment (ART) coverage. However, data is lacking for several low/middle-income countries. We present the first PDR survey in Nicaragua since ART introduction in the country in 2003. METHODS: HIV-infected, ART-naïve Nicaraguan individuals were enrolled at Roberto Calderón Hospital, the largest national HIV referral center, from 2011 to 2015...
2016: PloS One
Sarah L Greig
A once-daily, single-tablet, pangenotypic regimen comprising the hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS5B polymerase inhibitor sofosbuvir and the HCV NS5A inhibitor velpatasvir (sofosbuvir/velpatasvir; Epclusa(®)) was recently approved for the treatment of adults with chronic HCV genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 infection in the USA, EU and Canada. In the phase III ASTRAL trials, once-daily oral sofosbuvir/velpatasvir for 12 weeks provided very high rates of sustained virological response at 12 weeks post treatment (SVR12) in treatment-naive and -experienced patients with chronic HCV genotype 1-6 infection, including those with compensated cirrhosis or HIV-1 co-infection...
October 11, 2016: Drugs
Qiuyan Li, Yuandong Qiao, Guangfa Zhang, Ning He, Xuelong Zhang, Xueyuan Jia, Haiming Sun, Chuntao Wang, Lidan Xu
Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at high risk of HIV infection. The APOBEC3G (apolipoprotein B mRNA editing catalytic polypeptide 3G) protein is a component of innate antiviral immunity that inhibits HIV-1 replication. In the present study, a total of 483 HIV-1 seropositive men and 493 HIV-1 seronegative men were selected to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the APOBEC3G gene and susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and AIDS progression among MSM residing in northern China...
October 11, 2016: Archives of Virology
Giuseppina Musumeci, Giacomo Magnani, Isabella Bon, Serena Longo, Alessia Bertoldi, Anna Maria Degli Antoni, Maria Rita Rossi, Alessandro Ruggeri, Vittorio Sambri, Simona Semprini, Laura Sighinolfi, Maria Alessandra Ursitti, Alessandro Zerbini, Vincenzo Colangeli, Leonardo Calza, Alba Carola Finarelli, Erika Massimiliani, Maria Carla Re
It is crucial to establish the timing of infection and distinguish between early and long-lasting HIV-1 infections not only for partner notification and epidemiological surveillance, but also to offer early drug treatment and contain the spread of infection. This study analyzed serum and/or plasma samples with a first positive HIV antibody/antigen result coming from different Medical Centers in the Emilia Romagna Region, North East Italy, using the avidity assay, Western Blotting, RNA viral load, CD4 cell counts and genotyping assay...
September 13, 2016: New Microbiologica
Rajeev K Mehlotra, Noemi B Hall, Barne Willie, Catherine M Stein, Aaron Weinberg, Peter A Zimmerman, Lance T Vernon
Polymorphisms in toll-like receptor (TLR) and β-defensin (DEFB) genes have been recognized as potential genetic factors that can influence susceptibility to and severity of periodontal diseases (PD). However, data regarding associations between these polymorphisms and PD are still scarce in North American populations, and are not available in HIV+ North American populations. In this exploratory study, we analyzed samples from HIV+ adults (n = 115), who received primary HIV care at 3 local outpatient HIV clinics and were monitored for PD status...
2016: PloS One
Wendy S Armstrong, Jeannette Guarner, Colleen S Kraft, Angela M Caliendo
In this chapter we will discuss the diagnosis and monitoring of individuals with HIV infection. The application and interpretation of these tests does not change dramatically when used in the immunocompromised host. The principal approach to the diagnosis of HIV infection involves serologic testing, although nucleic acid amplification tests play an important role in the diagnosis of acute HIV infection. The algorithm for diagnosis of HIV continues to evolve with newer assays that are able to detect infection within an earlier timeframe after HIV transmission...
August 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
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