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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772814/chronic-and-occult-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-pregnant-women-in-botswana
#1
Tshepiso Mbangiwa, Ishmael Kasvosve, Motswedi Anderson, Prisca K Thami, Wonderful T Choga, Austen Needleman, Bonolo B Phinius, Sikhulile Moyo, Melvin Leteane, Jean Leidner, Jason T Blackard, Gloria Mayondi, Betsy Kammerer, Rosemary M Musonda, Max Essex, Shahin Lockman, Simani Gaseitsiwe
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a global problem; however, the burden of HBV infection in pregnant women in Botswana is unknown. We sought to determine the prevalence of chronic and occult HBV infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and -uninfected pregnant women in Botswana. Samples from 752 pregnant women were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), and HBsAg-positive samples were tested for hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) and HBV DNA load. Samples that were HBsAg negative were screened for occult HBV infection by determining the HBV DNA load...
May 17, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771783/hiv-1-drug-resistance-among-ugandan-adults-attending-an-urban-out-patient-clinic
#2
Amrei von Braun, Christine Sekaggya-Wiltshire, Nadine Bachmann, Deogratius Ssemwanga, Alexandra U Scherrer, Maria Nanyonjo, Anne Kapaata, Pontiano Kaleebu, Huldrych F Günthard, Barbara Castelnuovo, Jan Fehr, Andrew Kambugu
BACKGROUND: Little is known about prevalence of drug resistance among HIV-infected Ugandans, a setting with over 15 years of public-sector access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and where virological monitoring was only recently introduced. SETTING: This study was conducted in the adults' out-patient clinic of the Infectious Diseases Institute, Kampala, Uganda. METHODS: HIV genotyping was performed in ART naïve patients and in treatment experienced patients on ART for ≥ six months with virological failure (≥1000 copies/mL)...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771378/detection-of-incident-anal-high-risk-hpv-dna-in-msm-incidence-or-reactivation
#3
Denise E Twisk, Marianne A B van der Sande, Arne van Eeden, Daniëlle A M Heideman, Fiona R M van der Klis, Henry J C de Vries, Maarten F Schim van der Loeff
Background: We aimed to assess whether sexual exposure may explain all incident anal HPV detections among men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods: A longitudinal study among MSM was conducted between 2010 and 2013 with six-monthly visits and up to 24 months of follow-up. Risk-factor questionnaires, blood samples, and anal and penile self-swabs were collected at each visit. Self-swabs were used for detection and genotyping of HPV by SPF10-PCR/DEIA/LiPA25 system...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770100/lymphogranuloma-venereum-in-quebec-re-emergence-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#4
C A Boutin, S Venne, M Fiset, C Fortin, D Murphy, A Severini, C Martineau, J Longtin, A C Labbé
Background: Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by Chlamydia trachomatis genotypes L1 , L2 and L3 . This LGV is associated with significant morbidity and increased risk of HIV transmission. While fewer than two cases per year were reported in Quebec before 2005, LGV emerged in 2005-2006 with 69 cases, followed by a period of low incidence (2007-2012), and subsequent re-emergence since 2013. Objectives: To describe the incidence of LGV in Quebec and the characteristics of the affected population, including demographics and risk factors, clinical manifestations, laboratory tests, treatments and reinfection rates...
February 1, 2018: Canada Communicable Disease Report, Relevé des Maladies Transmissibles Au Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769530/comparison-of-the-genotypic-and-phenotypic-properties-of-hiv-1-standard-subtype-b-and-subtype-b-b-env-molecular-clones-derived-from-infections-in-china
#5
Hui Xie, Jianhui Nie, Qingqing Chen, Weijin Huang, Youchun Wang
Although a number of standardized human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) pseudoviruses have been generated to assess neutralizing antibodies, subtype B/B' has not been comprehensively characterized either genotypically or phenotypically. Full-length env genes were isolated from plasma samples derived from B/B'-infected individuals, including former plasma donors and men who had sex with men. The neutralization properties of these pseudoviruses were determined by testing against sCD4, 16 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies and 44 plasma samples, including samples from those infected with the three major prevalent clades in China...
May 16, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766813/coreceptor-tropism-and-maraviroc-sensitivity-of-clonally-derived-ethiopian-hiv-1c-strains-using-an-in-house-phenotypic-assay-and-commonly-used-genotypic-methods
#6
Amare Worku Kalu, Nigus Fikrie Telele, Shambhu Aralaguppe, Solomon Gebre-Selassie, Daniel Fekade, Gaetano Marrone, Anders Sonnerborg
OBJECTIVES: Genotypic tropism testing (GTT) tools are generally developed based on HIV-1 subtype B (HIV-1B) and used for HIV-1C as well but with a large discordance of prediction between different methods. We used an established phenotypic assay for comparison with GTT methods and for determination of in vitro maraviroc sensitivity of pure R5-tropic and dual-tropic HIV-1C. METHODS: Plasma was obtained from 58 HIV-1C infected Ethiopians. Envgp120 was cloned into a luciferase tagged NL4-3 plasmid...
May 15, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762688/a-multivariate-genetic-analysis-confirms-rs5010528-in-the-human-leucocyte-antigen-c-locus-as-a-significant-contributor-to-stevens-johnson-syndrome-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-susceptibility-in-a-mozambique-hiv-population-treated-with-nevirapine
#7
Cinzia Ciccacci, Cristina Politi, Sandro Mancinelli, Fausto Ciccacci, Francesca Lucaroni, Giuseppe Novelli, Maria Cristina Marazzi, Leonardo Palombi, Paola Borgiani
Objectives: Nevirapine is used in developing countries for the treatment of HIV infection, but its use is associated with rare serious adverse reactions such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN). Recently, an association between rs5010528 in the human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-C locus and SJS/TEN susceptibility has been described in sub-Saharan populations. Our aim was to verify this association in a population of nevirapine-treated patients from Mozambique...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759421/prevalence-and-distribution-of-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-in-galicia-during-the-period-2000-2015
#8
Daniel Navarro-de la Cruz, Sonia Pérez-Castro, Matilde Trigo-Daporta, Antonio Aguilera-Guirao
INTRODUCTION: We present the largest study conducted in Galicia on the prevalence and distribution of HCV genotypes/subtypes. METHODS: Retrospective study collecting the total number of patients chronically infected by HCV between 2000.01.01 to 2015.12.31 in 3of the main health areas: Santiago, Pontevedra and Vigo. RESULTS: We collected a total of 4469 patients. The median age was 50 years (IQR 57-45), 72,3% were men, 0,4% were coinfected with another genotype, 20,6% were coinfected with HIV and 35...
May 11, 2018: Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757775/development-and-calibration-of-a-mathematical-model-of-anal-carcinogenesis-for-high-risk-hiv-infected-men
#9
Emily A Burger, Michael A Dyer, Stephen Sy, Joel M Palefsky, Alexandra De Pokomandy, François Coutlee, Michael J Silverberg, Jane J Kim
OBJECTIVES: Men who have sex with men (MSM) who are living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are at highest risk for anal cancer. Our objective was to use empirical data to develop a comprehensive disease simulation model that reflects the most current understanding of anal carcinogenesis, which is uniquely positioned to evaluate future anal cancer screening strategies as well as provide insight on the unobservable course of the disease. SETTING: North America METHODS...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756454/discordance-in-drug-resistance-mutations-between-blood-plasma-and-semen-or-rectal-secretion-among-newly-diagnosed-hiv-1-infected-thai-msm
#10
Akarin Hiransuthikul, Rapeeporn Wongkanya, Sunee Sirivichayakul, Deondara Trachunthong, Thanthip Sungsing, Tippawan Pankam, Praphan Phanuphak, Nittaya Phanuphak
HIV-1 infection is most commonly transmitted by sexual contact across mucosal surfaces. Information on concordance in drug resistance profile between blood plasma and anogenital compartments in resource-limited settings is limited. We aimed to determine discordances in genotypic drug resistance-associated mutations (DRAMs) between blood plasma and semen or rectal secretions among newly diagnosed, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve, HIV-1-infected Thai men who have sex with men (MSM). Blood plasma, semen, and rectal secretions of HIV-1-infected Thai MSM enrolled from the Test and Treat cohort were tested for genotypic mutations in the reverse transcriptase and protease genes...
May 14, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750893/disparities-in-initiation-of-direct-acting-antiviral-agents-for-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-insured-population
#11
Julia L Marcus, Leo B Hurley, Scott Chamberland, Jamila H Champsi, Laura C Gittleman, Daniel G Korn, Jennifer B Lai, Jennifer O Lam, Mary Pat Pauly, Charles P Quesenberry, Joanna Ready, Varun Saxena, Suk I Seo, David J Witt, Michael J Silverberg
OBJECTIVES: The cost of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) for hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection may contribute to treatment disparities. However, few data exist on factors associated with DAA initiation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HCV-infected Kaiser Permanente Northern California members aged ≥18 during October 2014 to December 2016, using Poisson regression models to evaluate demographic, behavioral, and clinical factors associated with DAA initiation...
January 1, 2018: Public Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747339/-distribution-and-associated-factors-of-high-risk-hpv-genotypes-infection-among-hpv-positive-women-who-participated-cervical-screening-test-in-shenzhen-2014-2016-china
#12
Y Y Wang, W Lin, B Wu, S X Yuan, J L Yao, X S Zhao, B Chen, Y L Qiao, F H Zhao, W Chen, S Y Hu, Z H Liu
Objective: To analyze the distribution and associated factors of high-risk genotypes of HPV in cervical infection among women in Shenzhen. Methods: The information on sociodemographic characteristics and HPV genotypes of HPV-positive women who participated cervical screening test from January 2014 to December 2016 was downloaded from Shenzhen Maternity and Child Healthcare Management Information System. According to the pathogenicity, the high-risk HPV genotypes were divided into 15 types including HPV 16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 53, 56, 58, 59, 66 and 68; and there were 6 low-risk genotypes including HPV 6, 11, 42, 43, 44, and 81...
May 6, 2018: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746295/the-transition-to-dolutegravir-and-other-new-antiretrovirals-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-what-are-the-issues
#13
Marco Vitoria, Andrew Hill, Nathan Ford, Meg Doherty, Polly Clayden, Francois Venter, David Ripin, Charles Flexner, Paul Domanico
: There are currently approximately 16 million people taking NNRTI-based first-line treatment in low- and middle-income countries. Most of these patients are using the combination of tenofovir (TDF), lamivudine (3TC) and efavirenz (EFV). The integrase inhibitor dolutegravir (DTG) has shown an improved safety profile compared to EFV in randomised studies. DTG also has a high barrier to development of drug resistance. New co-formulated tablets with TDF/3TC/DTG are being introduced into LMICs, for a median price of $75 per person-year...
May 9, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743555/impact-of-ugt1a1-polymorphisms-on-raltegravir-and-its-glucuronide-plasma-concentrations-in-a-cohort-of-hiv-1-infected-patients
#14
Leïla Belkhir, Carole Seguin-Devaux, Laure Elens, Caroline Pauly, Nicolas Gengler, Serge Schneider, Jean Ruelle, Vincent Haufroid, Bernard Vandercam
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of UGT1A1 polymorphisms on Raltegravir (RAL) and its metabolite RAL-glucuronide trough plasma concentrations ([RAL]plasma and [RAL-glu]plasma) and on the metabolic ratio (MR): [RAL-glu]plasma/[RAL]plasma. UGT1A1 genotyping was performed on 96 patients. 44% (n = 42) were homozygous UGT1A1*1/*1 while 50% (n = 48) and 6% (n = 6) were UGT1A1*28 and UGT1A1*36 carriers, respectively. The median concentration and interquartile range (IQR) of [RAL]plasma were 88...
May 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742132/hiv-drug-resistance-patterns-in-pregnant-women-using-next-generation-sequence-in-mozambique
#15
María Rupérez, Marc Noguera-Julian, Raquel González, Sonia Maculuve, Rocío Bellido, Anifa Vala, Cristina Rodríguez, Esperança Sevene, Roger Paredes, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: Few data on HIV resistance in pregnancy are available from Mozambique, one of the countries with the highest HIV toll worldwide. Understanding the patterns of HIV drug resistance in pregnant women might help in tailoring optimal regimens for prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV (pMTCT) and antenatal care. OBJECTIVES: To describe the frequency and characteristics of HIV drug resistance mutations (HIVDRM) in pregnant women with virological failure at delivery, despite pMTCT or antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738896/resistance-detected-in-pbmcs-predicts-virological-rebound-in-hiv-1-suppressed-patients-switching-treatment
#16
Daniele Armenia, Mauro Zaccarelli, Vanni Borghi, William Gennari, Domenico Di Carlo, Alberto Giannetti, Federica Forbici, Ada Bertoli, Caterina Gori, Lavinia Fabeni, Carmela Pinnetti, Raffaella Marocco, Alessandra Latini, Francesca Ceccherini-Silberstein, Claudio Maria Mastroianni, Cristina Mussini, Andrea Antinori, Carlo Federico Perno, Maria Mercedes Santoro
BACKGROUND: Genotypic resistance test (GRT) performed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) represents a chance to evaluate resistance in virologically suppressed HIV infected patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the impact of baseline resistance detected through PBMC GRT on virological rebound after switching treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Baseline genotypic susceptibility scores (GSS) from PBMC GRT (DNA-GSS) and from previous cumulative plasma GRTs (when available, pRNA-GSS) were evaluated...
April 3, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735575/acute-and-persistent-hepatitis-e-virus-genotype-3-and-4-infection-clinical-features-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#17
Nassim Kamar, Sven Pischke
Hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype (gt)3 and 4 infections are prevalent in industrialized and high-income countries. Although most HEV gt3 and gt4 infections are clinically silent, acute infection may be symptomatic in some patients. In persons with underlying liver disease and in elderly men, HEV infections may present as acute or acute-on-chronic liver failure. Chronic hepatitis may develop in immunosuppressed individuals, including transplant recipients, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients, and persons with hematologic malignancy undergoing chemotherapy, and may progress to life-threatening liver cirrhosis...
May 7, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732988/appearance-of-drug-resistance-mutations-among-the-dominant-hiv-1-subtype-crf01_ae-in-maumere-indonesia
#18
Dwi Wahyu Indriati, Tomohiro Kotaki, Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa, Adiana Mutamsari Witaningrum, Muhammad Qushai Yunifiar Matondang, Shuhei Ueda, Nasronudin, Asep Purnama, Dwi Kurniawan, Masanori Kameoka
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is still a major health issue in Indonesia. In recent years, the appearance of drug resistance-associated mutations has reduced the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy (ART). We conducted genotypic studies, including the detection of drug resistance-associated mutations (from first-line regimen drugs), on HIV-1 genes derived from infected individuals in Maumere, West Nusa Tenggara. Maumere, a transit city in West Nusa Tenggara, which has a high HIV-1 transmission rate...
May 1, 2018: Current HIV Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732907/prevalence-of-rilpivirine-and-etravirine-resistance-mutations-in-hiv-1-subtype-c-infected-patients-failing-nevirapine-or-efavirenz-based-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-in-botswana
#19
Thabo Diphoko, Simani Gaseitsiwe, Ishmael Kasvosve, Sikhulile Moyo, Harriet Okatch, Rosemary Musonda, Mark A Wainberg, Joseph Makhema, Richard Marlink, Vladimir Novitsky, M Essex
BACKGROUND: Rilpivirine (RPV) and Etravirine (ETR) are approved second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) for HIV treatment. There is a cross-resistance HIV mutation profile between first- and second-generation NNRTI drugs. We determined the prevalence of HIV-1drug-resistance mutations (DRM) to RPV and ETR in Botswana. METHODS: A total of 168 HIV-1 polymerase gene sequences from participants failing nevirapine or efavirenz-containing regimens were analysed for drug resistance mutations using the Stanford University HIV drug resistance database...
May 6, 2018: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732382/common-variation-in-nlrp3-is-associated-with-early-death-and-elevated-inflammasome-biomarkers-among-advanced-hiv-tb-co-infected-patients-in-botswana
#20
Shruthi Ravimohan, Kebatshabile Nfanyana, Neo Tamuhla, Caroline T Tiemessen, Drew Weissman, Gregory P Bisson
Background: Elevated inflammation is associated with early mortality among HIV/tuberculosis (TB) patients starting antiretroviral therapy (ART); however, the sources of immune activation are unclear. We hypothesized that common variation in innate immune genes contributes to excessive inflammation linked to death. As single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in inflammasome pathway genes can increase risk for inflammatory diseases, we investigated their association with early mortality among a previously described cohort of HIV/TB patients initiating ART in Botswana...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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