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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816644/cyp2b6-haplotype-predicts-efavirenz-plasma-concentration-in-black-south-african-hiv-1-infected-children-a-longitudinal-pediatric-pharmacogenomic-study
#1
Riaan Reay, Collet Dandara, Michelle Viljoen, Malie Rheeders
South Africa has the highest burden of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection globally. Efavirenz (EFV), a frequently used drug against HIV infection, displays a relationship between drug concentration and pharmacodynamics effects clinically. However, haplotype-based genetic variation in drug metabolism in a pediatric sample has been little considered in a longitudinal long-term context. CYP2B6 plays a key role in variation of EFV plasma concentration through altered drug metabolism. We report here on a prospective clinical pharmacogenomics/pharmacokinetic study of Bantu-speaking children, importantly, over a period of 24 months post-initiation of EFV-based treatment in South Africa...
August 2017: Omics: a Journal of Integrative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816583/mammalian-cell-surface-display-for-monoclonal-antibody-based-facs-selection-of-viral-envelope-proteins
#2
Tim-Henrik Bruun, Veronika Grassmann, Benjamin Zimmer, Benedikt Asbach, David Peterhoff, Alexander Kliche, Ralf Wagner
The elicitation of broadly and efficiently neutralizing antibodies in humans by active immunization is still a major obstacle in the development of vaccines against pathogens such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), influenza virus, hepatitis C virus or cytomegalovirus. Here, we describe a mammalian cell surface display and monoclonal antibody (mAb)-mediated panning technology that allows affinity-based selection of envelope (Env) variants from libraries. To this end, we established an experimental setup featuring: 1) single and site specific integration of Env to link genotype and phenotype, 2) inducible Env expression to avoid cytotoxicity effects, 3) translational coupling of Env and enhanced green fluorescent protein expression to normalize for Env protein levels, and 4) display on HEK cells to ensure native folding and mammalian glycosylation...
August 17, 2017: MAbs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811194/immunogenetic-studies-of-the-hepatitis-c-virus-infection-in-an-era-of-pan-genotype-antiviral-therapies-effective-treatment-is-coming
#3
Joel Henrique Ellwanger, Valéria de Lima Kaminski, Jacqueline Maria Valverde-Villegas, Daniel Simon, Vagner Ricardo Lunge, José Artur Bogo Chies
What are the factors that influence human hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection, hepatitis status establishment, and disease progression? Firstly, one has to consider the genetic background of the host and HCV genotypes. The immunogenetic host profile will reflect how each infected individual deals with infection. Secondly, there are environmental factors that drive susceptibility or resistance to certain viral strains. These will dictate (I) the susceptibility to infection; (II) whether or not an infected person will promote viral clearance; (III) the immune response and the response profile to therapy; and (IV) whether and how long it would take to the development of HCV-associated diseases, as well as their severity...
August 12, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811159/implementing-and-scaling-up-hcv-treatment-services-for-people-who-inject-drugs-and-other-high-risk-groups-in-ukraine-an-evaluation-of-programmatic-and-treatment-outcomes
#4
Alyona Mazhnaya, Anna Meteliuk, Tetiana Barnard, Alexei Zelenev, Sergii Filippovych, Frederick L Alticec
BACKGROUND: HCV prevalence estimates among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Ukraine is high (60-90%), yet barriers to HCV treatment and care remain substantial including limited access to direct acting antiviral (DAA) medications. A feasibility scale-up project implemented HCV treatment in community-based settings to improve access to DAA treatment for key populations in this context. METHODS: Using program-level data and verified medical records, we describe the development, implementation processes and outcomes for HCV treatment for PWID and other risks groups...
August 12, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806198/pre-treatment-integrase-strand-transfer-inhibitor-resistance-in-north-carolina-from-2010-2016
#5
Timothy W Menza, Rachael Billock, Erika Samoff, Joseph J Eron, Ann M Dennis
OBJECTIVE: We sought to define the prevalence of pre-treatment INSTI resistance and assess the transmission networks of those with pre-treatment INSTI resistance. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of HIV-positive patients with genotypic resistance testing sent to a single referral laboratory in North Carolina between 2010 and 2016. METHODS: We linked genotype and public health data for in-care HIV-positive individuals to determine the prevalence of INSTI resistance among treatment-naïve (defined as those with a first genotype ≤3 months after diagnosis) and treatment-experienced (defined as those with a first genotype >3 months after diagnosis) patients...
August 12, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802816/safety-and-efficacy-of-an-8-week-regimen-of-grazoprevir-plus-ruzasvir-plus-uprifosbuvir-compared-with-grazoprevir-plus-elbasvir-plus-uprifosbuvir-in-participants-without-cirrhosis-infected-with-hepatitis-c-virus-genotypes-1-2-or-3-c-crest-1-and-c-crest-2-part
#6
Edward J Gane, Stephen Pianko, Stuart K Roberts, Alexander J Thompson, Stefan Zeuzem, Eli Zuckerman, Ziv Ben-Ari, Graham R Foster, Kosh Agarwal, Alex L Laursen, Jan Gerstoft, Wei Gao, Hsueh-Cheng Huang, Brian Fitzgerald, Doreen Fernsler, Jerry J Li, Anjana Grandhi, Hong Liu, Feng-Hsiu Su, Shuyan Wan, Zhen Zeng, Huei-Ling Chen, Frank J Dutko, Bach-Yen T Nguyen, Janice Wahl, Michael N Robertson, Eliav Barr, Wendy W Yeh, Rebeca M Plank, Joan R Butterton, Rafael Esteban
BACKGROUND: New hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies with pan-genotypic efficacy are needed. The goals of part A of C-CREST-1 and C-CREST-2 were to compare the efficacies of two doses (300 mg or 450 mg once daily) of uprifosbuvir (MK-3682; NS5B inhibitor) in an 8-week regimen combined with grazoprevir (NS3/4A inhibitor; 100 mg once daily) and an NS5A inhibitor, either elbasvir (50 mg once daily) or ruzasvir (MK-8408; 60 mg once daily), and to evaluate the safety and tolerability of these combination regimens in individuals infected with genotypes 1, 2, or 3...
August 9, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802410/evaluation-of-24-locus-miru-vntr-genotyping-in-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-cluster-investigations-in-four-jurisdictions-in-the-united-states-2006-2010
#7
Larry D Teeter, J Steven Kammerer, Smita Ghosh, Duc T M Nguyen, Padmaja Vempaty, Jane Tapia, Roque Miramontes, Wendy A Cronin, Edward A Graviss
The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) uses a combination of spacer oligonucleotide typing (spoligotyping) and mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable number of tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTR) analyses as part of the National TB Genotyping Service (NTGS). The NTGS expansion from 12-locus MIRU-VNTR (MIRU12) to 24-locus MIRU-VNTR (MIRU24) in 2009 enhanced the ability to discriminate Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains. In the current study, we investigated the MIRU24 concordance among epidemiologic-linked tuberculosis (TB) patients in four U...
September 2017: Tuberculosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797039/impact-of-pnpla3-and-ifnl3-polymorphisms-on-hepatic-steatosis-in-asian-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#8
Chao-Min Huang, Kuo-Chin Chang, Chao-Hung Hung, King-Wah Chiu, Sheng-Nan Lu, Jing-Houng Wang, Chien-Hung Chen, Kwong-Ming Kee, Yuan-Hung Kuo, Ming-Chao Tsai, Po-Lin Tseng, Ming-Tsung Lin, Cheng-Kun Wu, Tsung-Hui Hu, Chung-Lung Cho, Yi-Hao Yen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: A recent meta-analysis revealed that the genotype PNPLA3 rs738409 GG is associated with a higher risk of hepatic steatosis (HS) in Caucasian patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). However, controversial results were found regarding Asian populations. Furthermore, previous studies have shown a negative association between interferon lambda 3 (IFNL3) rs12979860 CC and HS in Caucasian CHC patients, but there have been no reports indicating any such association in Asian populations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796293/il7ra-polymorphisms-are-not-associated-with-aids-progression
#9
Luz María Medrano, José Luis Jiménez, María A Jiménez-Sousa, Amanda Fernández-Rodíguez, Mónica Gutiérrez-Rivas, José María Bellón, José Ramón Blanco, Alexy Inciarte, Mª Ángeles Muñoz-Fernández, Salvador Resino
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to determine whether α-chain of the IL-7 Receptor (IL7RA) polymorphisms (rs10491434, rs6897932, and rs987106) are associated with the clinical pattern of AIDS progression in ART-naïve HIV-infected patients. METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study in 673 HIV-infected patients who were classified into three groups according to the clinical pattern of AIDS progression (188 long-term non-progressors (LTNPs), 334 moderate progressors (MPs), and 151 rapid progressors (RPs))...
August 10, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795954/the-first-characterization-of-hiv-1-subtypes-and-drug-resistance-mutations-among-antiretrovirally-treated-patients-in-kermanshah-iran
#10
Reza Golmohammadi, Kazem Baesi, Abdolvahab Moradi, Molood Farrokhi, Willi McFarland, Shahryar Parsamajd
BACKGROUND: Insufficient therapy during HIV-1 replication can promote the emergence of drug-resistant strains, reduce the effectiveness of antiretroviral treatment (ART), and increase the likelihood of the onward transmission of drug-resistant viruses. We characterized, for the first time, the prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes and drug resistance mutations in a western region of Iran. METHODS: This study was conducted among 122 patients on ART at a major referral center in Kermanshah, Iran...
August 10, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792071/high-prevalence-of-hbv-infection-detection-of-subgenotypes-f1b-a2-and-d4-and-differential-risk-factors-among-mexican-risk-populations-with-low-socioeconomic-status
#11
Alexis Jose-Abrego, Arturo Panduro, Nora A Fierro, Sonia Roman
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection may be underestimated among high-risk individuals in regions of low HBs antigenemia. This study aimed to assess HBV serological markers, genotypes and risk factors in Mexican patients with risk of HBV infection and low socioeconomic status. Demographics, clinical and risk factor data were collected in patients with HIV (n = 289), HCV (n = 243), deferred blood donors (D-BD) (n = 83), and two native populations, Mixtecos (n = 57) and Purepechas (n = 44). HBV infection was assessed by HBsAg, anti-HBc and HBV-DNA testing...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791894/decoding-hiv-resistance-from-genotype-to-therapy
#12
Irene T Weber, Robert W Harrison
Genetic variation in HIV poses a major challenge for prevention and treatment of the AIDS pandemic. Resistance occurs by mutations in the target proteins that lower affinity for the drug or alter the protein dynamics, thereby enabling viral replication in the presence of the drug. Due to the prevalence of drug-resistant strains, monitoring the genotype of the infecting virus is recommended. Computational approaches for predicting resistance from genotype data and guiding therapy are discussed. Many prediction methods rely on rules derived from known resistance-associated mutations, however, statistical or machine learning can improve the classification accuracy and assess unknown mutations...
August 9, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789704/immuno-diagnosis-of-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-in-sputum-and-reduction-of-timelines-for-its-positive-cultures-to-within-3%C3%A2-h-by-pathogen-specific-thymidylate-kinase-expression-assays
#13
Misaki Wayengera, Ivan Mwebaza, Johnson Welishe, Alice Bayiyana, David P Kateete, Eddie Wampande, Samuel Kirimunda, Edgar Kigozi, Fred Katabazi, Carol Musubika, Samuel Kyobe, Peace Babirye, Benon Asiimwe, Moses L Joloba
BACKGROUND: Laboratory diagnosis of Tuberculosis (TB) is traditionally based on microscopy and or culture. Microscopy is however, only sensitive to a specified degree of bacillary load not present in HIV co-infected persons. Traditional cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb), on the other hand, take weeks to read-thereby delaying the critical decision whether or not, to treat. Although nucleic acids amplification tests (NAATS) applied directly on sputum or cultures can increase the sensitivity for TB diagnosis among those with HIV co-infection as well as reduce time-lines for positive culture detection, they do not replace the need for smear microscopy and culture...
August 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772259/high-frequency-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-b-57-01-allele-carriers-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-serbia
#14
Marina Siljic, Dubravka Salemovic, Valentina Cirkovic, Ivana Pesic-Pavlovic, Marija Todorovic, Jovan Ranin, Gordana Dragovic, Djordje Jevtovic, Maja Stanojevic
Abacavir is an effective antiretroviral drug and one of the most commonly used nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in Serbia. А percentage of the treated patients experience a potentially life-threatening hypersensitivity reaction, which was shown to be associated with the presence of the class I MHC allele, HLA-B*57:01; hence genotyping for HLA-B*57:01 prior to starting abacavir is nowadays recommended in international HIV treatment guidelines. In Serbia, this testing became available in 2013. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of the HLA-B*57:01 allele in Serbian HIV-1-infected patients...
August 4, 2017: Intervirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765078/evolution-of-the-prevalence-of-hcv-infection-and-hcv-genotype-distribution-in-hiv-infected-patients-in-italy-between-1997-and-2015
#15
Barbara Rossetti, Francesca Bai, Alessandro Tavelli, Massimo Galli, Andrea Antinori, Francesco Castelli, Giampietro Pellizzer, Alessandro Cozzi-Lepri, Stefano Bonora, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Massimo Puoti, Andrea De Luca
OBJECTIVES: Aim of the study was to analyze the variation of HCV prevalence and genotype distribution and their determinants in people living with HIV who entered care between 1997 and 2015. METHODS: HIV-infected patients enrolled in ICONA who were tested for HCV-Antibodies (HCV-Ab) were included. RESULTS: Overall 3,407/12,135 (28.1%) were HCV-Ab+; and 735/12,135 (6.1%) were HBsAg+. Among patients whose HCV genotype was known, the most represented were genotype 1 and 3...
July 29, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763465/antiretroviral-resistance-following-immunological-monitoring-in-a-resource-limited-setting-of-western-india-a-cross-sectional-study
#16
Santosh K Karade, Smita S Kulkarni, Manisha V Ghate, Ajit A Patil, Rajkumar Londhe, Sonali P Salvi, Dileep B Kadam, Rajneesh K Joshi, Bharat B Rewari, Raman R Gangakhedkar
BACKGROUND: The free antiretroviral therapy (ART) program in India still relies on the clinico-immunological monitoring for diagnosis of treatment failure. As the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone is shared in first- and second-line regimens, accumulation of drug resistant mutations (DRMs) can compromise the efficacy of NRTI. This study was undertaken to describe the pattern of HIV DRMs following immunological monitoring and investigate its impact on the cycling of NRTI between first- and second-line ART...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761472/pathogenic-acanthamoeba-t4-genotype-isolated-from-mucosal-tissue-of-a-patient-with-hiv-infection-a-case-report
#17
Fatemeh Memari, Maryam Niyyati, Zeynab Joneidi
Opportunistic infections due to free-living amoebae such as Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE), cutaneous acanthamoebiasis and disseminated infections could be the causative agent of mortality in people living with HIV/AIDS. In this study, we report the occurrence of the Acanthamoeba belonging to the T4 genotype isolated from nasal and oral swabs of a 15-yr-old man with HIV infection. HIV was confirmed using ELISA kit and RT-PCR assay. The isolated strain showed pathogenic potential using thermo and osmotolerance assays...
January 2017: Iranian Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759595/hbv-infection-in-untreated-hiv-infected-adults-in-maputo-mozambique
#18
Lúcia Mabalane Chambal, Eduardo Samo Gudo, Awa Carimo, Rita Corte Real, Nédio Mabunda, Cremildo Maueia, Adolfo Vubil, Ana Flora Zicai, Nilesh Bhatt, Francisco Antunes
BACKGROUND: HIV/ HBV coinfected patients are at high risk of developing chronic HBV infection, liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. In Mozambique, where HIV prevalence is one of the highest in the world, HIV-infected patients are scarcely characterized in terms of HBV coinfection and 3TC-resistance mutations profile. METHODS: To characterize ART-naïve HIV-infected adults, with and without HBV coinfection, a cross-sectional study was conducted between May and November 2012 in two health centers from Maputo city, Mozambique...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759568/cannabinoid-receptor-2-63-rr-variant-is-independently-associated-with-severe-necroinflammation-in-hiv-hcv-coinfected-patients
#19
Caterina Sagnelli, Caterina Uberti-Foppa, Hamid Hasson, Giulia Bellini, Carmine Minichini, Stefania Salpietro, Emanuela Messina, Diletta Barbanotti, Marco Merli, Francesca Punzo, Nicola Coppola, Adriano Lazzarin, Evangelista Sagnelli, Francesca Rossi
OBJECTIVE: This is the first study to analyze the impact of the rs35761398 variant of the CNR2 gene leading to the substitution of GLN (Q) of codon 63 of the cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) with ARG (R) on the clinical presentation of chronic hepatitis in HIV/HCV coinfected patients. METHODS: Enrolled in this study were 166 consecutive HIV/HCV coinfected patients, naïve for HCV treatment. A pathologist unaware of the patients' condition graded liver fibrosis, necroinflammation (Ishak) and steatosis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753637/collaborative-update-of-a-rule-based-expert-system-for-hiv-1-genotypic-resistance-test-interpretation
#20
Roger Paredes, Philip L Tzou, Gert van Zyl, Geoff Barrow, Ricardo Camacho, Sergio Carmona, Philip M Grant, Ravindra K Gupta, Raph L Hamers, P Richard Harrigan, Michael R Jordan, Rami Kantor, David A Katzenstein, Daniel R Kuritzkes, Frank Maldarelli, Dan Otelea, Carole L Wallis, Jonathan M Schapiro, Robert W Shafer
INTRODUCTION: HIV-1 genotypic resistance test (GRT) interpretation systems (IS) require updates as new studies on HIV-1 drug resistance are published and as treatment guidelines evolve. METHODS: An expert panel was created to provide recommendations for the update of the Stanford HIV Drug Resistance Database (HIVDB) GRT-IS. The panel was polled on the ARVs to be included in a GRT report, and the drug-resistance interpretations associated with 160 drug-resistance mutation (DRM) pattern-ARV combinations...
2017: PloS One
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