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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334553/post-treatment-controllers-after-treatment-interruption-in-chronically-hiv-infected-patients
#1
Franco Maggiolo, Elisa Di Filippo, Laura Comi, Annapaola Callegaro
OBJECTIVE: Control HIV replication requires continuous combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) as discontinuation of cART results in a rapid viral rebound. However, a few individuals exist who took cART for several years and did not show the expected viral rebound after treatment cessation. Most post-treatment controllers (PTCs) are early treated individuals. We report three cases who started cART during chronic infection. DESIGN: Patients were treated and monitored according to Italian guidelines...
January 13, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333092/role-of-apobec3h-in-the-viral-control-of-hiv-elite-controller-patients
#2
José M Benito, Julia Hillung, Clara Restrepo, José M Cuevas, Agathe León, Ezequiel Ruiz-Mateos, Rosario Palacios-Muñoz, Miguel Górgolas, Rafael Sanjuán, Norma Rallón
Background APOBEC3H (A3H) gene presents variation at 2 positions (rs139297 and rs79323350) leading to a non-functional protein. So far, there is no information on the role played by A3H in spontaneous control of HIV. The aim of this study was to evaluate the A3H polymorphisms distribution in a well-characterized group of Elite Controller (EC) subjects. Methods We analyzed the genotype distribution of two different SNPs (rs139297 and rs79323350) of A3H in 30 EC patients and compared with 11 non-controller (NC) HIV patients...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331843/performance-of-genotypic-algorithms-for-predicting-tropism-for-hiv-1-crf01_ae-recombinant
#3
C Soulie, L Morand-Joubert, J Cottalorda, C Charpentier, P Bellecave, L Le Guen, S Yerly, B Montes, S Fafi-Kremer, J Dina, V Avettand-Fenoel, C Amiel, C Roussel, C Pallier, K Zafilaza, S Sayon, A Signori-Schmuck, A Mirand, M A Trabaud, S Berger, V Calvez, A G Marcelin
OBJECTIVES: There is no consensus about the performances of genotypic rules for predicting HIV-1 non-B subtype tropism. Three genotypic methods were compared for CRF01_AE HIV-1 tropism determination. METHODS: The V3 env region of 207 HIV-1 CRF01_AE and 178 B subtypes from 17 centers in France and 1 center in Switzerland was sequenced. Tropism was determined by Geno2Pheno algorithm with false positive rate (FPR) 5% or 10%, the 11/25 rule or the combined criteria of the 11/25, net charge rule and NXT/S mutations...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330418/hla-b-hla-c-and-kir-improve-the-predictive-value-of-ifnl3-for-hepatitis-c-spontaneous-clearance
#4
Mario Frias, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Diego Rodriguez-Cano, Ángela Camacho, Pedro López-López, María Ángeles Risalde, Bárbara Manzanares-Martín, Teresa Brieva, Isabel Machuca, Antonio Rivero
IFNL3 is the strongest predictor of spontaneous resolution (SR) of hepatitis C virus (HCV), however, consideration of IFNL3 genotype alone is of limited clinical value for the prediction of SR or chronic HCV infection. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of HLA-B, HLA-C and KIRs on SR, as well as their additive effects on the predictive value of the IFNL3 genotype. We conducted a retrospective study of HIV patients that included both SR and chronic HCV patients. In our study, 61.6% of patients with IFNL3 CC achieved SR, and 81...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329318/erythrocyte-inosine-triphosphatase-activity-a-potential-biomarker-for-adverse-events-during-combination-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv
#5
N Chantal Peltenburg, Jörgen Bierau, Jaap A Bakker, Jolanda A Schippers, Selwyn H Lowe, Aimée D C Paulussen, Bianca J C van den Bosch, Mathie P G Leers, Bettina E Hansen, Annelies Verbon
The purine analogues tenofovir and abacavir are precursors of potential substrates for the enzyme Inosine 5'-triphosphate pyrophosphohydrolase (ITPase). Here, we investigated the association of ITPase activity and ITPA genotype with the occurrence of adverse events (AEs) during combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In 393 adult HIV-seropositive patients, AEs were defined as events that led to stop of cART regimen. ITPase activity ≥4 mmol IMP/mmol Hb/hour was considered as normal...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327701/distribution-of-killer-immunoglobulin-like-receptor-genes-in-hiv-infected-long-term-non-progressors-from-mumbai-india
#6
Vijay R Chavan, Zakiya Ansari, Preeti Mehta, Jayanti Mania-Pramanik
BACKGROUND: Few reports suggest the association of killer immunoglobulin-like receptors of natural killer cells with human immunodeficiency virus infection. India with world's third largest population of human immunodeficiency virus / acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, offers scope to study such association. OBJECTIVE: Current study (2010-2015) was designed to evaluate if killer immunoglobulin-like receptors gene polymorphisms are associated with HIV infection outcomes specifically, with long term non progressors...
January 12, 2018: Indian Journal of Dermatology, Venereology and Leprology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326373/hepatitis-a-infections-in-men-who-have-sex-with-men-using-hiv-prep-in-paris
#7
Pauline Penot, Marie-Alice Colombier, Sarah Maylin, Jean-Michel Molina
The current hepatitis A outbreak in Europe is largely involving men having sex with multiple male partners. The objective of the present report was to warn teams dealing against the persistent risk of viral and bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STIs) in patients receiving HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We have notified and investigated three cases of acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in people receiving HIV PrEP in our clinic between December 2016 and March 2017. The patients were not epidemiologically related, had no recent travel history to HAV endemic areas, reported multiple STIs during this period and had not been vaccinated against HAV...
January 11, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320814/genotypic-identification-of-cystoisospora-in-immunocompromised-patients-using-tm-variation-analysis
#8
Maha M A Basyoni, Hany Ahmed Fouad Elghobary
Cystoisospora is responsible for morbidity in immunocompromised patients. PCR is sensitive for diagnosing Cystoisospora; however, it needs reevaluation for differential molecular diagnosis of cystoisosporiasis. We aimed at evaluating melting curve analysis (MCA) after real-time PCR (qPCR) in diagnosis and genotyping of Cystoisospora as an alternative to conventional PCR. We included 293 diarrheic stool samples of patients attending the Department of Clinical Oncology and Nuclear Medicine of Cairo University Hospitals, Egypt...
December 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319511/study-of-patterns-and-markers-of-human-immune-deficiency-virus-1-hiv-1-progression-and-unemployment-rate-among-patients-from-alexandria-egypt
#9
Faika M Ghoneim, May M Raouf, Noha S Elshaer, Sarah M Abdelhamid, Reem A Noor Eldeen
Middle East and North Africa (MENA) new HIV cases show the highest increase among all regions in the world. Even though Egypt has a low prevalence among the general population (< 0.02%), a national HIV epidemic occurs in certain population risk groups. The current study was conducted to asses clinical and immunological disease progression; following up viral load (VL) and detecting delta-32 CCR5 genotype polymorphism in selected cases, determining unemployment rate and identify predictors of employment for HIV-cases...
December 4, 2017: Polish Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315352/hepatitis-b-infection-among-hiv-infected-individuals-in-gabon-occult-hepatitis-b-enhances-hbv-dna-prevalence
#10
Berthold Bivigou-Mboumba, Marie Amougou-Atsama, Samira Zoa-Assoumou, Hervé M'boyis Kamdem, Guy Francis Nzengui-Nzengui, Angélique Ndojyi-Mbiguino, Richard Njouom, Sandrine François-Souquière
In Gabon, a central African country, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) are endemic. In a recent study, conducted in a semi-urban area (Franceville, Gabon), HBV infection was found to be more prevalent among HIV infected individuals. This study aims to investigate the prevalence and genetic diversity of hepatitis B virus infection among HIV infected individuals, predominantly under antiretroviral therapy, living in fully urbanized area: Libreville, capital of Gabon. Serological and molecular tests were performed to detect HBV infection among patients living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315303/genome-wide-comparison-of-ethiopian-leishmania-donovani-strains-reveals-differences-potentially-related-to-parasite-survival
#11
Arie Zackay, James A Cotton, Mandy Sanders, Asrat Hailu, Abedelmajeed Nasereddin, Alon Warburg, Charles L Jaffe
Leishmania donovani is the main cause of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in East Africa. Differences between northern Ethiopia/Sudan (NE) and southern Ethiopia (SE) in ecology, vectors, and patient sensitivity to drug treatment have been described, however the relationship between differences in parasite genotype between these two foci and phenotype is unknown. Whole genomic sequencing (WGS) was carried out for 41 L. donovani strains and clones from VL and VL/HIV co-infected patients in NE (n = 28) and SE (n = 13)...
January 9, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311409/meta-analysis-of-grazoprevir-plus-elbasvir-for-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-virus-genotype-1-infection
#12
Hussien Ahmed, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk, Amr Menshawy, Attia Attia, Arwa Mohamed, Ahmed Negida, Mohamed M Abdel-Daim
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Grazoprevir is an NS3/4A protease inhibitor (PI), while elbasvir is an NS5A inhibitor. We performed this meta-analysis to directly compare grazoprevir plus elbasvir and ribavirin regimen vs. grazoprevir and elbasvir without ribavirin in the treatment of hepatitis C virus genotype 1 infection and to precisely evaluate the efficacy of the latter regimen in cirrhotic, IL28 CC genotype patients and those coinfected with human immunodeficiency virus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A computer literature search of PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, Embase, and Cochrane central was conducted...
December 27, 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310590/oral-human-papillomavirus-dna-detection-in-hiv-positive-men-prevalence-predictors-and-co-occurrence-at-anal-site
#13
Alessandra Vergori, Anna Rosa Garbuglia, Pierluca Piselli, Franca Del Nonno, Catia Sias, Federico Lupi, Daniele Lapa, Andrea Baiocchini, Claudia Cimaglia, Marco Gentile, Andrea Antinori, Maria Capobianchi, Adriana Ammassari
BACKGROUND: HIV-positive patients carry an increased risk of HPV infection and associated cancers. Therefore, prevalence and patterns of HPV infection at different anatomical sites, as well as theoretical protection of nonavalent vaccine should be investigated. Aim was to describe prevalence and predictors of oral HPV detection in HIV-positive men, with attention to nonavalent vaccine-targeted HPV types. Further, co-occurrence of HPV DNA at oral cavity and at anal site was assessed. METHODS: This cross-sectional, clinic-based study included 305 HIV-positive males (85...
January 8, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305405/real-world-treatment-of-hepatitis-c-with-second-generation-direct-acting-antivirals-initial-results-from-a-multicentre-canadian-retrospective-cohort-of-diverse-patients
#14
Alex I Aspinall, Abdel A Shaheen, Golasa S Kochaksaraei, Breean Haslam, Samuel S Lee, Gisela Macphail, Jeff Kapler, Oscar E Larios, Kelly W Burak, Mark G Swain, Meredith A Borman, Carla S Coffin
BACKGROUND: High hepatitis C cure rates have been observed in registration trials with second-generation direct-acting antivirals. Real-world data also indicate high sustained viral response (SVR) rates. Our objective was to determine real-world SVR rates for patients infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) who were treated with second-generation direct-acting antivirals in the first 18 months of their availability in Canada. METHODS: Four centres in Calgary contributed their treatment data for a diverse patient population including those who had or had not undergone liver transplantation, those coinfected with HIV and vulnerable populations...
January 5, 2018: CMAJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302583/tp53-r72p-polymorphism-and-susceptibility-to-human-papillomavirus-infection-among-women-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-in-morocco-a-case-control-study
#15
Ahd Oulad Lahsen, Hanâ Baba, Rajaa Bensghir, Naouar Fayssel, Mustapha Sodqi, Latifa Marih, Sellama Nadifi, Lahcen Wakrim, Kamal Marhoum El Filali, Sayeh Ezzikouri
Background: Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted agent worldwide. HPV is the main causative agent for cervical cancer. The HPV oncoprotein E6 binds to the tumor suppressor gene product p53, promoting its degradation; the Arg allele of TP53 R72P polymorphism binds more ardently with HPV E6 than the Pro variant. Here, we investigated whether TP53 R72P gene variant, rs104252, was associated with susceptibility to HPV infection in women with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)...
December 2017: Journal of Cancer Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299966/ancient-dna-investigation-of-a-medieval-german-cemetery-confirms-long-term-stability-of-ccr5-%C3%AE-32-allele-frequencies-in-central-europe
#16
Abigail Bouwman, Natallia Shved, Gülfirde Akgül, Frank Rühli, Christina Warinner
The CCR5-Δ32 mutation present in European populations is among the most prominently debated cases of recent positive selection in humans. This allele, a 32-bp deletion that renders the T-cell CCR5 receptor nonfunctional, has important epidemiological and public health significance, as homozygous carriers are resistant to several HIV strains. However, although the function of this allele in preventing HIV infection is now well described, its human evolutionary origin is poorly understood. Initial attempts to determine the emergence of the CCR5-Δ32 allele pointed to selection during the 14th-century Black Death pandemic; however, subsequent analyses suggest that the allele rose in frequency more than 5,000 years ago, possibly through drift...
April 2017: Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299683/hpv-genotypes-detected-by-linear-array-and-next-generation-sequencing-in-anal-samples-from-hiv-positive-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-mexico
#17
Luz A González-Hernández, María G Flores-Miramontes, Adriana Aguilar-Lemarroy, Krissya S Quintanilla-Peña, Fabiola L Martin-Amaya-Barajas, Moisés Ramos-Solano, Luis F Enciso Gómez, Jaime F Andrade-Villanueva, Luis F Jave-Suárez
The incidence of anal cancer has been rising, especially in HIV+ patients and has been associated with HPV infection. HIV+ patients are more at risk of HPV coinfection and are seven times more likely to have persistent HPV infection; moreover, HIV+ men have an increased risk of developing anal cancer compared to HIV+ women. The development of screening strategies for the detection of HPV in HIV+ men is of major importance; however, there is not enough information about the HPV genotypes and variants that are colonizing the anal epithelia of HIV+ men in diverse geographical regions...
January 3, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283390/genotypic-and-phylogenetic-insights-on-prevention-of-the-spread-of-hiv-1-and-drug-resistance-in-real-world-settings
#18
REVIEW
Bluma G Brenner, Ruxandra-Ilinca Ibanescu, Isabelle Hardy, Michel Roger
HIV continues to spread among vulnerable heterosexual (HET), Men-having-Sex with Men (MSM) and intravenous drug user (IDU) populations, influenced by a complex array of biological, behavioral and societal factors. Phylogenetics analyses of large sequence datasets from national drug resistance testing programs reveal the evolutionary interrelationships of viral strains implicated in the dynamic spread of HIV in different regional settings. Viral phylogenetics can be combined with demographic and behavioral information to gain insights on epidemiological processes shaping transmission networks at the population-level...
December 28, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282802/impact-of-cellular-restriction-gene-trim5%C3%AE-bst-2-polymorphisms-on-the-acquisition-of-hiv-1-and-disease-progression
#19
HariOm Singh, Dharmesh Samani, Manisha V Ghate, R R Gangakhedkar
BACKGROUND: TRIM5α and BST-2 are cellular restriction factors, affecting the HIV-1 infection and its progression. Genetic variability in these genes alters the expression pattern. Hence, we aimed to examine the impact of TRIM5α (rs10838525, rs7127617, and rs904375) and BST2 (rs3217318 and rs71694748) polymorphisms on the acquisition of HIV-1 and its progression. METHOD: Genotyping of TRIM5α and BST-2 polymorphisms performed in a total of 153 HIV-infected patients and 158 unrelated healthy individuals by PCR-RFLP method...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281718/the-burden-of-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-infection-genotypes-and-drug-resistance-mutations-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-positive-patients-in-northwest-ethiopia
#20
Tekalign Deressa, Debasu Damtie, Kevin Fonseca, Shan Gao, Ebba Abate, Shitaye Alemu, Yetemwork Aleka, Mark G Swain, Guido van Marle, Carla S Coffin
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa, the hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are endemic. Although there has been great progress in HIV care, universal HBV vaccination and care is lacking. In this study, we aimed to determine the prevalence of HBV, HBV genotypes, and drug resistance mutations in dual infected cases in a cohort of HIV patients in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A total of 308 HIV-1 positive patients were enrolled into the study and tested for HBsAg in plasma...
2017: PloS One
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