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Renin AND ang 2 AND vitamin D

Kazim Husain, Wilfredo Hernandez, Rais A Ansari, Leon Ferder
Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease associated with cardiovascular dysfunction including myocardial infarction, unstable angina, sudden cardiac death, stroke and peripheral thromboses. It has been predicted that atherosclerosis will be the primary cause of death in the world by 2020. Atherogenesis is initiated by endothelial injury due to oxidative stress associated with cardiovascular risk factors including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cigarette smoking, dyslipidemia, obesity, and metabolic syndrome...
August 26, 2015: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
Louise Bjørkholt Andersen, Lukasz Przybyl, Nadine Haase, Frauke von Versen-Höynck, Fatimunnisa Qadri, Jan Stener Jørgensen, Grith Lykke Sorensen, Palle Fruekilde, Marko Poglitsch, István Szijarto, Maik Gollasch, Joerg Peters, Dominik N Muller, Henrik Thybo Christesen, Ralf Dechend
BACKGROUND: We tested the controversial hypothesis that vitamin D depletion aggravates hypertension and target-organ damage by influencing renin. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four-week-old double-transgenic rats (dTGR) with excess angiotensin (Ang) II production due to overexpression of the human renin (hREN) and angiotensinogen (hAGT) genes received vitamin D-depleted (n=18) or standard chow (n=15) for 3 weeks. The depleted group had very low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (mean±SEM; 3...
February 2015: Journal of the American Heart Association
Juan Kong, Xiangdong Zhu, Yongyan Shi, Tianjing Liu, Yunzi Chen, Ishir Bhan, Qun Zhao, Ravi Thadhani, Yan Chun Li
Acute lung injury (ALI) is a hallmark of systemic inflammation associated with high mortality. Although the vitamin D receptor (VDR) is highly expressed in the lung, its role in lung physiology remains unclear. We investigated the effect of VDR deletion on ALI using a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis model. After LPS challenge VDR-null mice exhibited more severe ALI and higher mortality compared with wild-type (WT) counterparts, manifested by increased pulmonary vascular leakiness, pulmonary edema, apoptosis, neutrophil infiltration, and pulmonary inflammation, which was accompanied by excessive induction of angiopoietin (Ang)-2 and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation in the lung...
December 2013: Molecular Endocrinology
Divya Salhan, Mohammad Husain, Ashaan Subrati, Rohan Goyal, Tejinder Singh, Partab Rai, Ashwani Malhotra, Pravin C Singhal
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been demonstrated to contribute to HIV-induced tubular cell injury. We hypothesized that HIV-induced ROS generation may be causing tubular cell injury through downregulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) and associated downstream effects. In the present study, HIV not only downregulated tubular cell VDR expression but also inflicted DNA injury. On the other hand, EB-1089, a VDR agonist (VD), inhibited both downregulation of VDR and tubular cell DNA injury in the HIV milieu. H(2)O(2) (an O(-) donor) directly downregulated tubular cell VDR, whereas catalase, a free radical scavenger, inhibited HIV-induced downregulation of tubular cell VDR expression...
August 15, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Arttu Eräranta, Asko Riutta, Meng Fan, Jenni Koskela, Ilkka Tikkanen, Päivi Lakkisto, Onni Niemelä, Jyrki Parkkinen, Jukka Mustonen, Ilkka Pörsti
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D receptor activation with paricalcitol can modulate the transcription of renin-angiotensin system components in the surgical 5/6 nephrectomy rat model (5/6 NX) of chronic renal insufficiency. We tested the hypothesis whether dietary modification of phosphate influences kidney renin-angiotensin system gene expression at the mRNA level in 5/6 NX rats. METHODS: Fifteen weeks after surgery, rats were given control diet (0.3% calcium, 0.5% phosphate), phosphate-lowering diet (3% calcium as carbonate) or high-phosphate diet (1...
2012: American Journal of Nephrology
Sheng-Ying Wu, Yan-Rong Yu, Yan Cai, Li-Xin Jia, Xiong Wang, Chuan-Shi Xiao, Chao-Shu Tang, Yong-Fen Qi
Aldosterone (Aldo) is an important active hormone in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and plays a vital role in the development of hypertension, heart failure and other cardiovascular diseases. We aimed to explore the role of endogenous Aldo in aortic calcification in rats. We induced arterial calcification in rats by intramuscular administration of vitamin D(3) plus oral nicotine (VDN) and determined calcium content, (45)Ca(2+) accumulation and activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The mRNA level of osteopontin (OPN) was measured by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction...
January 2012: Experimental Biology and Medicine
John P Forman, Jonathan S Williams, Naomi D L Fisher
Vitamin D regulates the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in experimental animals, but corresponding human data are limited. We examined the relation between plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and elements of the RAS in 184 normotensive individuals in high sodium balance; these included circulating levels of plasma renin activity and angiotensin II (Ang II) and the renal plasma flow response to infused Ang II, which is an indirect measure of the intrinsic RAS activity in the kidney. Compared with individuals with sufficient 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels (> or = 30...
May 2010: Hypertension
Yan Zhang, Dilip K Deb, Juan Kong, Gang Ning, Yurong Wang, George Li, Yunzi Chen, Zhongyi Zhang, Stephen Strugnell, Yves Sabbagh, Cynthia Arbeeny, Yan Chun Li
The intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a key role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Recently, we showed that combination therapy with an AT(1) receptor blocker (ARB) and an activated vitamin D analog produced excellent synergistic effects against diabetic nephropathy, as a result of blockade of the ARB-induced compensatory renin increase. Given the diversity of vitamin D analogs, here we used a pro-drug vitamin D analog, doxercalciferol (1alpha-hydroxyvitamin D(2)), to further test the efficacy of the combination strategy in long-term treatment...
September 2009: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Zhongyi Zhang, Yan Zhang, Gang Ning, Dilip K Deb, Juan Kong, Yan Chun Li
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the development of diabetic nephropathy, and blockade of the RAS is currently used for treatment of diabetic nephropathy. One major problem for the current RAS inhibitors is the compensatory renin increase, which reduces the efficacy of RAS inhibition. We have shown that vitamin D exerts renoprotective actions by transcriptionally suppressing renin. Here we demonstrated that combination therapy with an AT1 receptor blocker and a vitamin D analog markedly ameliorated renal injury in the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes model due to the blockade of the compensatory renin rise by the vitamin D analog, leading to more effective RAS inhibition...
October 14, 2008: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yan Chun Li, Guilin Qiao, Milan Uskokovic, Wei Xiang, Wei Zheng, Juan Kong
The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a central role in the regulation of blood pressure, volume and electrolyte homeostasis. Inappropriate activation of the RAS may lead to hypertension. Clinical and epidemiological studies have suggested a correlation between Vitamin D-deficiency and high blood pressure. Our recent studies demonstrate that Vitamin D is a potent endocrine suppressor of renin biosynthesis to regulate the RAS. Mice lacking the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) have elevated production of renin and angiotensin (Ang) II, leading to hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and increased water intake...
May 2004: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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