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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088581/a-stepwise-algorithm-using-a-at-a-glance-first-line-test-for-the-non-invasive-diagnosis-of-advanced-liver-fibrosis-and-cirrhosis
#1
Jérôme Boursier, Victor de Ledinghen, Vincent Leroy, Rodolphe Anty, Sven Francque, Dominique Salmon, Adrien Lannes, Sandrine Bertrais, Frederic Oberti, Isabelle Fouchard-Hubert, Paul Calès
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Chronic liver diseases (CLD) are highly frequent and thus mainly managed by non-hepatologists. Because they lack access to the best non-invasive tests of liver fibrosis, these physicians cannot accurately determine the disease severity and the need for referral to a hepatologist. We aimed to implement an algorithm, comprising a new first-line test usable by all physicians, for the detection of advanced liver fibrosis in all CLD patients. METHODS: Diagnostic study: 3,754 CLD patients with liver biopsy were 2:1 randomized into derivation and validation sets...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088473/endothelium-adhesion-molecules-icam-1-icam-2-vcam-1-and-vla-4-expression-in-leprosy
#2
Juarez de Sousa, Tinara Leila Sousa Aarão, Jorge Rodrigues de Sousa, Kelly Emi Hirai, Luciana Mota Silva, Leonidas Braga Dias, Francisca Regina Oliveira Carneiro, Hellen Thais Fuzii, Juarez Aantonio Simoes Quaresma
Leprosy triggers a complex relationship between the pathogen and host immune response. Endothelium plays an important role in this immune response by directly influencing cell migration to infected tissues. The objective of this work is to investigate the possible role of endothelium in M. leprae infection, correlating the characteristics of endothelial markers with the expression pattern of cytokines. Thirty-six skin biopsy samples were cut into 5-μm thick sections and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Ziehl-Neelsen for morphological analysis and then submitted to immunohistochemical analysis using monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1, ICAM-2, VCAM-1, and VLA-4...
January 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088462/activation-of-the-hypoxia-inducible-factor-1-alpha-subunit-pathway-in-steatotic-liver-contributes-to-formation-of-cholesterol-gallstones
#3
Yoichiro Asai, Tetsuya Yamada, Sohei Tsukita, Kei Takahashi, Masamitsu Maekawa, Midori Honma, Masanori Ikeda, Keigo Murakami, Yuichiro Munakata, Yuta Shirai, Shinjiro Kodama, Takashi Sugisawa, Yumiko Chiba, Yasuteru Kondo, Keizo Kaneko, Kenji Uno, Shojiro Sawada, Junta Imai, Yasuhiro Nakamura, Hiroaki Yamaguchi, Kozo Tanaka, Hironobu Sasano, Nariyasu Mano, Yoshiyuki Ueno, Tooru Shimosegawa, Hideki Katagiri
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha subunit (HIF1A) is a transcription factor that controls the cellular response to hypoxia and is activated in hepatocytes of patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NAFLD increases risk for cholesterol gallstone disease by unclear mechanisms. We studied the relationship between HIF1A and gallstone formation associated with liver steatosis. METHODS: We performed studies with mice with inducible disruption of Hif1a in hepatocytes, via a Cre adenoviral vector (iH-HIFKO mice), and mice without disruption of Hif1a (control mice)...
January 11, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088407/far-off-and-close-up-dry-matter-intake-modulate-indicators-of-immunometabolic-adaptations-to-lactation-in-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-of-pasture-based-transition-dairy-cows
#4
M Vailati-Riboni, G Farina, F Batistel, A Heiser, M D Mitchell, M A Crookenden, C G Walker, J K Kay, S Meier, J R Roche, J J Loor
The common practice of increasing dietary energy density during the close-up dry period (last ∼3 wk prepartum) has been recently associated with a higher incidence of metabolic disorders after calving. Despite these reports, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off, nonlactating period is a common management policy aimed at achieving optimum calving body condition score (BCS) in pasture-based systems, as cows are generally thinner than total mixed ration cows at the end of lactation. Our hypothesis was that both far-off and close-up overfeeding influence the peripartum adipose tissue changes associated with energy balance and inflammatory state...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088387/sirt2-mediated-antitumour-effects-of-shikonin-on-metastatic-colorectal-cancer
#5
Li-Li Zhang, Lin Zhan, Yong-Dong Jin, Zhen-Li Min, Can Wei, Qiang Wang, Ya-Jun Chen, Qing-Ming Wu, Xia-Min Hu, Qiong Yuan
SIRT2 is involved in the development of a variety of cancers. Shikonin is a natural compound that is known to have antitumour effects. This study aims to assess the effects of shikonin on the development and metastatic progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) through regulation of SIRT2 expression and whether this effect is related to the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). The results demonstrated that SIRT2 is downregulated in CRC biopsy samples (n = 31) compared with the adjacent non-cancerous tissues (ANCT, n = 26)...
January 11, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088340/the-role-of-magnetic-resonance-imaging-techniques-in-evaluation-and-management-of-the-idiopathic-inflammatory-myopathies
#6
REVIEW
Jessica Day, Sandy Patel, Vidya Limaye
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an important tool in the evaluation of neuromuscular disorders. MRI accurately demonstrates muscle oedema, atrophy, subcutaneous pathology and fatty infiltration and also highlights the distribution of muscle involvement. This review examines the role of MRI in evaluation of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs), a heterogeneous group of autoimmune conditions characterised by muscle inflammation and a variety of extra-muscular manifestations. MRI has a clear role in aiding diagnosis of these conditions, guiding muscle biopsy, differentiating subtypes of IIM using a pattern-based approach, and monitoring disease activity in a longitudinal fashion...
November 5, 2016: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088221/role-of-pelvic-and-para-aortic-lymphadenectomy-in-abandoned-radical-hysterectomy-in-cervical-cancer
#7
Salim Abraham Barquet-Muñoz, Gabriel Jaime Rendón-Pereira, Denise Acuña-González, Monica Vanessa Heymann Peñate, Luis Alonso Herrera-Montalvo, Lenny Nadia Gallardo-Alvarado, David Francisco Cantú-de León, René Pareja
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer (CC) occupies fourth place in cancer incidence and mortality worldwide in women, with 560,505 new cases and 284,923 deaths per year. Approximately, nine of every ten (87%) take place in developing countries. When a macroscopic nodal involvement is discovered during a radical hysterectomy (RH), there is controversy in the literature between resect macroscopic lymph node compromise or abandonment of the surgery and sending the patient for standard chemo-radiotherapy treatment...
January 14, 2017: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088216/immunohistochemical-features-of-giant-cell-ependymoma-of-the-filum-terminale-with-unusual-clinical-and-radiological-presentation
#8
Fernando Candanedo-Gonzalez, Cindy Sharon Ortiz-Arce, Samuel Rosales-Perez, Ana Lilia Remirez-Castellanos, Candelaria Cordova-Uscanga, Armando Gamboa-Dominguez
BACKGROUND: Giant cell ependymoma of the filum terminale is a rare variant, generally manifested as a well-circunscribed intradural mass with an indolent biological behavior. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe the case of a 48-year-old Mexican female who non-relevant past medical history, that developed a GCE of the filum terminale. Magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed the presence of an intra-axial tumor extending from L3 to L5 with extra-medullary invasion...
January 14, 2017: Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088212/ultrasensitive-detection-of-oncogenic-human-papillomavirus-in-oropharyngeal-tissue-swabs
#9
Andre Isaac, Morris Kostiuk, Han Zhang, Cameron Lindsay, Fawaz Makki, Daniel A O'Connell, Jeffrey R Harris, David W J Cote, Hadi Seikaly, Vincent L Biron
BACKGROUND: The incidence of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) caused by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) is rising worldwide. HPV-OPSCC is commonly diagnosed by RT-qPCR of HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins or by p16 immunohistochemistry (IHC). Droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) has been recently reported as an ultra-sensitive and highly precise method of nucleic acid quantification for biomarker analysis. To validate the use of a minimally invasive assay for detection of oncogenic HPV based on oropharyngeal swabs using ddPCR...
January 14, 2017: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088193/invasive-cardiac-lipoma-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#10
Jason D'Souza, Rajesh Shah, Aamer Abbass, Jeremy R Burt, Aditya Goud, Chanukya Dahagam
BACKGROUND: Cardiac lipomas are rare benign tumors of the heart. They are usually asymptomatic and are thus most often diagnosed on autopsies. Symptoms, when present, depend upon the location within the heart. Typical locations are the endocardium of the right atrium and the left ventricle. Diagnostic modality of choice is cardiac MRI. Treatment guidelines have not yet been established due to the very low prevalence of these tumors and are thus guided by the patient's symptomatology. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of an invasive cardiac lipoma, wherein the initial symptom of the patient was shortness of breath...
January 14, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088184/anti-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-response-of-imiquimod-based-toll-like-receptor-7-ligand-in-hbv-positive-human-hepatocelluar-carcinoma-cell-line
#11
Dipanwita Das, Isha Sengupta, Neelakshi Sarkar, Ananya Pal, Debraj Saha, Manikankana Bandopadhyay, Chandrima Das, Jimmy Narayan, Shivaram Prasad Singh, Sekhar Chakrabarti, Runu Chakravarty
BACKGROUND: Toll like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate immunity and various studies suggest that TLRs play a crucial role in pathogenesis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. The present study aims in looking into the status of crucial host and viral gene expression on inciting TLR7. METHODS: The transcription of TLR7 pathway signaling molecules and HBV DNA viral load were quantified by Real Time-PCR after stimulation of TLR7 with its imiquimod based ligand, R837...
January 14, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088126/severe-hypoalbuminemia-and-steatohepatitis-leading-to-death-in-a-young-vegetarian-female-8-months-after-mini-gastric-bypass-a-case-report
#12
Mohammad Kermansaravi, Mohammad Reza Abdolhosseini, Ali Kabir, Abdolreza Pazouki
BACKGROUND: Hypoalbuminemia is an important complication after Mini Gastric Bypass (MGB) and is more frequent in vegetarians, diabetic nephropathy, and alcoholic and liver disease patients. The patients must be followed in regular intervals and serum albumin must be checked in every visit after MGB. Hypoalbuminemia must be prevented by good protein regimes. CASE SUMMARY: A 29 years old female was admitted 8 month after Laparoscopic Mini Gastric Bypass with malaise, dyspnea, icter, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and edema of extremities from 2 weeks before admission...
December 11, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087916/-a-case-of-idiopathic-hypertrophic-cranial-pachymeningitis-presenting-as-chronic-subdural-hematoma
#13
Zhan He, Fang Ding, Jiandong Rong, Yongli Gan
A 26-year-old male presented with a 6-day history of paroxysmal headache which was worsen with nausea and vomiting for 1 day. Head CT on admission revealed left chronic subdural hematoma with midline shift. An emergency Burr hole drainage for hematoma was performed. Headache recurred 6 days later. MRI of the brain revealed a diffuse thickening and a gadolinium-enhancement of the falx, cranial dura mater and tentorium cerebelli on the left side with pia mater involved. Lumber puncture showed increased intracranial pressure and elevated IgG level in cerebrospinal fluid...
May 25, 2016: Zhejiang da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Zhejiang University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087734/increased-mitophagy-in-the-skeletal-muscle-of-spinal-and-bulbar-muscular-atrophy-patients
#14
Doriana Borgia, Adriana Malena, Marco Spinazzi, Maria Andrea Desbats, Leonardo Salviati, Aaron P Russell, Giovanni Miotto, Laura Tosatto, Elena Pegoraro, Gianni Sorarù, Maria Pennuto, Lodovica Vergani
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a neuromuscular disorder caused by polyglutamine expansion in the androgen receptor (AR) and characterized by the loss of lower motor neurons. Here we investigated pathological processes occurring in muscle biopsy specimens derived from SBMA patients and, as controls, age-matched healthy subjects and patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and neurogenic atrophy. We detected atrophic fibers in the muscle of SBMA, ALS and neurogenic atrophy patients...
January 13, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087643/tumor-brca1-reversion-mutation-arising-during-neoadjuvant-platinum-based-chemotherapy-in-triple-negative-breast-cancer-is-associated-with-therapy-resistance
#15
Anosheh Afghahi, Kirsten M Timms, Shaveta Vinayak, Kristin C Jensen, Allison W Kurian, Robert W Carlson, Pei-Jen Chang, Elizabeth A Schackmann, Anne-Renee Hartman, James M Ford, Melinda L Telli
BACKGROUND: In germline BRCA1 or BRCA2 (BRCA1/2) mutation carriers, restoration of tumor BRCA1/2 function by a secondary mutation is recognized as a mechanism of resistance to platinum and PARP inhibitors, primarily in ovarian cancer. We evaluated this mechanism of resistance in newly diagnosed BRCA1/2-mutant breast cancer patients with poor response to neoadjuvant platinum-based therapy. METHODS: PrECOG 0105 was a phase II neoadjuvant study of gemcitabine, carboplatin and iniparib in patients with stage I-IIIA triple-negative or BRCA1/2 mutation-associated breast cancer (n=80)...
January 13, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087482/prolonged-acute-suppression-of-cysteinyl-leukotriene-to-reduce-capsular-contracture-around-silicone-implants
#16
Byung Hwi Kim, Min Park, Hyo Jin Park, Seung Ho Lee, Sung Yoon Choi, Chun Gwon Park, Su Min Han, Chan Yeong Heo, Young Bin Choy
: We hypothesize that periodically early, local suppression of cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), which are potent inflammatory mediators, can reduce the fibrotic capsular contracture around silicone implants. We tested this hypothesis with the silicone implants enabled with the sustained release of montelukast, a CysLT receptor antagonist, for 3 and 15 days. In this work, we inserted each of the distinct implants into the pocket of the subpanniculus carnosus plane of living rats and performed histological and immunofluorescent (IF) analyses of the tissues biopsied at predetermined periods for 12 weeks after implant insertion...
January 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087478/renal-involvement-in-lysinuric-protein-intolerance-contribution-of-pathology-to-assessment-of-heterogeneity-of-renal-lesions
#17
Emmanuel Estève, Pauline Krug, Aurélie Hummel, Jean-Baptiste Arnoux, Olivia Boyer, Anais Brassier, Pascale de Lonlay, Vincent Vuiblet, Stéphanie Gobin, Rémi Salomon, Christine Piètrement, Jean-Paul Bonnefont, Aude Servais, Louise Galmiche
Lysinuric protein intolerance (LPI) is a rare autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the SLC7A7 gene encoding the light subunit of a cationic amino acid transporter. Symptoms mimic primary urea cycle defects but dysimmune symptoms are also described. Renal involvement in LPI was first described in the 1980's. In 2007, it appeared that it could concern as much as 75% of LPI patients and could lead to end stage renal disease. The most common feature is proximal tubular dysfunction and nephrocalcinosis but glomerular lesions are also reported...
January 10, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087475/immunohistochemical-approach-for-the-diagnosis-of-a-liver-mass-on-small-biopsy-specimens
#18
Won-Tak Choi, Rageshree Ramachandran, Sanjay Kakar
Well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) shares overlapping histological features with benign hepatocellular lesions, including hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) and focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) in non-cirrhotic liver, and with high-grade dysplastic nodule (HGDN) in cirrhotic liver. Several metastatic tumors, such as neuroendocrine tumor, renal cell carcinoma, adrenocortical carcinoma, melanoma, and epithelioid angiomyolipoma, can be indistinguishable from HCC on histologic grounds. Since this distinction has important therapeutic implications, judicious use of immunohistochemical markers plays an important role in establishing an accurate diagnosis, especially when limited material of tumor is available on cell block or a small core biopsy...
January 10, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087402/accuracy-is-in-the-eyes-of-the-pathologist-the-visual-interpretive-process-and-diagnostic-accuracy-with-digital-whole-slide-images
#19
Tad T Brunyé, Ezgi Mercan, Donald L Weaver, Joann G Elmore
Digital whole slide imaging is an increasingly common medium in pathology, with application to education, telemedicine, and rendering second opinions. It has also made it possible to use eye tracking devices to explore the dynamic visual inspection and interpretation of histopathological features of tissue while pathologists review cases. Using whole slide images, the present study examined how a pathologist's diagnosis is influenced by fixed case-level factors, their prior clinical experience, and their patterns of visual inspection...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087391/clonal-cytogenetic-abnormalities-are-predictor-in-developing-non-hodgkin-lymphomas
#20
Ying Wang, Yi Xiao, Xiangyu Meng, Heng Zhang, Qinlu Li, Fankai Meng, Lifang Huang, Chunrui Li, Jianfeng Zhou
Pathological analysis is the cornerstone for diagnosing malignant lymphoma. Status of cytogenetic abnormalities is frequently left unexamined if no evidence of malignancy is found in pathological analysis. In this study, we presented 3 cases in which clonal cytogenetic abnormalities were detected but morphological alterations of the same tissue did not support malignant non Hodgkin lymphoma at the first lymph node biopsy. Case 1 is a 55-year-old female with lymphadenopathy neoplastic process confirmed by flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
January 10, 2017: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
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