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Bilateral phrenic nerve injury

Henning Gaissert, Susan R Wilcox
The perioperative management of diaphragmatic weakness and phrenic nerve dysfunction is complex, due to varied etiologies and clinical presentations. The factors leading to diaphragmatic weakness may culminate after the operation with transient or persistent respiratory failure. This review discusses diaphragmatic disorders and postoperative respiratory failure caused by unilateral or bilateral diaphragmatic impairment. The origins of neuromuscular weakness involving the diaphragm are diverse, and often lie within the domains of different medical specialties, with only a portion of the condition related to surgical intervention...
December 2016: Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon
Rachel A McBain, Janet L Taylor, Robert B Gorman, Simon C Gandevia, Jane E Butler
What is the central question of this study? The aim was to determine whether specific reflex connections operate between intercostal afferents and the scalene muscles in humans, and whether these connections operate after a clinically complete cervical spinal cord injury. What is the main finding and its importance? This is the first description of a short-latency inhibitory reflex connection between intercostal afferents from intercostal spaces to the scalene muscles in able-bodied participants. We suggest that this reflex is mediated by large-diameter afferents...
October 1, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Kaoru Okishige, Hideshi Aoyagi, Naohiko Kawaguchi, Nobutaka Katoh, Mitsumi Yamashita, Tomofumi Nakamura, Manabu Kurabayashi, Hidetoshi Suzuki, Mitsutoshi Asano, Kentarou Gotoh, Tsukasa Shimura, Yasuteru Yamauchi, Toshirou Kanazawa, Tetsuo Sasano, Kenzo Hirao
BACKGROUND: Diaphragmatic electrogram recording during cryoballoon ablation (CB-A) of atrial fibrillation is commonly used to predict phrenic nerve palsy (PNP). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate a novel method for predicting PNP at an earlier stage to prevent sustained PNP. METHODS: A total of 197 patients undergoing CB-A were enrolled. We attempted to detect PNP using fluoroscopic images of diaphragmatic contractions and by monitoring diaphragmatic compound motor action potentials (CMAPs) provoked by superior vena cava (SVC) and left subclavian vein (LCV) pacing during CB-A for bilateral pulmonary veins (PVs)...
September 2016: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
Miao Zhang, Heng Wang, Xuefeng Pan, Wenbin Wu, Hui Zhang
The aim of the present study was to examine the feasibility and efficacy of thoracoscopic radical resection of large retrosternal thymoma using artificial pneumothorax. A retrospective analysis was performed on 19 patients with bulky thymoma who underwent thoracoscopic resection using artificial pneumothorax by CO2 insufflation. The operations were performed with unilateral or bilateral thoracic incisions via single lumen endotracheal intubation and two-lung ventilation. This approach provided excellent exposure of the thoracic cavity and reliable control of the neuro-vascular structures in the anterior mediastinum, which was of vital importance for the extended resection of malignant thymoma...
May 2016: Oncology Letters
Kun-Ze Lee
KEY POINTS: Activation of bronchopulmonary C-fibres, the main chemosensitive afferents in the lung, can induce pulmonary chemoreflexes to modulate respiratory activity. Following chronic cervical spinal cord injury, bronchopulmonary C-fibre activation-induced inhibition of phrenic activity was exaggerated. Supersensitivity of phrenic motor outputs to the inhibitory effect of bronchopulmonary C-fibre activation is due to a shift of phrenic motoneuron types and slow recovery of phrenic motoneuron discharge in cervical spinal cord-injured animals...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Nicole L Nichols, Gordon S Mitchell
Integrated electrical activity in the phrenic nerve is commonly used to assess within-animal changes in phrenic motor output. Because of concerns regarding the consistency of nerve recordings, activity is most often expressed as a percent change from baseline values. However, absolute values of nerve activity are necessary to assess the impact of neural injury or disease on phrenic motor output. To date, no systematic evaluations of the repeatability/reliability have been made among animals when phrenic recordings are performed by an experienced investigator using standardized methods...
June 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Shane V Abdunnur, Daniel H Kim
Phrenic nerve stimulation is a technique used to reanimate the diaphragm of patients with central nervous system etiologies of respiratory insufficiency. Current clinical indications include congenital central hypoventilation syndrome, spinal cord injury above C4, brain stem injury, and idiopathic severe sleep apnea. Presurgical evaluation ensures proper patient selection by validating the intact circuit from the phrenic nerve through alveolar oxygenation. The procedure involves placing leads around the phrenic nerves bilaterally and attaching these leads to radio receivers in a subcutaneous pocket...
2015: Progress in Neurological Surgery
Pradeep Bhaskar, Reyaz A Lone, Ahmad Sallehuddin, Jiju John, Akhlaque N Bhat, Muhammed R K Rahmath
Diaphragmatic paralysis following phrenic nerve injury is a major complication following congenital cardiac surgery. In contrast to unilateral paralysis, patients with bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis present a higher risk group, require different management methods, and have poorer prognosis. We retrospectively analysed seven patients who had bilateral diaphragmatic paralysis following congenital heart surgery during the period from July, 2006 to July, 2014. Considerations were given to the time to diagnosis of diaphragm paralysis, total ventilator days, interval after plication, and lengths of ICU and hospital stays...
June 2016: Cardiology in the Young
Shinsuke Miyazaki, Hitoshi Hachiya, Hiroshi Taniguchi, Hiroaki Nakamura, Noboru Ichihara, Eisuke Usui, Akio Kuroi, Takamitsu Takagi, Jin Iwasawa, Kenzo Hirao, Yoshito Iesaka
BACKGROUND: Left phrenic nerve injury (PNI) can occur during cryoballoon ablation of the left pulmonary veins (PVs). This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of monitoring the bilateral phrenic nerve function during cryoballoon ablation of atrial fibrillation (AF). METHODS: Fifty consecutive paroxysmal AF patients undergoing cryoballoon ablation using one 28-mm second-generation balloon were prospectively enrolled. Bilateral diaphragmatic compound motor action potentials (CMAPs) were obtained from modified surface electrodes by pacing from the bilateral subclavian veins, and monitored during 3-minute cryoballoon applications at the ipsilateral PVs...
June 2015: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Toshihiro Kitajima, Kota Momose, Seigi Lee, Shusuke Haruta, Masaki Ueno, Hisashi Shinohara, Sakashi Fujimori, Takeshi Fujii, Ryoji Takei, Tadasu Kohno, Harushi Udagawa
We herein report a case of bronchial bleeding after radical esophagectomy that was treated with lobectomy. A 65-year-old male who underwent subtotal esophagectomy with three-field lymph node dissection for esophageal carcinoma was referred to our hospital because of sudden hemoptysis. After the esophagectomy, bilateral vocal cord paralysis was observed, and the patient suffered from repeated episodes of aspiration pneumonia. Bronchoscopy revealed hemosputum in the right middle lobe bronchus, and contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed tortuous arteries arising from the right inferior phrenic artery and left subclavian artery toward the right middle lobe bronchus...
March 21, 2015: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Seby John, Jinny Tavee
Neck pain from cervical spinal disease is a common problem with significant disability, and chiropractic manipulation has emerged as one of the leading forms of alternative treatment for such spinal symptoms. However, more experience with these forms of treatment has revealed associated complications that are far from benign. Complications range from mild symptoms, such as local neck tenderness or stiffness, to more severe injuries involving the spinal cord, peripheral nerve roots, and arteries within the neck...
February 2015: Neurologist
G Setty, R Saleem, P Harijan, A Khan, N Hussain
Nerve injuries after thoracic and cardiovascular surgery have been reported but generally concern the brachial plexus, phrenic nerve, recurrent laryngeal, and facial nerve. Common peroneal nerve injury (CPNI) following cardiopulmonary bypass has been reported in adults (4); however bilateral injury is extremely uncommon. Age, low body weight, co-morbidities such as peripheral arteriosclerotic disease, diabetes mellitus, and arrhythmias were associated with CPNI following cardiothoracic surgery in adults. Common peroneal nerve injury (CPNI) following cardiopulmonary by-pass has been reported in adults; however, bilateral injury is extremely uncommon...
September 2014: Journal of Pediatric Neurosciences
Yaoki Nakao, Hiroshi Terai
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient with brain infarction due to recanalization of an occluded vertebral artery (VA) following closed reduction and open fixation of cervical spinal dislocation and to discuss the management of asymptomatic VA injuries associated with spine trauma. CLINICAL FEATURES: A 41-year-old Asian man experienced a C4-5 distractive-flexion injury manifesting with quadriplegia and anesthesia below the C3 cord level (including phrenic nerve paralysis), and bowel and bladder dysfunction...
December 2014: Journal of Chiropractic Medicine
Yaoki Nakao, Hiroshi Terai
INTRODUCTION: The frequency of vertebrobasilar ischemia in patients with cervical spine trauma had been regarded as low in many published papers. However, some case reports have described cervical spine injury associated with blunt vertebral artery injury. Many aspects of the management of vertebral artery injuries still remain controversial, including the screening criteria, the diagnostic modality, and the optimal treatment for various lesions. The case of a patient who had a brain infarction due to recanalization of his occluded vertebral artery following open reduction of cervical spinal dislocation is presented here...
October 14, 2014: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Brian Gelpi, Pavan R Telang, Christian G Samuelson, Craig S Hamilton, Seth Billiodeaux
The performance of bilateral supraclavicular brachial plexus nerve blocks is controversial. We present the challenging case of a 29-year-old male who suffered bilateral high-voltage electrocution injuries to the upper extremities, resulting in severe tissue damage, sensory and motor deficits, and wounds in both axillae. This injury necessitated bilateral below-elbow amputations. His postoperative course was complicated by pain refractory to intravenous narcotics. The decision was made to attempt bilateral supraclavicular brachial plexus blocks...
March 2014: Journal of the Louisiana State Medical Society: Official Organ of the Louisiana State Medical Society
V J Furtado de Araújo Neto, C R Cernea, R Aparecido Dedivitis, V J Furtado de Araújo Filho, J Fabiano Palazzo, L Garcia Brandão
The presence of cervical metastasis has substantial negative impact on survival of patients with laryngeal cancer. Bilateral elective selective neck dissection of levels II, III and IV is usually the chosen approach in these patients. However, there is significant morbidity associated with level IV dissection, such as phrenic nerve injury and lymphatic fistula. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of metastatic nodes in level IV in clinically T3/T4N0 patients with laryngeal cancer...
February 2014: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Sapan S Desai, Mohammad Toliyat, Anahita Dua, Kristofer M Charlton-Ouw, Monir Hossain, Anthony L Estrera, Hazim J Safi, Ali Azizzadeh
BACKGROUND: Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a constellation of signs and symptoms caused by compression of the neurovascular structures in the thoracic outlet. These structures include the brachial plexus, the subclavian vein, and the subclavian artery, resulting in neurogenic (NTOS), venous (VTOS), and arterial (ATOS) types of TOS, respectively. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of paraclavicular surgical decompression for TOS. METHODS: A prospective analysis of patients who underwent surgical decompression for TOS at a newly established center was performed...
February 2014: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Edwin O Onkendi, Travis J McKenzie, Melanie L Richards, David R Farley, Geoffrey B Thompson, Jan L Kasperbauer, Ian D Hay, Clive S Grant
BACKGROUND: Intense postoperative monitoring has resulted in increasing detection of patients with recurrent papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). Our goals included quantifying successful reoperation, and analyzing surgical complications and reasons for relapse. METHODS: From 1999 to 2008, a total of 410 patients underwent reoperation for PTC relapse. We analyzed post-reoperative disease outcomes, reasons for relapse, and complications. RESULTS: Bilateral reoperative thyroidectomy was performed in 13 (3 %) patients; lobectomy, 34 (8 %); central neck (VI) soft tissue local recurrence excision, 47 (11...
March 2014: World Journal of Surgery
Kun-Ze Lee, Yi-Jia Huang, I-Lun Tsai
The present study was designed to investigate the impact of midcervical spinal cord injury on respiratory outputs and compare respiratory recovery following high- vs. midcervical spinal injury. A unilateral hemisection (Hx) in the spinal cord at C2 or C4 was performed in adult rats. Respiratory behaviors of unanesthetized animals were measured at normoxic baseline and hypercapnia by whole body plethysmography at 1 day and 1, 2, 4, and 8 wk after spinal injury. C2Hx and C4Hx induced a similar rapid shallow breathing pattern at 1 day postinjury...
February 15, 2014: Journal of Applied Physiology
Harry G Goshgarian, Janelle L Buttry
The first aim of the study was to determine if WGA-Alexa 488 would undergo retrograde transsynaptic transport in the phrenic motor system as we have shown with WGA-HRP in a previous study. The advantage of using WGA-Alexa 488 is that labeled neurons could be isolated and analyzed for intracellular molecular mechanisms without exposing tissue sections to chemicals for histochemical staining. The second aim of the study was to investigate the pattern and extent of labeling that occurs when WGA-Alexa 488 is applied to the cervical phrenic nerve as compared to intradiaphragmatic injection...
January 30, 2014: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
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