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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670912/the-effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-on-glucose-metabolism-and-glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-goto-kakizaki-rats
#1
Laiyuan Li, Xiaolin Wang, Liangliang Bai, Huichuan Yu, Zenghong Huang, Anpei Huang, Yanxin Luo, Jianping Wang
Purpose: To investigate the effects of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) on glucose metabolism and changes in glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Methods: GK rats were randomly assigned to one of three groups: SG, SG pair-fed plus sham surgery (PF-sham), and ad libitum-fed no surgery (control). Food intake, body weight, blood glucose, GLP-1 and insulin levels, and GLP-1 expression in the jejunum and ileum were compared. Results: The SG rats exhibited lower postoperative food intake, body weight, and fasting glucose than did the control rats ( P < 0...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667913/ubiquitin-c-terminal-hydrolase-l1-deletion-is-associated-with-urinary-%C3%AE-klotho-deficiency-and-perturbed-phosphate-homeostasis
#2
Naomi C Boisvert, Chet E Holterman, Alexey Gutsol, Josee Coulombe, Wanling Pan, R Todd Alexander, Douglas A Gray, Chris R Kennedy
Loss of ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1), a deubiquitinating enzyme required for neuronal function, led to hyperphosphatemia accompanied by phosphaturia in mice, while calcium homeostasis remained intact. We therefore investigated the mechanisms underlying the phosphate imbalance in Uchl1-/- mice. Interestingly, phosphaturia was not a result of lower renal brush border membrane sodium-phosphate cotransporter expression as sodium-phosphate cotransporter 2a and 2c expression levels were similar to wild type levels...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627914/the-influence-of-feed-supplementation-with-probiotic-strain-lactobacillus-reuteri-ccm-8617-and-alginite-on-intestinal-microenvironment-of-spf-mice-infected-with-salmonella-typhimurium-ccm-7205
#3
Soňa Gancarčíková, Radomíra Nemcová, Miroslav Popper, Gabriela Hrčková, Ľuboslava Sciranková, Marián Maďar, Dagmar Mudroňová, Štefan Vilček, Rudolf Žitňan
Alginite is a non-ore raw material arising by fossilization of accumulated organic (algae) and inorganic material, particularly clay, carbonates, quartz, and amorphous modification of silicic acid in the aqueous environment. Humic acids as a component of organic portion of alginite are known for very good buffering ability which allows them to stabilise pH throughout the digestion system of animals, stimulate receptors of the immune system in intestinal villi against pathogenic bacteria, and support proliferation and activity of beneficial bacteria (lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, and similar)...
April 7, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620455/pancreatitis-is-an-important-feature-of-broilers-suffering-from-inclusion-body-hepatitis-leading-to-dysmetabolic-conditions-with-consequences-for-zootechnical-performance
#4
Miguel Matos, Károly Dublecz, Beatrice Grafl, Dieter Liebhart, Michael Hess
The aim of the present study was to further unravel the pathophysiologic mechanisms of inclusion body hepatitis (IBH). In a first trial, the susceptibility of specific-pathogen-free (SPF) broilers to fowl aviadenovirus (FAdV) infections was investigated. Regardless of viral dose, route of infection, and susceptibility to disease on day 1, the 3-week-old SPF broilers showed resistance to IBH, with no mortality being recorded throughout the experiment. In a second trial, SPF broilers were orally infected at 3 weeks of age with a FAdV-E strain, and their digestive and metabolic processes were monitored...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619418/the-role-of-intestinal-c-type-regenerating-islet-derived-3-lectins-for-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis
#5
Sena Bluemel, Lirui Wang, Cameron Martino, Suhan Lee, Yanhan Wang, Brandon Williams, Angela Horvath, Vanessa Stadlbauer, Karsten Zengler, Bernd Schnabl
C-type regenerating islet derived-3 (Reg3) lectins defend against pathogens and keep commensal bacteria at a distance. Deficiency of Reg3g and Reg3b facilitates alcohol-induced bacterial translocation and alcoholic liver disease. Intestinal Reg3g is down-regulated in animal models of diet-induced obesity, but the functional consequences for nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Reg3 lectins in NASH. NASH was induced by a Western-style fast-food diet in mice deficient for Reg3g or Reg3b and in transgenic mice overexpressing Reg3g in intestinal epithelial cells ( Reg3g Tg)...
April 2018: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593555/ileal-transposition-surgery-decreases-fat-mass-and-improves-glucose-metabolism-in-diabetic-gk-rats-possible-involvement-of-fgf21
#6
Kemin Yan, Weijie Chen, Huijuan Zhu, Guole Lin, Hui Pan, Naishi Li, Linjie Wang, Hongbo Yang, Meijuan Liu, Fengying Gong
Objective: Ileal transposition (IT) surgery has been reported to improve glucose and lipid metabolism, and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a powerful metabolic regulator. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the effects of IT surgery on metabolism and its possible relationship with the FGF21 signaling pathway in diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Methods: Ten-week-old male GK rats were subjected to IT surgery with translocation of a 10 cm ileal segment to the proximal jejunum (IT group) or sham surgery without the ileum transposition (Sham-IT group)...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584425/leucine-promotes-the-growth-of-fetal-pigs-by-increasing-protein-synthesis-through-the-mtor-signaling-pathway-in-longissimus-dorsi-muscle-at-late-gestation
#7
Chaoxian Wang, Fang Chen, Wenfei Zhang, Shihai Zhang, Kui Shi, Hanqing Song, Yijiang Wang, Sun Woo Kim, Wutai Guan
Leucine (Leu) plays an important role in protein synthesis and metabolism. The present study tested whether Leu supplementation in the diet for sows during late pregnancy could improve piglet birth weight, and also investigated the possible underlying mechanism. Two hundreds sows at day 70 of pregnancy were selected and assigned to four groups fed with following four diets until farrowing respectively: corn and soybean meal-based diet group (CON), CON + 0.40% Leu, CON + 0.80% Leu and CON + 1.20% Leu. We found that supplementing with 0...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558425/the-influence-of-high-and-low-doses-of-bisphenol-a-bpa-on-the-enteric-nervous-system-of-the-porcine-ileum
#8
Kamila Szymanska, Krystyna Makowska, Slawomir Gonkowski
Bisphenol A, used in the production of plastic, is able to leach from containers into food and cause multidirectional adverse effects in living organisms, including neurodegeneration and metabolic disorders. Knowledge of the impact of BPA on enteric neurons is practically non-existent. The destination of this study was to investigate the influence of BPA at a specific dose (0.05 mg/kg body weight/day) and at a dose ten times higher (0.5 mg/kg body weight/day), given for 28 days, on the porcine ileum. The influence of BPA on enteric neuron immunoreactive to selected neuronal active substances, including substance P (SP), vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), galanin (GAL), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (VAChT-used here as a marker of cholinergic neurons), and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript peptide (CART), was studied by the double immunofluorescence method...
March 20, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540768/a-global-comparison-of-the-microbiome-compositions-of-three-gut-locations-in-commercial-pigs-with-extreme-feed-conversion-ratios
#9
Jianping Quan, Gengyuan Cai, Jian Ye, Ming Yang, Rongrong Ding, Xingwang Wang, Enqin Zheng, Disheng Fu, Shaoyun Li, Shenping Zhou, Dewu Liu, Jie Yang, Zhenfang Wu
In an attempt to increase profits and sustainability in the swine industry, the gut microbiome has become a focus of much research. In this study, we performed a comparative analysis of the gut microbiome in the ileum, cecum, and colon of Duroc × (Landrace × Yorkshire) (DLY) pigs showing two extreme feed conversion ratios (FCRs) using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results revealed that the microbial community in the cecum and colon had significantly higher alpha diversity than the ileum. We further identified 11, 55, and 55 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with significantly different relative abundances between the high and low FCR pigs among the three gut locations, respectively...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29539590/fructose-liquid-and-solid-formulations-differently-affect-gut-integrity-microbiota-composition-and-related-liver-toxicity-a-comparative-in-vivo-study
#10
Raffaella Mastrocola, Ilario Ferrocino, Erica Liberto, Fausto Chiazza, Alessia Sofia Cento, Debora Collotta, Giulia Querio, Debora Nigro, Valeria Bitonto, Juan Carlos Cutrin, Kalliopi Rantsiou, Mariaconcetta Durante, Emanuela Masini, Manuela Aragno, Chiara Cordero, Luca Cocolin, Massimo Collino
Despite clinical findings suggesting that the form (liquid versus solid) of the sugars may significantly affect the development of metabolic diseases, no experimental data are available on the impact of their formulations on gut microbiota, integrity and hepatic outcomes. In the present sudy, C57Bl/6j mice were fed a standard diet plus water (SD), a standard diet plus 60% fructose syrup (L-Fr) or a 60% fructose solid diet plus water (S-Fr) for 12 weeks. Gut microbiota was characterized through 16S rRNA phylogenetic profiling and shotgun sequencing of microbial genes in ileum content and related volatilome profiling...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29524228/antibiotics-induced-modulation-of-large-intestinal-microbiota-altered-aromatic-amino-acid-profile-and-expression-of-neurotransmitters-in-the-hypothalamus-of-piglets
#11
Kan Gao, Yu Pi, Chun-Long Mu, Yu Peng, Zan Huang, Wei-Yun Zhu
The evidence of gut microbiota-mediated modulation of brain function has been widely recognized from studies using germ-free rodents or animals with oral antibiotic-induced microbiota depletion. Since the number of bacteria in the large intestine greatly exceeds that found within the small intestine, large intestinal microbiota may play a crucial role in the modulation of brain function. In the present study, twelve piglets (12.08 ± 0.28 kg) fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum were fed a standard diet and randomly assigned to two groups (n=6) for ileal infusion of either saline (control group) or antibiotics (antibiotic group)...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517944/concurrent-gut-transcriptome-and-microbiota-profiling-following-chronic-ethanol-consumption-in-nonhuman-primates
#12
Tasha Barr, Suhas Sureshchandra, Paul Ruegger, Jingfei Zhang, Wenxiu Ma, James Borneman, Kathleen Grant, Ilhem Messaoudi
Alcohol use disorder (AUD) results in increased intestinal permeability, nutrient malabsorption, and increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these morbidities remains limited because studies to date have relied almost exclusively on short-term heavy/binge drinking rodent models and colonic biopsies/fecal samples collected from AUD subjects with alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Consequently, the dose- and site-dependent impact of chronic alcohol consumption in the absence of overt liver disease remains poorly understood...
March 8, 2018: Gut Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515645/evaluation-of-capillary-leakage-after-vasopressin-resuscitation-in-a-hemorrhagic-shock-model
#13
Roberto Bini, Osvaldo Chiara, Stefania Cimbanassi, Giorgio Olivero, Antonella Trombetta, Paolo Cotogni
Background: Hemorrhagic shock (HS) is a major threat to patients with trauma and spontaneous bleeding. The aim of the study was to investigate early effects of vasopressin on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters and endothelium permeability by measuring capillary leakage compared to those of other resuscitation strategies in a HS model. Methods: Forty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups: S group ( n  = 5), sham-operated rats without shock or resuscitation; HS group ( n  = 10), HS and no resuscitation; RL group ( n  = 10), HS and resuscitation with Ringer's lactate (RL); RLB group ( n  = 10), HS and resuscitation with two-third shed blood plus RL; and vasopressin group ( n  = 10), HS and resuscitation with RL, followed by continuous infusion of 0...
2018: World Journal of Emergency Surgery: WJES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510583/integration-of-lncrna-and-mrna-transcriptome-analyses-reveals-genes-and-pathways-potentially-involved-in-calf-intestinal-growth-and-development-during-the-early-weeks-of-life
#14
Eveline M Ibeagha-Awemu, Duy N Do, Pier-Luc Dudemaine, Bridget E Fomenky, Nathalie Bissonnette
A better understanding of the factors that regulate growth and immune response of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of calves will promote informed management practices in calf rearing. This study aimed to explore genomics (messenger RNA (mRNA)) and epigenomics (long non-coding RNA (lncRNA)) mechanisms regulating the development of the rumen and ileum in calves. Thirty-two calves (≈5-days-old) were reared for 96 days following standard procedures. Sixteen calves were humanely euthanized on experiment day 33 (D33) (pre-weaning) and another 16 on D96 (post-weaning) for collection of ileum and rumen tissues...
March 5, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506047/phytase-supplementation-in-diets-rich-in-fiber-from-rapeseed-enhances-phosphorus-and-calcium-digestibility-but-not-retention-in-broiler-chickens
#15
M Bournazel, M Lessire, S Klein, N Même, C Peyronnet, A Quinsac, M J Duclos, A Narcy
Two experiments were conducted on broilers to assess the effect of dietary fiber from 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and retention (AR) during the growing (Exp1: 10 to 21 d) or finishing period (Exp2: 21 to 31 d) in diets supplemented or not with microbial phytase. Each experiment involved 144 male Cobb 500 fed one of 8 diets. Fiber content was modulated by incorporating whole RSM, RSM from dehulled rapeseeds, either raw or supplemented with 2 levels of defatted rapeseed hulls...
February 28, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501838/adipose-tissue-extrinsic-factor-obesity-induced-inflammation-and-the-role-of-the-visceral-lymph-node
#16
REVIEW
Aaron M Magnuson, Josephine K Fouts, Daniel P Regan, Andrea D Booth, Steve W Dow, Michelle T Foster
Obesity-related adverse health consequences occur predominately in individuals with upper body fat distribution commonly associated with increased central adiposity. Visceral adipose tissue accumulation is described to be the greatest driver of obesity-induced inflammation, however evidence also supports that the intestines fundamentally contribute to the development of obesity-induced metabolic disease. The visceral adipose depot shares the same vasculature and lymph drainage as the small intestine. We hypothesize that the visceral lymph node, which drains adipose tissue and the gastrointestinal tract, is central to the exacerbation of systemic pro-inflammation...
March 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497869/differences-in-gut-microbiota-composition-in-finishing-landrace-pigs-with-low-and-high-feed-conversion-ratios
#17
Zhen Tan, Yuan Wang, Ting Yang, Hong Ao, Shaokang Chen, Kai Xing, Fengxia Zhang, Xitong Zhao, Jianfeng Liu, Chuduan Wang
The goal of this study was to evaluate the microbial communities in the gut and feces from female finishing Landrace pigs with high and low feed conversion ratio (FCR) by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Many potential biomarkers can distinguish between high and low FCR groups in the duodenum, ileum, cecum, colon, and rectum, according to linear discriminant analysis effect sizes. The relative abundance of microbes were tested by Mann-Whitney test between the high and low FCR groups in different organs: Campylobacter, Prevotella and Sphaerochaeta were different in the duodenum (P < 0...
March 1, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29472900/spatial-heterogeneity-and-co-occurrence-of-mucosal-and-luminal-microbiome-across-swine-intestinal-tract
#18
Li Zhang, Weida Wu, Yuan-Kun Lee, Jingjing Xie, Hongfu Zhang
Pigs are one of the most important economic livestock. Gut microbiota is not only critical to the health but also the production efficiency of pigs. Manipulating gut microbiota relies on the full view of gut microbiome and the understanding of drive forces shaping microbial communities. 16s rDNA sequencing was used to profile microbiota along the longitudinal and radical axes to obtain the topographical map of microbiome in different intestinal compartments in young pigs. Alpha and beta-diversities revealed distinct differences in microbial compositions between the distal ileum and cecum and colon, as well as between the lumen and mucosa...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471545/high-protein-distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-produced-using-a-novel-front-end-back-end-fractionation-technology-has-greater-nutritional-value-than-conventional-distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-when-fed-to-growing-pigs
#19
C D Espinosa, H H Stein
Two experiments were conducted to determine the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of GE, and DE and ME in conventional distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS-CV) and in a novel source of high-protein distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS-HP) produced by Lincolnway Energy (Nevada, IA). In Exp. 1, 18 barrows (initial BW: 72.47 ± 9.16 kg) that had a T-cannula installed in the distal ileum were allotted to a completely randomized design with 3 diets and 6 replicate pigs per diet...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466845/duodenal-niemann-pick-c1-like-1-expression-was-negatively-correlated-with-liver-x-receptor-expression-in-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#20
Sang Bong Ahn, Dae Won Jun, Kiseok Jang, Byung Hoon Lee, Kye Jung Shin
Background/Aims: Intestinal cholesterol absorption includes intestinal Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1) and is an important target pathway in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the expression of NPC1L1 and its correlation with liver X receptor (LXR) expression in peripheral mononuclear (PMN) cells in patients with NAFLD. Methods: We evaluated intestinal expression of NPC1L1 in 25 NAFLD patients and 28 healthy controls. We calculated the mRNA expression levels of LXR and farnesoid X receptor (FXR), which are master players of cholesterol metabolism in PMN cells...
February 23, 2018: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
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