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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044434/glp-1-increases-kiss-1-mrna-expression-in-kisspeptin-expressing-neuronal-cells
#1
Aki Oride, Haruhiko Kanasaki, Tselmeg Mijiddorj, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Tomomi Hara, Tuvshintugs Tumurbaatar, Satoru Kyo
Feeding-related metabolic factors exert regulatory influences on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an anorexigenic hormone synthesized from the ileum in response to food intake. The purpose of this study was to examine the direct effect of GLP-1 on hypothalamic kisspeptin and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expression using the rat clonal hypothalamic cell line rHypoE-8. GLP-1 significantly increased Kiss-1 mRNA expression in rHypoE-8 cells up to 1.94 ± 0.22-fold...
August 1, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033903/protective-effect-of-akkermansia-muciniphila-against-immune-mediated-liver-injury-in-a-mouse-model
#2
Wenrui Wu, Longxian Lv, Ding Shi, Jianzhong Ye, Daiqiong Fang, Feifei Guo, Yating Li, Xingkang He, Lanjuan Li
Accumulating evidence indicates that gut microbiota participates in the pathogenesis and progression of liver diseases. The severity of immune-mediated liver injury is associated with different microbial communities. Akkermansia muciniphila can regulate immunologic and metabolic functions. However, little is known about its effects on gut microbiota structure and function. This study investigated the effect of A. muciniphila on immune-mediated liver injury and potential underlying mechanisms. Twenty-two C57BL/6 mice were assigned to three groups (N = 7-8 per group) and continuously administrated A...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030290/ex-vivo-evaluation-of-degradation-rates-of-metronidazole-and-olsalazine-in-distal-ileum-and-in-cecum-the-impact-of-prandial-state
#3
Eleni Karatza, Constantinos Goumas, Uwe Muenster, Christos Reppas, Maria Vertzoni
PURPOSE: Evaluate ex vivo the bacterial metabolism induced degradation rates of mesalamine (negative control), metronidazole and olsalazine in distal ileum and in cecum. METHODS: The contents of distal ileum and cecum were collected during colonoscopy under anaerobic conditions from twelve healthy adults in the fasted and in the fed state. To eliminate potential effects of enzymes that may exist in the fluid of lower intestine, each sample was ultracentrifuged and the precipitate was diluted with a volume of normal saline equivalent to that of the supernatant, after ultracentrifugation of intestinal contents from which the specific precipitate had been obtained...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993159/prevention-of-cholesterol-gallstone-disease-by-schaftoside-in-lithogenic-diet-induced-c57bl-6-mouse-model
#4
Meijing Liu, Changhui Liu, Hao Chen, Xiaotao Huang, Xiaohui Zeng, Juncheng Zhou, Suiqing Mi
Schaftoside (SS) is a bioactive compound present in the Herba Desmodii Styracifolii (DS), a herb that has been used to treat cholelithiasis and urolithiasis in Chinese medicine. Whether SS inhibits cholesterol (Ch) gallstone formation has not been investigated. This study examined the effects of oral intake of SS on Ch gallstone formation in C57BL/6 mice fed a lithogenic diet. The rate of gallstone formation was recorded. Levels of Ch, triglycerides (TG) and bile salts (BS) were measured in the bile and serum...
October 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968517/probiotics-modulate-gut-microbiota-and-improve-insulin-sensitivity-in-dio-mice
#5
Renata A Bagarolli, Natália Tobar, Alexandre G Oliveira, Tiago G Araújo, Bruno M Carvalho, Guilherme Z Rocha, Juliana F Vecina, Kelly Calisto, Dioze Guadagnini, Patrícia O Prada, Andrey Santos, Sara T O Saad, Mario J A Saad
Obesity and type 2 diabetes are characterized by subclinical inflammatory process. Changes in composition or modulation of the gut microbiota may play an important role in the obesity-associated inflammatory process. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of probiotics (Lactobacillus rhamnosus, L. acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidumi) on gut microbiota, changes in permeability, and insulin sensitivity and signaling in high-fat diet and control animals. More importantly, we investigated the effects of these gut modulations on hypothalamic control of food intake, and insulin and leptin signaling...
August 26, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960763/porcine-intestinal-microbiota-is-shaped-by-diet-composition-based-on-rye-or-triticale
#6
Katharina Burbach, Elisa J P Strang, Rainer Mosenthin, Amélia Camarinha-Silva, Jana Seifert
AIMS: The present study aimed to compare the microbiota composition from pigs fed different cereal grain types, either rye or triticale, as sole energy source. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ileal digesta and faeces were sampled from eight pigs of each experiment. Illumina amplicon sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to analyse the microbiota. Concentrations of short chain fatty acids and ammonia were determined from faecal samples. The grain type revealed significant alterations in the overall microbiota structure...
September 27, 2017: Journal of Applied Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918138/characterizing-effects-of-feed-restriction-and-glucagon-like-peptide-2-administration-on-biomarkers-of-inflammation-and-intestinal-morphology
#7
S K Kvidera, E A Horst, M V Sanz Fernandez, M Abuajamieh, S Ganesan, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, W E Trout, A F Keating, L H Baumgard
Inadequate feed consumption reduces intestinal barrier function in both ruminants and monogastrics. Objectives were to characterize how progressive feed restriction (FR) affects inflammation, metabolism, and intestinal morphology, and to investigate if glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP2) administration influences the aforementioned responses. Twenty-eight Holstein cows (157 ± 9 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 [5 d of ad libitum (AL) feed intake] served as baseline for period 2 (5 d), during which cows received 1 of 6 treatments: (1) 100% of AL feed intake (AL100; n = 3), (2) 80% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (3) 60% of AL feed intake (n = 5), (4) 40% of AL feed intake (AL40; n = 5), (5) 40% of AL feed intake + GLP2 administration (AL40G; 75 µg/kg of BW s...
November 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887368/segment-specific-responses-of-intestinal-epithelium-transcriptome-to-in-feed-antibiotics-in-pigs
#8
Kaifan Yu, Chunlong Mu, Yuxiang Yang, Yong Su, Wei-Yun Zhu
Despite widespread use of antibiotics for treatment of human diseases and promotion of growth of agricultural animals, our understanding of their effects on the host is still very limited. We used a pig model fed with a cocktail of antibiotics or without, and found based on the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) patterns that the fecal bacteria from the treatment and control animals were distinct. Furthermore, the total bacterial population in the feces tended to be decreased by the antibiotic treatment (P=0...
September 8, 2017: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876395/oral-insulin-improves-metabolic-parameters-in-high-fat-diet-fed-rats
#9
Leandro C Lipinski, Louise B Kmetiuk, Paulo C F Mathias, Ananda Malta, Giovani M Favero, Tatiane A Ribeiro, Alceu Toledo, Mario R Montemor Netto, Marcos R S Rodrigues
INTRODUCTION/AIM: The gut has shown to have a pivotal role on the pathophysiology of metabolic disease. Food stimulation of distal intestinal segments promotes enterohormones secretion influencing insulin metabolism. In diabetic rats, oral insulin has potential to change intestinal epithelium behavior. This macromolecule promotes positive effects on laboratorial metabolic parameters and decreases diabetic intestinal hypertrophy. This study aims to test if oral insulin can influence metabolic parameters and intestinal weight in obese non-diabetic rats...
July 2017: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875556/melatonin-alleviates-weanling-stress-in-mice-involvement-of-intestinal-microbiota
#10
Wenkai Ren, Peng Wang, Jiameng Yan, Gang Liu, Benhua Zeng, Tarique Hussain, Can Peng, Jie Yin, Bie Tan, Tiejun Li, Hong Wei, Guoqiang Zhu, Russel J Reiter, Yulong Yin
Melatonin influences intestinal microbiota, and the pathogenesis of various diseases. This study was conducted to explore whether melatonin alleviates weanling stress through intestinal microbiota in a weanling mouse model. Melatonin supplementation in weanling mice (provided in the drinking water at a dosage of 0.2mg/ml for 2 weeks) significantly improved body weight gain (1.4±0.03 g/day in melatonin group vs. 1.2±0.06 g/day in control group) and intestinal morphology [i.e., villus length (258.1±12.2 um in melatonin group vs...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Pineal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872123/ileectomy-induced-bile-overaccumulation-in-mouse-intestine
#11
Rongli Zhang, Jonathan W Ray, Mukesh K Jain, Shuxin Han
Intestinal resection is a common therapeutic approach for human diseases such as obesity, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, and colon cancer that often results in severe short bowel syndrome-like adverse effects including bile acid diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte disturbances, and nutrient malabsorption. Here we introduce a murine ileal resection model, termed ileectomy, to evaluate tissue communication and the maintenance of systemic homeostasis. After ileal resection, circulating blood is permanently devoid of the ileum-specific endocrine hormone fibroblast growth factor 15 (FGF15), which releases its endocrinal inhibition of bile acid synthesis in the liver...
August 21, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861731/adaptation-of-intestinal-and-bile-acid-physiology-accompany-the-metabolic-benefits-following-ileal-interposition-in-the-rat
#12
Ping Zhao, Donna Wendt, Sean Z Goodin, Shwetha Ravichandran, Tara E Chouinard, April D Strader
PURPOSE: Ileal interposition recapitulates many of the metabolic improvements similar to Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. We aimed to determine whether the metabolic improvements seen following ileal interposition were conferred solely by the interposed segment by examining changes in neighboring intestinal segments as well as the composition of the bile acid pool. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Adult male rats were treated with either sham or ileal interposition surgeries. Glucose tolerance tests, body composition analysis, polymer chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and mass spectrometry were done after the surgeries...
August 31, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843503/cyp7a1-is-continuously-increased-with-disrupted-fxr-mediated-feedback-inhibition-in-hypercholesterolemic-tallyho-jng-mice
#13
Eun-Ah Lee, Dong-In Lee, Hee-Yoen Kim, Sung-Hoon Ahn, Hye-Rim Seong, Won Hoon Jung, Ki Young Kim, Sungsub Kim, Sang Dal Rhee
TALLYHO/Jng (TH) mice reveal hypercholesterolemia at an early age before their plasma glucose levels have increased. The increased plasma cholesterol should be related to bile acids (BAs) metabolism, because cholesterol is the precursor of BAs and BAs change cholesterol metabolism in a feedback manner. We analyzed the BAs pool size, BAs composition, and expression levels of several proteins that have key roles in BAs synthesis, excretion, and reabsorption and compared them to those of C57BL/6 (B6) mice to study BAs metabolism in TH mice...
August 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802163/obstructive-mobile-small-intestinal-tumor-without-radiographic-stigmata-of-bezoar
#14
Elif Onursal, Merilyn Baby, Ali Chaudhri, Gerard A Baltazar
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal leiomyomas are often clinically silent until they bleed or grow large enough to cause local mass effect. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the unique case of an otherwise healthy 69-year-old male who developed a small bowel obstruction secondary to a mobile small intestinal leiomyoma. During initial evaluation, computed tomography did not demonstrate the cause of obstruction. Because of worsening clinical status with conservative management, the patient required emergency laparotomy...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782537/expression-of-sweet-taste-receptor-and-gut-hormone-secretion-in-modelled-type-2-diabetes
#15
Rilu Feng, Cheng Qian, Qianjing Liu, Yunqiu Jin, Lianyong Liu, Shengxian Li, Yu Liao, Huan Zhou, Wei Liu, Chris K Rayner, Jing Ma
Sweet taste receptors (STRs) are expressed in L cells which secret glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the gut. The STR blocker lactisole reduces GLP-1 secretion and increases blood glucose levels. Therefore, we investigated the expression of sweet taste molecules in the proximal and distal small intestine, and gut hormone secretion, in healthy control and type 2 diabetic rats. Two groups of rats (Sprague Dawley (SD), and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF)) were involved in the study. Each group (n=10) received an intragastric glucose infusion (50% glucose solution, 2g/kg body weight)...
October 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770644/the-combined-effect-of-sango-sprout-juice-and-caloric-restriction-on-metabolic-disorders-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-an-obesity-model
#16
Fabio Vivarelli, Donatella Canistro, Clara Babot Marquillas, Silvia Cirillo, Gina R De Nicola, Renato Iori, Giacomo Biagi, Carlo Pinna, Fabio Gentilini, Luisa Pozzo, Vincenzo Longo, Moreno Paolini
The main purpose of this study was to compare the benefits of SSJ supplementation in obese rats with those achieved only by switching the alimentary regimen from high-fat (HFD) to the regular one (RD) in liver, ileum and prostate. Furthermore, changings in caecal chime microbiota were investigated. SSJ was administered to rats in combination with a RD (HFD-RD + SSJ). The switch from HFD to RD led to a weight loss of almost 9.8 g, and the total cholesterol was found to be significantly lower. In the HFD-RD + SSJ group, all values were improved compared with the HFD control, and the weight decrement was higher (-23...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766866/enhanced-oral-bioavailability-of-diltiazem-by-the-influence-of-gallic-acid-and-ellagic-acid-in-male-wistar-rats-involvement-of-cyp3a-and-p-gp-inhibition
#17
Bhargavi Latha Athukuri, Prasad Neerati
The oral bioavailability of diltiazem is very low due to rapid first pass metabolism in liver and intestine. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of gallic acid and ellagic acid on intestinal transport and oral bioavailability of diltiazem in rats. The intestinal transport and permeability of diltiazem was evaluated by in vitro non-everted sac method and in situ single pass intestinal perfusion study. The oral pharmacokinetics was evaluated by conducting oral bioavailability study. The intestinal transport and apparent permeability of diltiazem were significantly enhanced in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of gallic and ellagic acid-treated groups...
September 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743418/involvement-of-intestinal-efflux-and-metabolic-instability-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-pharmacokinetics-of-platycodin-d-in-rats
#18
Mihwa Kwon, Hyeon-Kyeong Ji, Soo Hyeon Goo, So Jeong Nam, Yun Ju Kang, Eunyoung Lee, Kwang Hyeon Liu, Min-Koo Choi, Im-Sook Song
We aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms for low bioavailability of Platycodin D (PD) in rats. The bioavailability of PD was 1.89% with different half-lives depending on the administration route (2.14 ± 0.18 h for intravenous injection vs 5.42 ± 1.9 h for oral administration). The mean absorption time was 6.3 h calculated from the mean residence time of both administration routes. Consistent with these parameters, rat intestinal permeability using 3 different intestinal segments showed a low but greatest permeability in lower ileum (0...
June 8, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728397/effects-of-dietary-valine-lysine-ratio-on-the-performance-amino-acid-composition-of-tissues-and-mrna-expression-of-genes-involved-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-of-weaned-piglets
#19
Yetong Xu, Xiaokang Ma, Chunli Wang, Mingfeng Yuan, Xiangshu Piao
Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary standard ileal digestible (SID) valine:lysine ratios on performance, intestinal morphology, amino acids of liver and muscle, plasma indices and mRNA expression of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism enzymes. Methods: A total of 144 crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) weaned at 28 ± 4 days of age (8.79 ± 0.02 kg body weight) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets formulated to provide SID valine: lysine ratios of 50, 60, 70 or 80%...
May 14, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716404/partial-jejunal-diversion-using-an-incisionless-magnetic-anastomosis-system-1-year-interim-results-in-patients-with-obesity-and-diabetes
#20
Evžen Machytka, Marek Bužga, Pavel Zonca, David B Lautz, Marvin Ryou, Donald C Simonson, Christopher C Thompson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus have obesity. Studies show that bariatric surgery is superior to medical treatment for remission of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nevertheless, very few patients undergo surgery, and a less-invasive endoscopic alternative is desirable. METHODS: This was a single-arm first-in-human pilot study designed to evaluate the technical feasibility, safety, and clinical performance of the incisionless magnetic anastomosis system (IMAS) to create a partial jejunal diversion (PJD)...
July 14, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
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