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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066937/effect-of-dietary-dry-matter-intake-on-endogenous-nitrogen-flows-in-growing-lambs
#1
W Gao, X Gao, A Chen, F Zhang, D Chen, C Liu
The effect of dietary dry matter intake (DMI) on endogenous nitrogen (N) flows at different part of the digestive tract of growing lambs was determined using a (15) N isotope dilution technique. Three Kazakh male lambs (30 ± 2.75 kg of body weights and 4 months old, average daily gain 200 g/day) were fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulae and raised in metabolic cage individually. The experiment was conducted in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three lambs, three DMI levels (1100, 920 and 736 g/day respectively) and three periods...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055029/gastrointestinal-transcriptomic-response-of-metabolic-vitamin-b12-pathways-in-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#2
Priscila Sala, Giliane Belarmino, Raquel S Torrinhas, Natasha M Machado, Danielle C Fonseca, Graziela R Ravacci, Robson K Ishida, Ismael F M S Guarda, Eduardo G de Moura, Paulo Sakai, Marco A Santo, Ismael D C G da Silva, Claudia C A Pereira, Angela F Logullo, Steven Heymsfield, Daniel Giannella-Neto, Dan L Waitzberg
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is highly prevalent and may contribute to postoperative complications. Decreased production of intrinsic factor owing to gastric fundus removal is thought to have a major role, but other components of B12 metabolism may also be affected. We evaluated changes in the expression levels of multiple B12 pathway-encoding genes in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues to evaluate the potential roles in contributing to post-RYGB B12 deficiency...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043194/differential-regulation-of-intestinal-efflux-transporters-by-pregnancy-in-mice
#3
Jamie E Moscovitz, Gabriel Yarmush, Guadalupe Herrera-Garcia, Grace L Guo, Lauren M Aleksunes
1. In the intestines, the nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) and pregnane X receptor (Pxr) regulate the transcription of metabolizing enzymes and transporters that dictate the absorption of nutrients and xenobiotics. 2. Here, we sought to determine whether Fxr and Pxr signaling pathways are disrupted in response to high-circulating concentrations of steroid hormones late in pregnancy leading to altered transporter expression. To test this, ileum were collected from virgin and pregnant C57BL/6 mice on gestation days 14, 17 and 19...
January 3, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011645/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analyses-reveal-profound-effects-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-16-as-a-metabolic-regulator
#4
Ingrid C Rulifson, Patrick Collins, Li Miao, Dana Nojima, Ki Jeong Lee, Miki Hardy, Jamila Gupte, Kelly Hensley, Kim Samayoa, Cynthia Cam, James B Rottman, Mike Ollmann, William G Richards, Yang Li
The discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a key regulator of energy expenditure has sparked interest in identifying novel soluble factors capable of activating inducible BAT (iBAT) to combat obesity. Using a high content cell-based screen, we identified Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) 16 as a potent inducer of several physical and transcriptional characteristics analogous to those of both classical BAT and iBAT. Over-expression of Fgf16 in vivo recapitulated several of our in vitro findings, specifically significant induction of Ucp1 gene and UCP1 protein expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), a common site for emergent active iBAT...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009872/medium-chain-fatty-acids-reduce-serum-cholesterol-by-regulating-the-metabolism-of-bile-acid-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#5
Yinghua Liu, Yong Zhang, Xinsheng Zhang, Qing Xu, Xueyan Yang, Changyong Xue
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the important risk factors of atherosclerosis (AS). The aim of this study is to explore the effect of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on serum cholesterol levels and their mechanism of action. Hyperlipemia, as a model of abnormal lipid hypermetabolism, was established by using a high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. Forty eight mice with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 4 groups, 12 mice per group, including the control group, the 2% caprylic acid (C8:0)-treated group, 2% capric acid (C10:0)-treated group, and 2% oleic acid (C18:1)-treated group...
December 23, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956475/induction-of-fxr-signaling-in-germ-free-mice-colonized-with-a-human-microbiota
#6
Annika Wahlström, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Marcus Ståhlman, Muhammad-Tanweer Khan, Fredrik Bäckhed, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
: The gut microbiota influences the development and progression of metabolic diseases partly by metabolism of bile acids (BAs) and modified signaling through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). In this study we aimed to determine how the human gut microbiota metabolizes murine BAs and affects FXR signaling in colonized mice. We colonized germ-free (GF) mice with caecal content from a mouse donor or faeces from a human donor and killed the mice after short term (2 weeks) or long term (15 weeks) colonization...
December 12, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956139/characterization-of-stem-cell-derived-liver-and-intestinal-organoids-as-a-model-system-to-study-nuclear-receptor-biology
#7
Ingrid T G W Bijsmans, Alexandra Milona, Noortje Ijssennagger, Ellen C L Willemsen, José M Ramos Pittol, Johan W Jonker, Katja Lange, Guido J E J Hooiveld, Saskia W C van Mil
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors regulating a large variety of processes involved in reproduction, development, and metabolism. NRs are ideal drug targets because they are activated by lipophilic ligands that easily pass cell membranes. Immortalized cell lines recapitulate NR biology poorly and generating primary cultures is laborious and requires a constant need for donor material. There is a clear need for development of novel preclinical model systems that better resemble human physiology...
December 10, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927684/in-vitro-patterning-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestine-recapitulates-in-vivo-human-development
#8
Yu-Hwai Tsai, Roy Nattiv, Priya H Dedhia, Melinda S Nagy, Alana M Chin, Matthew Thomson, Ophir Klein, Jason Spence
The intestine plays a central role in digestion, nutrient absorption and metabolism, with individual regions of the intestine having distinct functional roles. For example, the most proximal region of the small intestine, the duodenum, is associated with absorption of micronutrients such as iron and folate, whereas the more distal ileum is responsible for recycling bile salts. Many examples of region-specific gene expression in the adult intestine are known, but how intestinal regional identity is established during development is a largely open question...
December 7, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907092/unconjugated-bile-acids-influence-expression-of-circadian-genes-a-potential-mechanism-for-microbe-host-crosstalk
#9
Kalaimathi Govindarajan, John MacSharry, Patrick G Casey, Fergus Shanahan, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Disruptions to circadian rhythm in mice and humans have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota is known to be essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythm in the host suggesting a role for microbe-host interactions in the regulation of the peripheral circadian clock. Previous work suggested a role for gut bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in the regulation of host circadian gene expression. Here we demonstrate that unconjugated bile acids, known to be generated through the BSH activity of the gut microbiota, are potentially chronobiological regulators of host circadian gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906625/uric-acid-metabolism-of-kidney-and-intestine-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#10
Michito Nagura, Yoshifuru Tamura, Takanori Kumagai, Makoto Hosoyamada, Shunya Uchida
Uric acid (UA) is a potential risk factor of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, we reported that intestinal UA excretion might be enhanced via upregulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (Abcg2) in a 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) rat model. In the present study, we examined the mRNA and protein expressions of UA transporters, URAT1, GLUT9/URATv1, ABCG2 and NPT4 in the kidney and ileum in the same rat model. Additionally, we investigated the Abcg2 mRNA expression of ileum in hyperuricemic rat model by orally administering oxonic acid...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895587/vitamin-d-signaling-through-induction-of-paneth-cell-defensins-maintains-gut-microbiota-and-improves-metabolic-disorders-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-animal-models
#11
Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875319/enhanced-oral-bioavailability-of-metoprolol-with-gallic-acid-and-ellagic-acid-in-male-wistar-rats-involvement-of-cyp2d6-inhibition
#12
Bhargavi Latha Athukuri, Prasad Neerati
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome P450-2D6 (CYP2D6), a member of the CYP450 mixed function oxidase system, is an important CYP isoform with regard to herbal-drug interactions and is responsible for the metabolism of nearly 25% of drugs. Until now, studies on the effects of various phytochemicals on CYP2D6 activity in vivo have been very rare. Gallic acid and ellagic acid are natural polyphenols which are widely distributed in fruits and medicinal plants. In the present study, the effects of gallic acid and ellagic acid pretreatment on intestinal transport and oral bioavailability of metoprolol were investigated...
December 1, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Personalized Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832865/ghrelin-improves-intestinal-mucosal-atrophy-during-parenteral-nutrition-an-experimental-study
#13
Waka Yamada, Tatsuru Kaji, Shun Onishi, Kazuhiko Nakame, Koji Yamada, Takafumi Kawano, Motoi Mukai, Masakazu Souda, Takako Yoshioka, Akihide Tanimoto, Satoshi Ieiri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Total parenteral nutrition (TPN) has been reported to be associated with mucosal atrophy of the small intestine. Ghrelin has hormonal, orexigenic, and metabolic activities. We investigated whether ghrelin improved intestinal mucosal atrophy using a TPN-supported rat model. METHODS: Rats underwent jugular vein catheterization and were divided into four groups: TPN alone (TPN), TPN plus low-dose ghrelin (TPNLG), TPN plus high-dose ghrelin (TPNHG), and oral feeding with normal chow (OF)...
December 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798332/the-noncaloric-sweetener-rebaudioside-a-stimulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-release-and-increases-enteroendocrine-cell-numbers-in-2-dimensional-mouse-organoids-derived-from-different-locations-of-the-intestine
#14
Nikkie van der Wielen, Jean Paul Ten Klooster, Susanne Muckenschnabl, Raymond Pieters, Henk Fj Hendriks, Renger F Witkamp, Jocelijn Meijerink
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) contributes to satiety and plays a pivotal role in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Similar to GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin also influence food intake. The secretion of these hormones by enteroendocrine cells along the intestine is modulated by nutrients. Preparations from the Stevia rebaudiana plant, including rebaudioside A, are increasingly being used as noncaloric sweeteners. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of rebaudioside A on enteroendocrine cells by assessing both cell numbers as well as their secretory capacity in an organoid model...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767426/proximal-duodenoileal-anastomosis-for-treatment-of-small-intestinal-obstruction-and-volvulus-in-a-green-iguana-iguana-iguana
#15
Sarah Wills, Hugues Beaufrère, Gwyneth Watrous, Michelle L Oblak, Dale A Smith
CASE DESCRIPTION A 13-year-old female green iguana (Iguana iguana) was examined because of a 6-day history of vomiting, anorexia, and lethargy and a 4-day history of decreased fecal and urate output. CLINICAL FINDINGS Physical examination revealed a distended abdomen, signs of depression, pallor, tachycardia, harsh lung sounds, and vomiting. Abdominal radiographs revealed gas distention of the stomach and small intestine with fluid lines evident on the lateral view. Plasma biochemical analysis indicated hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, hyperglycemia, and hyperuricemia...
November 1, 2016: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756364/dose-response-effect-of-berberine-on-bile-acid-profile-and-gut-microbiota-in-mice
#16
Ying Guo, YouCai Zhang, WeiHua Huang, Felcy Pavithra Selwyn, Curtis D Klaassen
BACKGROUND: Berberine (BBR) is a traditional antimicrobial herbal medicine. Recently, BBR has gained popularity as a supplement to lower blood lipids, cholesterol and glucose. Bile acids (BAs) are known to regulate blood levels of triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose and energy homeostasis, and gut flora play an important role in BA metabolism. However, whether BBR alters BAs metabolism or dose-response effect of BBR on gut flora is unknown. METHODS: In this study, the effects of various doses of BBR on the concentrations of BAs in liver and serum of male C57BL/6 mice were determined by UPLC-MS/MS, and the expression of BA-related genes, as well as the amount of 32 of the most abundant gut bacterial species in the terminal ileum and large intestine of male C57BL/6 mice were quantified by RT-PCR and Quantigene 2...
October 18, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742763/molecular-classification-of-crohn-s-disease-reveals-two-clinically-relevant-subtypes
#17
Matthew Weiser, Jeremy M Simon, Bharati Kochar, Adelaide Tovar, Jennifer W Israel, Adam Robinson, Gregory R Gipson, Matthew S Schaner, Hans H Herfarth, R Balfour Sartor, Dermot P B McGovern, Reza Rahbar, Timothy S Sadiq, Mark J Koruda, Terrence S Furey, Shehzad Z Sheikh
OBJECTIVE: The clinical presentation and course of Crohn's disease (CD) is highly variable. We sought to better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms that guide this heterogeneity, and characterise the cellular processes associated with disease phenotypes. DESIGN: We examined both gene expression and gene regulation (chromatin accessibility) in non-inflamed colon tissue from a cohort of adult patients with CD and control patients. To support the generality of our findings, we analysed previously published expression data from a large cohort of treatment-naïve paediatric CD and control ileum...
October 14, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729831/nmr-based-metabolic-characterization-of-chicken-tissues-and-biofluids-a-model-for-avian-research
#18
Caroline Ivanne Le Roy, Luke John Mappley, Roberto Marcello La Ragione, Martin John Woodward, Sandrine Paule Claus
INTRODUCTION: Poultry is one of the most consumed meat in the world and its related industry is always looking for ways to improve animal welfare and productivity. It is therefore essential to understand the metabolic response of the chicken to new feed formulas, various supplements, infections and treatments. OBJECTIVES: As a basis for future research investigating the impact of diet and infections on chicken's metabolism, we established a high-resolution proton nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolic atlas of the healthy chicken (Gallus gallus)...
2016: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721485/the-anti-hyperglycemic-efficacy-of-a-lipid-lowering-drug-daming-capsule-and-the-underlying-signaling-mechanisms-in-a-rat-model-of-diabetes-mellitus
#19
Yong Zhang, Xiaoguang Li, Jiamin Li, Qingwei Zhang, Xiaohui Chen, Xin Liu, Yue Zhang, Haiying Zhang, Huan Yang, Yingying Hu, Xianxian Wu, Xin Li, Jiaming Ju, Baofeng Yang
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder manifested by hyperglycemia. Daming Capsule (DMC), a combination of traditional Chinese herbs, is used clinically as a lipid-lowering drug. This study was designed to evaluate if DMC possesses an anti-hyperglycemic effect and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Compared to diabetic rats, the rats received DMC (200 mg/kg/d) had significantly lower blood lipid and glucose levels. DMC markedly restored the decreased secretion of GLP-1 and GIP as well as the coding gene GCG and GIP in ileum...
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695803/digestibility-of-energy-amino-acids-and-phosphorus-in-a-novel-source-of-soy-protein-concentrate-and-in-soybean-meal-fed-to-growing-pigs
#20
M S Oliveira, H H Stein
Three experiments were conducted to determine standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA, DE and ME, and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) and standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) of P in a new source of soy protein concentrate (SPC) and in soybean meal (SBM). In Exp. 1, 9 barrows (initial BW: 13.08 ± 1.98 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a triplicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 diets and 3 periods. A nitrogen-free diet and 2 diets that contained corn starch and SPC or SBM as the sole source of CP and AA were formulated...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
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