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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802163/obstructive-mobile-small-intestinal-tumor-without-radiographic-stigmata-of-bezoar
#1
Elif Onursal, Merilyn Baby, Ali Chaudhri, Gerard A Baltazar
INTRODUCTION: Gastrointestinal leiomyomas are often clinically silent until they bleed or grow large enough to cause local mass effect. PRESENTATION OF CASE: We report the unique case of an otherwise healthy 69-year-old male who developed a small bowel obstruction secondary to a mobile small intestinal leiomyoma. During initial evaluation, computed tomography did not demonstrate the cause of obstruction. Because of worsening clinical status with conservative management, the patient required emergency laparotomy...
July 19, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782537/expression-of-sweet-taste-receptor-and-gut-hormone-secretion-in-modelled-type-2-diabetes
#2
Rilu Feng, Cheng Qian, Qianjing Liu, Yunqiu Jin, Lianyong Liu, Shengxian Li, Yu Liao, Huan Zhou, Wei Liu, Chris K Rayner, Jing Ma
Sweet taste receptors (STRs) are expressed in L cells which secret glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) in the gut. The STR blocker lactisole reduces GLP-1 secretion and increases blood glucose levels. Therefore, we investigated the expression of sweet taste molecules in the proximal and distal small intestine, and gut hormone secretion, in healthy control and type 2 diabetic rats. Two groups of rats (Sprague Dawley (SD), and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF)) were involved in the study. Each group (n=10) received an intragastric glucose infusion (50% glucose solution, 2g/kg body weight)...
August 4, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770644/the-combined-effect-of-sango-sprout-juice-and-caloric-restriction-on-metabolic-disorders-and-gut-microbiota-composition-in-an-obesity-model
#3
Fabio Vivarelli, Donatella Canistro, Clara Babot Marquillas, Silvia Cirillo, Gina R De Nicola, Renato Iori, Giacomo Biagi, Carlo Pinna, Fabio Gentilini, Luisa Pozzo, Vincenzo Longo, Moreno Paolini
The main purpose of this study was to compare the benefits of SSJ supplementation in obese rats with those achieved only by switching the alimentary regimen from high-fat (HFD) to the regular one (RD) in liver, ileum and prostate. Furthermore, changings in caecal chime microbiota were investigated. SSJ was administered to rats in combination with a RD (HFD-RD + SSJ). The switch from HFD to RD led to a weight loss of almost 9.8 g, and the total cholesterol was found to be significantly lower. In the HFD-RD + SSJ group, all values were improved compared with the HFD control, and the weight decrement was higher (-23...
August 3, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28766866/enhanced-oral-bioavailability-of-diltiazem-by-the-influence-of-gallic-acid-and-ellagic-acid-in-male-wistar-rats-involvement-of-cyp3a-and-p-gp-inhibition
#4
Bhargavi Latha Athukuri, Prasad Neerati
The oral bioavailability of diltiazem is very low due to rapid first pass metabolism in liver and intestine. The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of gallic acid and ellagic acid on intestinal transport and oral bioavailability of diltiazem in rats. The intestinal transport and permeability of diltiazem was evaluated by in vitro non-everted sac method and in situ single pass intestinal perfusion study. The oral pharmacokinetics was evaluated by conducting oral bioavailability study. The intestinal transport and apparent permeability of diltiazem were significantly enhanced in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum of gallic and ellagic acid-treated groups...
August 2, 2017: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743418/involvement-of-intestinal-efflux-and-metabolic-instability-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-pharmacokinetics-of-platycodin-d-in-rats
#5
Mihwa Kwon, Hyeon-Kyeong Ji, Soo Hyeon Goo, So Jeong Nam, Yun Ju Kang, Eunyoung Lee, Kwang Hyeon Liu, Min-Koo Choi, Im-Sook Song
We aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms for low bioavailability of Platycodin D (PD) in rats. The bioavailability of PD was 1.89% with different half-lives depending on the administration route (2.14 ± 0.18 h for intravenous injection vs 5.42 ± 1.9 h for oral administration). The mean absorption time was 6.3 h calculated from the mean residence time of both administration routes. Consistent with these parameters, rat intestinal permeability using 3 different intestinal segments showed a low but greatest permeability in lower ileum (0...
June 8, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728397/effects-of-dietary-valine-lysine-ratio-on-the-performance-amino-acid-composition-of-tissues-and-mrna-expression-of-genes-involved-in-branched-chain-amino-acid-metabolism-of-weaned-piglets
#6
Yetong Xu, Xiaokang Ma, Chunli Wang, Mingfeng Yuan, Xiangshu Piao
Objective: The goal of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary standard ileal digestible (SID) valine:lysine ratios on performance, intestinal morphology, amino acids of liver and muscle, plasma indices and mRNA expression of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism enzymes. Methods: A total of 144 crossbred pigs (Duroc × Landrace × Large White) weaned at 28 ± 4 days of age (8.79 ± 0.02 kg body weight) were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 diets formulated to provide SID valine: lysine ratios of 50, 60, 70 or 80%...
May 14, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716404/partial-jejunal-diversion-using-an-incisionless-magnetic-anastomosis-system-1-year-interim-results-in-subjects-with-obesity-and-diabetes
#7
Evžen Machytka, Marek Bužga, Pavel Zonca, David B Lautz, Marvin Ryou, Donald C Simonson, Christopher C Thompson
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The majority of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have obesity. Studies show that bariatric surgery is superior to medical treatment for remission of T2DM. Nevertheless, very few patients undergo surgery, and a less-invasive endoscopic alternative is desirable. METHODS: This was a single-arm first-in-human pilot study, designed to evaluate the technical feasibility, safety, and clinical performance of the incisionless magnetic anastomosis system (IMAS) in creation of a partial jejunal diversion (PJD)...
July 14, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706193/polydextrose-changes-the-gut-microbiome-and-attenuates-fasting-triglyceride-and-cholesterol-levels-in-western-diet-fed-mice
#8
Ghulam Shere Raza, Heli Putaala, Ashley A Hibberd, Esa Alhoniemi, Kirsti Tiihonen, Kari Antero Mäkelä, Karl-Heinz Herzig
Obesity and dyslipidemia are hallmarks of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Polydextrose (PDX), a soluble fiber has lipid lowering effects. We hypothesize that PDX reduces triglycerides and cholesterol by influencing gut microbiota, which in turn modulate intestinal gene expression. C57BL/6 male mice were fed a Western diet (WD) ±75 mg PDX twice daily by oral gavage for 14 days. Body weight and food intake were monitored daily. Fasting plasma lipids, caecal microbiota and gene expression in intestine and liver were measured after 14 days of feeding...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701241/arginine-metabolism-and-its-protective-effects-on-intestinal-health-and-functions-in-weaned-piglets-under-oxidative-stress-induced-by-diquat
#9
Ping Zheng, Bing Yu, Jun He, Jie Yu, Xiangbing Mao, Yuheng Luo, Junqiu Luo, Zhiqing Huang, Gang Tian, Qiufeng Zeng, Lianqiang Che, Daiwen Chen
The intestine plays key roles in maintaining body arginine (Arg) homoeostasis. Meanwhile, the intestine is very susceptible to reactive oxygen species. In light of this, the study aimed to explore the effects of Arg supplementation on intestinal morphology, Arg transporters and metabolism, and the potential protective mechanism of Arg supplementation in piglets under oxidative stress. A total of thirty-six weaned piglets were randomly allocated to six groups with six replicates and fed a base diet (0·95 % Arg,) or base diet supplemented with 0·8 % and 1·6 % l-Arg for 1 week, respectively...
June 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699285/itraq-based-proteomic-analysis-reveals-the-roles-of-progesterone-receptor-inflammatory-and-fibrosis-for-slow-transit-constipation
#10
Yuwei Li, Yongjun Yu, Shuyuan Li, Mingqing Zhang, Zhao Zhang, Yang Shi, Xipeng Zhang, Shiwu Zhang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Progesterone receptor, inflammation, neurotransmitter expression, and fibrosis are involved in slow-transit constipation. The aim of the present study was to examine whether patients with slow-transit constipation have an overexpression of progesterone receptor and serotonin which may impair the fibrosis of muscularis propria in colorectal wall. METHODS: High resolution colon manometry was used to record the colorectal peristaltic contractions of the proximal ascending and sigmoid colon in patients...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685028/bariatric-surgery-and-obesity-influence-on-the-incretins
#11
REVIEW
B Laferrère
The gut hormone incretins have an important physiological role in meal-related insulin release and post-prandial glucose control. In addition to weight loss, the incretin hormones have a role in glucose control after bariatric surgery. The release of incretins, and specifically of glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1, in response to the ingestion of nutrients, is greatly enhanced after gastric bypass (RYGBP). The rapid transit of food from the gastric pouch to the distal ileum is responsible for the greater GLP-1 release after RYGBP...
December 2016: International Journal of Obesity Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660848/effects-of-rapeseed-meal-fiber-content-on-phosphorus-and-calcium-digestibility-in-growing-pigs-fed-diets-without-or-with-microbial-phytase
#12
M Bournazel, M Lessire, M J Duclos, M Magnin, N Même, C Peyronnet, E Recoules, A Quinsac, E Labussière, A Narcy
The optimization of dietary phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) supply requires a better understanding of the effect of dietary fiber content of co-products on the digestive utilization of minerals. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of dietary fiber content from 00-rapeseed meal (RSM) on P and Ca digestibility throughout the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs fed diets without or with microbial phytase. In total, 48 castrated male pigs (initial BW=36.1±0.4 kg) were housed in metabolic crates for 29 days...
June 29, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659893/live-probiotic-lactobacillus-johnsonii-bs15-promotes-growth-performance-and-lowers-fat-deposition-by-improving-lipid-metabolism-intestinal-development-and-gut-microflora-in-broilers
#13
Hesong Wang, Xueqin Ni, Xiaodan Qing, Dong Zeng, Min Luo, Lei Liu, Guangyao Li, Kangcheng Pan, Bo Jing
Numerous studies have focused on the beneficial effects of probiotics in animals. Even so, additional information should be obtained about the mechanisms by which a useful probiotic strain successfully exerts such beneficial effects. In this study, we evaluated the effect of the dietary supplementation of both live and disrupted Lactobacillus johnsonii (LJ) strain BS15 in broilers at different ages. Specifically, growth performance, lipid metabolism, gut microbiota, intestinal development, and digestive ability of the broilers were assessed...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659742/dietary-fructose-causes-defective-insulin-signalling-and-ceramide-accumulation-in-the-liver-that-can-be-reversed-by-gut-microbiota-modulation
#14
Raffaella Crescenzo, Arianna Mazzoli, Blanda Di Luccia, Francesca Bianco, Rosa Cancelliere, Luisa Cigliano, Giovanna Liverini, Loredana Baccigalupi, Susanna Iossa
Objective: The link between metabolic derangement of the gut-2013liver-visceral white adipose tissue (v-WAT) axis and gut microbiota was investigated. Methods: Rats were fed a fructose-rich diet and treated with an antibiotic mix. Inflammation was measured in portal plasma, ileum, liver, and v-WAT, while insulin signalling was analysed by measuring levels of phosphorylated kinase Akt. The function and oxidative status of hepatic mitochondria and caecal microbiota composition were also evaluated. Results: Ileal inflammation, increase in plasma transaminases, plasma peroxidised lipids, portal concentrations of tumour necrosis factor alpha, lipopolysaccharide, and non-esterified fatty acids, were induced by fructose and were reversed by antibiotic...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659730/acute-selective-bioactivity-of-grape-seed-proanthocyanidins-on-enteroendocrine-secretions-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#15
Àngela Casanova-Martí, Joan Serrano, M Teresa Blay, Ximena Terra, Anna Ardévol, Montserrat Pinent
Background: Enteroendocrine cells respond to food components by secreting an array of hormones that regulate several functions. We have previously shown that grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) modulate GLP-1 levels. Objective: To deepen on the knowledge of the mechanisms used by GSPE to increase GLP-1, and extend it to its role at modulation of other enterohormones. Design: We used an ex vivo system to test direct modulation of enterohormones; STC-1 cells to test pure phenolic compounds; and rats to test the effects at different gastrointestinal segments...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659406/early-postnatal-diets-affect-the-bioregional-small-intestine-microbiome-and-ileal-metabolome-in-neonatal-pigs
#16
Brian D Piccolo, Kelly E Mercer, Sudeepa Bhattacharyya, Anne K Bowlin, Manish K Saraf, Lindsay Pack, Sree V Chintapalli, Kartik Shankar, Sean H Adams, Thomas M Badger, Laxmi Yeruva
Background: Breastfeeding is known to be protective against gastrointestinal disorders and may modify gut development. Although the gut microbiome has been implicated, little is known about how early diet affects the small intestine microbiome.Objective: We hypothesized that disparate early diets would promote unique microbial profiles in the small intestines of neonatal pigs.Methods: Male and female 2-d-old White Dutch Landrace pigs were either sow fed or provided dairy (Similac Advance powder; Ross Products Abbott Laboratories) or soy (Enfamil Prosobee Lipil powder; Mead Johnson Nutritionals) infant formulas until day 21...
August 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630706/effects-of-feeding-untreated-pasteurized-and-acidified-waste-milk-and-bunk-tank-milk-on-the-performance-serum-metabolic-profiles-immunity-and-intestinal-development-in-holstein-calves
#17
Yang Zou, Yajing Wang, Youfei Deng, Zhijun Cao, Shengli Li, Jiufeng Wang
BACKGROUND: The present experiment was performed to assess the effects of different sources of milk on the growth performance, serum metabolism, immunity, and intestinal development of calves. Eighty-four Holstein male neonatal calves were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: those that received bunk tank milk (BTM), untreated waste milk (UWM), pasteurized waste milk (PWM), and acidified waste milk (AWM) for 21 d. RESULTS: Calves in the BTM and AWM groups consumed more starter (P < 0...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626453/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-influence-microflora-in-ileal-digesta-and-correlate-well-with-blood-metabolites
#18
Yanni Feng, Lingjiang Min, Weidong Zhang, Jing Liu, Zhumei Hou, Meiqiang Chu, Lan Li, Wei Shen, Yong Zhao, Hongfu Zhang
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are used widely in consumer and industrial products, however, their influence on gut microbiota and metabolism and their mutual interactions are not fully understood. In this study, the effects of ZnO NPs on ileal bacterial communities, plasma metabolites, and correlations between them were investigated. Hens were fed with different concentrations of ZnO NPs [based on Zn; 0 mg/kg (control), 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg, and 100 mg/kg] for 9 weeks. Subsequently, ileal digesta and blood plasma were collected for analysis of microflora and metabolites, respectively...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616225/effect-of-three-lactobacilli-with-strain-specific-activities-on-the-growth-performance-faecal-microbiota-and-ileum-mucosa-proteomics-of-piglets
#19
Yating Su, Xingjie Chen, Ming Liu, Xiaohua Guo
BACKGROUND: The beneficial effects of Lactobacillus probiotics in animal production are often strain-related. Different strains from the same species may exert different weight-gain effect on hosts in vivo. Most lactobacilli are selected based on their in vitro activities, and their metabolism and regulation on the intestine based on strain-related characters are largely unexplored. The objective of the present study was to study the in vivo effects of the three lactobacilli on growth performance and to compare the differential effects of the strains on the faecal microbiota and ileum mucosa proteomics of piglets...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583875/quantitative-profiling-of-19-bile-acids-in-rat-plasma-liver-bile-and-different-intestinal-section-contents-to-investigate-bile-acid-homeostasis-and-the-application-of-temporal-variation-of-endogenous-bile-acids
#20
Tingting Yang, Ting Shu, Guanlan Liu, Huifang Mei, Xiaoyu Zhu, Xin Huang, Luyong Zhang, Zhenzhou Jiang
Bile acid homeostasis is maintained by liver synthesis, bile duct secretion, microbial metabolism and intestinal reabsorption into the blood. When drug insults result in liver damage, the variances of bile acids (BAs) are related to the physiological status of the liver. Here, we established a method to simultaneously quantify 19 BAs in rat plasma, liver, bile and different intestinal section contents (duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum and colon) using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) to reveal the pattern of bile acid homeostasis in the enterohepatic circulation of bile acids in physiological situations...
September 2017: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
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