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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317980/biodistribution-excretion-and-toxicity-of-polyethyleneimine-modified-nayf4-yb-er-upconversion-nanoparticles-in-mice-via-different-administration-routes
#1
Jie Yu, Wenyan Yin, Tao Peng, Ya-Nan Chang, Yan Zu, Juan Li, Xiao He, Xiaoyan Ma, Zhanjun Gu, Yuliang Zhao
Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have drawn much attention in biomedicine, and the clinical translation of UCNPs is closely related to their toxicity and metabolism in vivo. In this study, we chose polyethyleneimine modified NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles (abbreviated as PEI@UCNPs) to systematically study the biodistribution in mice using intravenous (i.v.), intraperitoneal (i.p.), and intragastric (i.g.) administration. The i.p. injected PEI@UCNPs exhibited obvious accumulation in the spleen within 30 days...
March 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295549/uric-acid-ameliorates-indomethacin-induced-enteropathy-in-mice-through-its-antioxidant-activity
#2
Yuichi Yasutake, Kengo Tomita, Masaaki Higashiyama, Hirotaka Furuhashi, Kazuhiko Shirakabe, Takeshi Takajo, Koji Maruta, Hirokazu Sato, Kazuyuki Narimatsu, Kenichi Yoshikawa, Yoshikiyo Okada, Chie Kurihara, Chikako Watanabe, Shunsuke Komoto, Shigeaki Nagao, Hirotaka Matsuo, Soichiro Miura, Ryota Hokari
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Uric acid is excreted from blood into the intestinal lumen, yet the roles of uric acid in intestinal diseases remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine whether uric acid could reduce endpoints associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy. METHODS: A mouse model of NSAID-induced enteropathy was generated by administering indomethacin intraperitoneally to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice, and then vehicle or uric acid was administered orally...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283178/activation-of-constitutive-androstane-receptor-prevents-cholesterol-gallstone-formation
#3
Shihai Cheng, Min Zou, Qinhui Liu, Jiangying Kuang, Jing Shen, Shiyun Pu, Lei Chen, Hong Li, Tong Wu, Rui Li, Yanping Li, Wei Jiang, Zhiyong Zhang, Jinhan He
Cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. Lithogenic hepatic bile secretion precedes the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a member of nuclear family, plays an important role in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. To examine whether activation of CAR can prevent cholesterol gallstone formation, we treated C57BL6/J mice maintained on a lithogenic diet with CAR agonist 1,4-bis-[2-(3, 5-dichlorpyridyloxy)] benzene and performed bile duct cannulation to study the dynamics of biliary lipids...
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249275/intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-signaling-modulates-metabolic-disease
#4
Frank J Gonzalez, Changtao Jiang, Cen Xie, Andrew D Patterson
Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) regulates the synthesis, transport and enterohepatic circulation of bile acids (BA) by modulating the expression of related genes in the liver and small intestine. The composition of the gut microbiota is correlated with metabolic diseases, notably obesity and non-alcoholic fatty acid disease (NAFLD). Recent studies revealed that bacterial metabolism of BA can modulate FXR signaling in the intestine by altering the composition and concentrations of FXR agonist and antagonist. FXR agonist enhances while FXR antagonist suppresses obesity, NAFLD and insulin resistance...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249273/intestinal-farnesoid-x-receptor-and-takeda-g-protein-couple-receptor-5-signaling-in-metabolic-regulation
#5
John Y L Chiang, Preeti Pathak, Hailiang Liu, Ajay Donepudi, Jessica Ferrell, Shannon Boehme
Bile acids play a critical role in the regulation of glucose, lipid and energy metabolisms by activating the nuclear bile acid receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and membrane G protein-coupled bile acid receptor-1 (aka takeda G protein couple receptor 5, TGR5) signaling. Paradoxical roles of FXR in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism and metabolic disorder have been reported recently. The activation or inhibition of intestinal FXR signaling has been shown to improve insulin and glucose sensitivity and energy metabolism to prevent diabetes, obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)...
2017: Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237532/ureteral-reconstruction-with-ileum-long-term-follow-up-of-renal-function
#6
Joshua D Roth, M Francesca Monn, Konrad M Szymanski, Richard J Bihrle, Matthew J Mellon
OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term renal preservation and surgical outcomes in patients undergoing ureteric substitution with ileum. This has been a mainstay of reconstruction options for lengthy ureteral defects. METHODS: Consecutive patients aged 18 or older undergoing ileal ureters at our institution were retrospectively reviewed (1989-June 2013). Patients with <6 months of follow-up were excluded. Demographic, surgical and renal functional outcomes were reviewed...
February 22, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212441/depressive-disorder-and-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-after-myocardial-infarct-are-associated-with-abnormal-tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine-metabolism-in-rats
#7
Xiaofang Lu, Yuefen Wang, Chunyan Liu, Yangang Wang
In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190822/phloridzin-inhibits-high-k-induced-contraction-via-the-inhibition-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-1-in-rat-ileum
#8
Hidenori Kanda, Takeharu Kaneda, Akira Kawaguchi, Noriyasu Sasaki, Tsuyoshi Tajima, Norimoto Urakawa, Kazumasa Shimizu, Hiroetsu Suzuki
Recent studies have shown that phloridzin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), strongly decreases high K(+)-induced contraction in phasic muscle, such as tenia coli, but slightly affects tonic muscle, such as trachea . In this study, we examined the inhibitory mechanism of phloridzin on high K(+)-induced muscle contraction in rat ileum, a phasic muscle. Phloridzin inhibited the high K(+)-induced contraction in the ileum and the aorta, and the relaxing effect of phloridzin at 1 mM in the ileum was approximately five-fold more potent than that in the aorta...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185153/role-of-the-gut-on-glucose-homeostasis-lesson-learned-from-metabolic-surgery
#9
REVIEW
V Kamvissi-Lorenz, M Raffaelli, S Bornstein, G Mingrone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery was initially intended to reduce weight, and only subsequently was the remission of type two diabetes (T2D) observed as a collateral event. At the moment, the term "metabolic surgery" is used to underline the fact that this type of surgery is performed specifically to treat diabetes and its metabolic complications, such as hyperlipidemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized, controlled studies have recently supported the use of bariatric surgery, and in particular of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) as an effective treatment for decompensated T2D...
February 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177388/effects-of-a-3-strain-based-direct-fed-microbial-and-dietary-fiber-concentration-on-growth-performance-and-expression-of-genes-related-to-absorption-and-metabolism-of-volatile-fatty-acids-in-weanling-pigs
#10
N W Jaworski, A Owusu-Asiedu, M C Walsh, J C McCann, J J Loor, H H Stein
Effects of a -based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, plasma tumor necrosis factor ɑ (TNFɑ), relative gene expression, and intestinal VFA concentrations in weanling pigs fed low- or high-fiber diets were evaluated. Two hundred pigs (initial BW: 6.31 ± 0.73 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (5 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 diet types [low-fiber (LF) or high-fiber (HF)] and 2 concentrations of DFM (0 or 60 g DFM/t of feed)...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153842/regional-expression-levels-of-drug-transporters-and-metabolizing-enzymes-along-the-pig-and-human-intestinal-tract-and-comparison-with-caco-2-cells
#11
Stefan F C Vaessen, Marola M H van Lipzig, Raymond H H Pieters, Cyrille A M Krul, Heleen M Wortelboer, Evita van de Steeg
Intestinal transporter proteins and metabolizing enzymes play a crucial role in the oral absorption of a wide variety of drugs. The aim of the current study was to better characterize available intestinal in vitro models by comparing expression levels of these proteins and enzymes between porcine intestine, human intestine and Caco-2 cells. We therefore determined the absolute protein expression of 19 drug transporters and the mRNA expression of 12 metabolic enzymes along the pig intestinal tract (duodenum, jejunum, ileum; N=4), in human intestine (jejunum; N=9) and Caco-2 cells...
February 2, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132653/a-cafeteria-diet-triggers-intestinal-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-obese-rats
#12
K Gil-Cardoso, I Ginés, M Pinent, A Ardévol, X Terra, M Blay
The gastrointestinal alterations associated with the consumption of an obesogenic diet, such as inflammation, permeability impairment and oxidative stress, have been poorly explored in both diet-induced obesity (DIO) and genetic obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of an obesogenic diet on the gut health status of DIO rats in comparison with the Zucker (fa/fa) rat leptin receptor-deficient model of genetic obesity over time. For this purpose, female Wistar rats (n 48) were administered a standard or a cafeteria diet (CAF diet) for 12, 14·5 or 17 weeks and were compared with fa/fa Zucker rats fed a standard diet for 10 weeks...
January 30, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130274/commensal-bacteria-at-the-crossroad-between-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-chronic-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis
#13
Kazuyuki Kasahara, Takeshi Tanoue, Tomoya Yamashita, Keiko Yodoi, Takuya Matsumoto, Takuo Emoto, Taiji Mizoguchi, Tomohiro Hayashi, Naoki Kitano, Naoto Sasaki, Koji Atarashi, Kenya Honda, Ken-Ichi Hirata
The gut microbiota were shown to play critical roles in the development of atherosclerosis, but the detailed mechanism is limited. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of gut microbiota on atherogenesis via lipid metabolism and systemic inflammation. Germ-free or conventionally raised (Conv) ApoE-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed chow diet and euthanized at 20 weeks of age. We found that the lack of gut microbiota in ApoE(-/-) mice caused a significant increase in the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels compared with Conv ApoE(-/-) mice...
March 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125557/o-009-long-ncrna-landscape-in-the-ileum-of-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-early-onset-crohn-disease
#14
Yael Haberman, Marina Ben-Shoshan, Ayelet Di-Segni, Phillip Dexheimer, Tzipi Klein, Batya Weiss, Thomas Walters, Robert Baldassano, Joshua Noe, James Markowitz, Mel Heyman, Joel Rosh, Anne Griffiths, Wallace Crandall, Bruce Aronow, Yair Anikster, Jeffrey Hyams, Subra Kugathasan, Lee Denson
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) regulate gene transcription and diverse cellular functions. We have recently reported a core inflammatory and metabolic ileal gene signature in treatment naïve pediatric Crohn Disease (CD), but the potential role of lncRNA was not known. We hypothesized that differences in ileal lncRNA would be associated with differences in protein-coding gene expression, suggesting a role for lncRNA in regulating those gene signatures. METHODS: Poly-A selected RNA-seq and Ensembl annotation were used to define differentially expressed ileal genes with false discovery rate correction of 0...
February 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119353/fibroblast-growth-factor-15-19-fgf15-19-protects-from-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-development-of-an-fgf19-based-chimeric-molecule-to-promote-fatty-liver-regeneration
#15
Gloria Alvarez-Sola, Iker Uriarte, M Ujue Latasa, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Raquel Urtasun, Maria Elizalde, Marina Barcena-Varela, Maddalen Jiménez, Haisul C Chang, Roberto Barbero, Victoria Catalán, Amaia Rodríguez, Gema Frühbeck, José M Gallego-Escuredo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Francesc Villarroya, Carlos M Rodriguez-Ortigosa, Fernando J Corrales, Jesus Prieto, Pedro Berraondo, Carmen Berasain, Matias A Avila
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19), an enterokine that regulates synthesis of hepatic bile acids (BA), has been proposed to influence fat metabolism. Without FGF15/19, mouse liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) is severely impaired. We studied the role of FGF15/19 in response to a high fat diet (HFD) and its regulation by saturated fatty acids. We developed a fusion molecule encompassing FGF19 and apolipoprotein A-I, termed Fibapo, and evaluated its pharmacological properties in fatty liver regeneration...
January 24, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066937/effect-of-dietary-dry-matter-intake-on-endogenous-nitrogen-flows-in-growing-lambs
#16
W Gao, X Gao, A Chen, F Zhang, D Chen, C Liu
The effect of dietary dry matter intake (DMI) on endogenous nitrogen (N) flows at different part of the digestive tract of growing lambs was determined using a (15) N isotope dilution technique. Three Kazakh male lambs (30 ± 2.75 kg of body weights and 4 months old, average daily gain 200 g/day) were fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulae and raised in metabolic cage individually. The experiment was conducted in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three lambs, three DMI levels (1100, 920 and 736 g/day respectively) and three periods...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055029/gastrointestinal-transcriptomic-response-of-metabolic-vitamin-b12-pathways-in-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#17
Priscila Sala, Giliane Belarmino, Raquel S Torrinhas, Natasha M Machado, Danielle C Fonseca, Graziela R Ravacci, Robson K Ishida, Ismael F M S Guarda, Eduardo G de Moura, Paulo Sakai, Marco A Santo, Ismael D C G da Silva, Claudia C A Pereira, Angela F Logullo, Steven Heymsfield, Daniel Giannella-Neto, Dan L Waitzberg
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is highly prevalent and may contribute to postoperative complications. Decreased production of intrinsic factor owing to gastric fundus removal is thought to have a major role, but other components of B12 metabolism may also be affected. We evaluated changes in the expression levels of multiple B12 pathway-encoding genes in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues to evaluate the potential roles in contributing to post-RYGB B12 deficiency...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043194/differential-regulation-of-intestinal-efflux-transporters-by-pregnancy-in-mice
#18
Jamie E Moscovitz, Gabriel Yarmush, Guadalupe Herrera-Garcia, Grace L Guo, Lauren M Aleksunes
1. In the intestines, the nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) and pregnane X receptor (Pxr) regulate the transcription of metabolizing enzymes and transporters that dictate the absorption of nutrients and xenobiotics. 2. Here, we sought to determine whether Fxr and Pxr signaling pathways are disrupted in response to high-circulating concentrations of steroid hormones late in pregnancy leading to altered transporter expression. To test this, ileum were collected from virgin and pregnant C57BL/6 mice on gestation days 14, 17 and 19...
January 3, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011645/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analyses-reveal-profound-effects-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-16-as-a-metabolic-regulator
#19
Ingrid C Rulifson, Patrick Collins, Li Miao, Dana Nojima, Ki Jeong Lee, Miki Hardy, Jamila Gupte, Kelly Hensley, Kim Samayoa, Cynthia Cam, James B Rottman, Mike Ollmann, William G Richards, Yang Li
The discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a key regulator of energy expenditure has sparked interest in identifying novel soluble factors capable of activating inducible BAT (iBAT) to combat obesity. Using a high content cell-based screen, we identified fibroblast growth factor 16 (FGF16) as a potent inducer of several physical and transcriptional characteristics analogous to those of both "classical" BAT and iBAT. Overexpression of Fgf16 in vivo recapitulated several of our in vitro findings, specifically the significant induction of the Ucp1 gene and UCP1 protein expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), a common site for emergent active iBAT...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009872/medium-chain-fatty-acids-reduce-serum-cholesterol-by-regulating-the-metabolism-of-bile-acid-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#20
Yinghua Liu, Yong Zhang, Xinsheng Zhang, Qing Xu, Xueyan Yang, Changyong Xue
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the important risk factors of atherosclerosis (AS). The aim of this study is to explore the effect of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on serum cholesterol levels and their mechanism of action. Hyperlipemia, as a model of abnormal lipid hypermetabolism, was established by using a high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. Forty eight mice with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 4 groups, 12 mice per group, including the control group, the 2% caprylic acid (C8:0)-treated group, 2% capric acid (C10:0)-treated group, and 2% oleic acid (C18:1)-treated group...
December 23, 2016: Food & Function
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