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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412812/intestinal-peptide-changes-after-bariatric-and-minimally-invasive-surgery-relation-to-diabetes-remission
#1
REVIEW
Lidia Castagneto Gissey, James Casella Mariolo, Geltrude Mingrone
Bariatric surgery is very effective in achieving and maintaining weight loss but it is also associated with improvement of obesity metabolic complications, primarily type 2 diabetes (T2D). Remission of T2D or at least a net improvement of glycemic control persists for at least 5 years. The bypass of duodenum and of the first portion of the jejunum up to the Treitz ligament as in Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB), or the bypass of the duodenum, the entire jejunum and the first tract of the ileum, such as in Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion (BPD), achieve different results on insulin sensitivity...
February 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410651/the-development-of-microbiota-and-metabolome-in-small-intestine-of-sika-deer-cervus-nippon-from-birth-to-weaning
#2
Zhipeng Li, Xiaoxu Wang, Ting Zhang, Huazhe Si, Weixiao Nan, Chao Xu, Leluo Guan, André-Denis G Wright, Guangyu Li
The dense and diverse community of microorganisms inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract of ruminant animals plays critical roles in the metabolism and absorption of nutrients, and gut associated immune function. Understanding microbial colonization in the small intestine of new born ruminants is a vital first step toward manipulating gut function through interventions during early life to produce long-term positive effects on host productivity and health. Yet the knowledge of microbiota colonization and its induced metabolites of small intestine during early life is still limited...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29402949/interaction-of-genotype-and-diet-on-small-intestine-microbiota-of-japanese-quail-fed-a-cholesterol-enriched-diet
#3
Shasha Liu, Hein Min Tun, Frederick C Leung, Darin C Bennett, Hongfu Zhang, Kimberly M Cheng
Our previous study has shown that genetic selection for susceptibility/resistance to diet-induced atherosclerosis has affected the Japanese quail's cecal environment to accommodate distinctly different cecal microbiota. In this study, we fed the Atherosclerosis-resistant (RES) and -susceptable (SUS) quail a regular and a cholesterol enriched diet to examine the interaction of host genotype and diet on the diversity, composition, and metabolic functions of the duodenal and ileal microbiota with relations to atherosclerosis development...
February 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401580/dysregulated-bile-acid-synthesis-and-dysbiosis-are-implicated-in-western-diet-induced-systemic-inflammation-microglial-activation-and-reduced-neuroplasticity
#4
Prasant Kumar Jena, Lili Sheng, Jacopo Di Lucente, Lee-Way Jin, Izumi Maezawa, Yu-Jui Yvonne Wan
The goal of this study was to identify the intrinsic links that explain the effect of a Western diet (WD) on cognitive dysfunction. Specific pathogen-free, wild-type mice were fed either a control diet (CD) or a high-fat, high-sucrose WD after weaning and were euthanized at 10 mo of age to study the pathways that affect cognitive health. The results showed that long-term WD intake reduced hippocampal synaptic plasticity and the level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in the brain and isolated microglia...
January 10, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382564/diabetic-cognitive-dysfunction-is-associated-with-increased-bile-acids-in-liver-and-activation-of-bile-acid-signaling-in-intestine
#5
Xue Wang, Fangyu Wang, Yidan Zhang, Hui Xiong, Yanjun Zhang, Pengwei Zhuang, Youcai Zhang
Impaired regulation of bile acid (BA) homeostasis has been suggested to be associated with adverse metabolic consequences. However, whether BA homeostasis is altered in diabetes-induced cognitive dysfunction (DCD) remains unknown. In the present study, mice were divided into four groups, namely normal control (NC) group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, diabetes without cognitive dysfunction (unDCD) group, and DCD group. Compared to HFD mice, the concentration of total BAs in liver was higher in unDCD and DCD mice, due to increased intestinal BA absorption...
January 27, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381405/the-influences-of-cholecystectomy-on-the-circadian-rhythms-of-bile-acids-as-well-as-the-enterohepatic-transporters-and-enzymes-systems-in-mice
#6
Fan Zhang, Yingting Duan, Lili Xi, Mengmeng Wei, Axi Shi, Yan Zhou, Yuhui Wei, Xinan Wu
Bile acids (BAs), the most important endogenous and signaling molecules regulate the target transporters and enzymes at transcriptional level, participate in a wide variety of processes throughout the entire gastrointestinal tract to orchestrate homeostasis in vivo. BAs and their metabolism and transportation appear to follow the clear circadian rhythms, and they are recently proposed also as the potential chronobiological signals that can affect the molecular clock mechanism. Cholecystectomy are believed to affect the circadian rhythms of BAs and the relevant enterohepatic transporters and enzymes systems and their regulatory signaling pathways, for the reason that the circadian cycle of gallbladder filling and emptying play a pivotal role in controlling the flow of bile into the intestine and the enterohepatic circulation of BAs...
January 30, 2018: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375205/int-767-improves-histopathological-features-in-a-diet-induced-ob-ob-mouse-model-of-biopsy-confirmed-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis
#7
Jonathan D Roth, Michael Feigh, Sanne S Veidal, Louise Kd Fensholdt, Kristoffer T Rigbolt, Henrik H Hansen, Li C Chen, Mathieu Petitjean, Weslyn Friley, Niels Vrang, Jacob Jelsing, Mark Young
AIM: To characterize the efficacy of the dual FXR/TGR5 receptor agonist INT-767 upon histological endpoints in a rodent model of diet-induced and biopsy-confirmed non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). METHODS: The effects of INT-767 on histological features of NASH were assessed in two studies using Lepob/ob (ob/ob) NASH mice fed the AMLN diet (high fat with trans-fat, cholesterol and fructose). In a proof-of-concept study, Lepob/ob (ob/ob) NASH mice were first dosed with INT-767 (3 or 10 mg/kg for 8 wk)...
January 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29362824/time-course-responses-of-ileal-and-fecal-microbiota-and-metabolite-profiles-to-antibiotics-in-cannulated-pigs
#8
Kan Gao, Yu Pi, Yu Peng, Chun-Long Mu, Wei-Yun Zhu
We investigated the time-course effects of therapeutic antibiotics on intestinal microbial composition and metabolism in an ileal-cannulated pig model. Sixteen ileal-cannulated piglets (12 ± 0.5 kg) were assigned to two groups (n = 8) and fed standard diets with or without antibiotics. At 4 days before, and at days 2, 7, and 13 after antibiotic administration, ileal and fecal samples were collected for analysis of microbiota composition via 16S rRNA MiSeq sequencing and metabolites (short-chain fatty acids, biogenic amines, and indole)...
January 23, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29361088/long-ncrna-landscape-in-the-ileum-of-treatment-naive-early-onset-crohn-disease
#9
Yael Haberman, Marina BenShoshan, Ayelet Di Segni, Phillip J Dexheimer, Tzipi Braun, Batia Weiss, Thomas D Walters, Robert N Baldassano, Joshua D Noe, James Markowitz, Joel Rosh, Melvin B Heyman, Anne M Griffiths, Wallace V Crandall, David R Mack, Susan S Baker, Richard Kellermayer, Ashish Patel, Anthony Otley, Steven J Steiner, Ajay S Gulati, Stephen L Guthery, Neal LeLeiko, Dedrick Moulton, Barbara S Kirschner, Scott Snapper, Camila Avivi, Iris Barshack, Maria Oliva-Hemker, Stanley A Cohen, David J Keljo, David Ziring, Yair Anikster, Bruce Aronow, Jeffrey S Hyams, Subra Kugathasan, Lee A Denson
Background: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNA) are key regulators of gene transcription and many show tissue-specific expression. We previously defined a novel inflammatory and metabolic ileal gene signature in treatment-naive pediatric Crohn disease (CD). We now extend our analyses to include potential regulatory lncRNA. Methods: Using RNAseq, we systematically profiled lncRNAs and protein-coding gene expression in 177 ileal biopsies. Co-expression analysis was used to identify functions and tissue-specific expression...
January 18, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352262/microbial-regulation-of-the-l-cell-transcriptome
#10
Tulika Arora, Rozita Akrami, Ramona Pais, Linda Bergqvist, Bengt R Johansson, Thue W Schwartz, Frank Reimann, Fiona M Gribble, Fredrik Bäckhed
L cells are an important class of enteroendocrine cells secreting hormones such as glucagon like peptide-1 and peptide YY that have several metabolic and physiological effects. The gut is home to trillions of bacteria affecting host physiology, but there has been limited understanding about how the microbiota affects gene expression in L cells. Thus, we rederived the reporter mouse strain, GLU-Venus expressing yellow fluorescent protein under the control of the proglucagon gene, as germ-free (GF). Lpos cells from ileum and colon of GF and conventionally raised (CONV-R) GLU-Venus mice were isolated and subjected to transcriptomic profiling...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341029/in-vitro-and-in-situ-absorption-and-metabolism-of-sesquiterpenes-from-petasites-hybridus-extracts
#11
Lucia Disch, Kristina Forsch, Beate Siewert, Jürgen Drewe, Gert Fricker
Petasites hybridus extract is used in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the active constituent petasin and its isomers isopetasin and neopetasin (petasins) in the P. hybridus extract Ze 339 for liberation, dissolution, absorption, and metabolism. The determination of pH-dependent thermodynamic solubility was performed via the shake-flask method. Petasins exhibited a low solubility that was pH independent. In vivo, the concentration of solute drugs is decreased continuously by intestinal absorption...
January 16, 2018: Planta Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340150/xylose-absorption-fermentation-and-post-absorptive-metabolism-in-the-pig
#12
REVIEW
Nichole F Huntley, John F Patience
Xylose, as β-1,4-linked xylan, makes up much of the hemicellulose in cell walls of cereal carbohydrates fed to pigs. As inclusion of fibrous ingredients in swine diets continues to increase, supplementation of carbohydrases, such as xylanase, is of interest. However, much progress is warranted to achieve consistent enzyme efficacy, including an improved understanding of the utilization and energetic contribution of xylanase hydrolysis product (i.e. xylooligosaccharides or monomeric xylose). This review examines reports on xylose absorption and metabolism in the pig and identifies gaps in this knowledge that are essential to understanding the value of carbohydrase hydrolysis products in the nutrition of the pig...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330494/characterizing-the-bacterial-microbiota-in-different-gastrointestinal-tract-segments-of-the-bactrian-camel
#13
Jing He, Li Yi, Le Hai, Liang Ming, Wanting Gao, Rimutu Ji
The bacterial community plays important roles in the gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) of animals. However, our understanding of the microbial communities in the GIT of Bactrian camels remains limited. Here, we describe the bacterial communities from eight different GIT segments (rumen, reticulum, abomasum, duodenum, ileum, jejunum, caecum, colon) and faeces determined from 11 Bactrian camels using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Twenty-seven bacterial phyla were found in the GIT, with Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia and Bacteroidetes predominating...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304731/safety-tolerability-and-pharmacodynamics-of-apical-sodium-dependent-bile-acid-transporter-inhibition-with-volixibat-in-healthy-adults-and-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Renger G Tiessen, Ciara A Kennedy, Bradley T Keller, Nancy Levin, Lisette Acevedo, Bronislava Gedulin, Andre A van Vliet, Alejandro Dorenbaum, Melissa Palmer
BACKGROUND: Pathogenesis in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) involves abnormal cholesterol metabolism and hepatic accumulation of toxic free cholesterol. Apical sodium-dependent bile acid transporter (ASBT) inhibition in the terminal ileum may facilitate removal of free cholesterol from the liver by reducing recirculation of bile acids (BAs) to the liver, thereby stimulating new BA synthesis from cholesterol. The aim of this phase 1 study in adult healthy volunteers (HVs) and patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was to assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ASBT inhibition with volixibat (SHP626; formerly LUM002)...
January 5, 2018: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290621/a-gut-brain-axis-regulating-glucose-metabolism-mediated-by-bile-acids-and-competitive-fibroblast-growth-factor-actions-at-the-hypothalamus
#15
Shunmei Liu, Genevieve Marcelin, Clemence Blouet, Jae Hoon Jeong, Young-Hwan Jo, Gary J Schwartz, Streamson Chua
OBJECTIVE: Bile acids have been implicated as important regulators of glucose metabolism via activation of FXR and GPBAR1. We have previously shown that FGF19 can modulate glucose handling by suppressing the activity of hypothalamic AGRP/NPY neurons. As bile acids stimulate the release of FGF19/FGF15 into the circulation, we pursued the potential of bile acids to improve glucose tolerance via a gut-brain axis involving FXR and FGF15/FGF19 within enterocytes and FGF receptors on hypothalamic AGRP/NPY neurons...
December 9, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231856/involvement-of-udp-glucuronosyltransferases-and-sulfotransferases-in-the-excretion-and-tissue-distribution-of-resveratrol-in-mice
#16
Michaela Böhmdorfer, Akos Szakmary, Robert H Schiestl, Javier Vaquero, Juliane Riha, Stefan Brenner, Theresia Thalhammer, Thomas Szekeres, Walter Jäger
Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound with various pharmacological activities. It is unknown whether the expression of metabolizing enzymes correlates with resveratrol levels in organs and tissues. Therefore, we investigated the metabolism and tissue distribution of resveratrol in mice and assessed its association with the expression of UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Ugt) and sulfotransferase (Sult) genes. Plasma, urine, feces, and various organs were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography at up to 8 h after intragastric resveratrol administration...
December 12, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213261/antibiotic-induced-alterations-in-gut-microbiota-are-associated-with-changes-in-glucose-metabolism-in-healthy-mice
#17
Richard R Rodrigues, Renee L Greer, Xiaoxi Dong, Karen N DSouza, Manoj Gurung, Jia Y Wu, Andrey Morgun, Natalia Shulzhenko
The gut microbiome plays an important role in health and disease. Antibiotics are known to alter gut microbiota, yet their effects on glucose tolerance in lean, normoglycemic mice have not been widely investigated. In this study, we aimed to explore mechanisms by which treatment of lean mice with antibiotics (ampicillin, metronidazole, neomycin, vancomycin, or their cocktail) influences the microbiome and glucose metabolism. Specifically, we sought to: (i) study the effects on body weight, fasting glucose, glucose tolerance, and fasting insulin, (ii) examine the changes in expression of key genes of the bile acid and glucose metabolic pathways in the liver and ileum, (iii) identify the shifts in the cecal microbiota, and (iv) infer interactions between gene expression, microbiome, and the metabolic parameters...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205295/protein-abundance-of-clinically-relevant-drug-metabolizing-enzymes-in-the-human-liver-and-intestine-a-comparative-analysis-in-paired-tissue-specimens
#18
Marek Drozdzik, Diana Busch, Joanna Lapczuk, Janett Müller, Marek Ostrowski, Mateusz Kurzawski, Stefan Oswald
This work revises and complements existing findings on the distribution of drug-metabolizing enzymes in the first-pass effect organs. We explored gene expression (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) and protein abundance (liquid chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry) of CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C8/9/19, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, CYP3A4/5, UGT1A1/3, UGT2B7/15 in the liver, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon in paired tissues from nine organ donors. All proteins were detected in the liver, but in the intestine CYP2C9/19, CYP2D6, CYP3A4/5, UGT1A1/3, and UGT2B7 were found...
December 5, 2017: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169447/metabolic-and-nutritional-consequences-of-urinary-diversion-using-intestinal-segments-to-reconstruct-the-urinary-tract
#19
REVIEW
Joshua D Roth, Michael O Koch
Intestinal segments in various forms have been used to reconstruct the urinary tract since the mid-1800s. Currently, many different forms of continent and incontinent diversion options exist. Incorporating bowel mucosa within the urinary tract leads to predictable metabolic and nutritional consequences. The use of ileum or colon can cause a hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis, vitamin B12 deficiency, osteoporosis, fat malabsorption, urinary calculi, and ammoniagenic encephalopathy. Due to metabolic and nutritional consequences associated with the use of jejunum and gastric segments, the use of these bowel segments is not recommended...
February 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141016/intestinal-microbiota-profiles-associated-with-low-and-high-residual-feed-intake-in-chickens-across-two-geographical-locations
#20
Sina-Catherine Siegerstetter, Stephan Schmitz-Esser, Elizabeth Magowan, Stefanie Urimare Wetzels, Qendrim Zebeli, Peadar G Lawlor, Niamh E O'Connell, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli
Intestinal microbe-host interactions can affect the feed efficiency (FE) of chickens. As inconsistent findings for FE-associated bacterial taxa were reported across studies, the present objective was to identify whether bacterial profiles and predicted metabolic functions that were associated with residual feed intake (RFI) and performance traits in female and male chickens were consistent across two different geographical locations. At six weeks of life, the microbiota in ileal, cecal and fecal samples of low (n = 34) and high (n = 35) RFI chickens were investigated by sequencing the V3-5 region of the 16S rRNA gene...
2017: PloS One
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