keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

metabolic ileum

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212441/depressive-disorder-and-gastrointestinal-dysfunction-after-myocardial-infarct-are-associated-with-abnormal-tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine-metabolism-in-rats
#1
Xiaofang Lu, Yuefen Wang, Chunyan Liu, Yangang Wang
In this study, we investigated the relationship between tryptophan-5-hydroxytryptamine metabolism, depressive disorder, and gastrointestinal dysfunction in rats after myocardial infarction. Our goal was to elucidate the physiopathologic bases of somatic/psychiatric depression symptoms after myocardial infarction. A myocardial infarction model was established by permanent occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Depression-like behavior was evaluated using the sucrose preference test, open field test, and forced swim test...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190822/phloridzin-inhibits-high-k-induced-contraction-via-the-inhibition-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-1-in-rat-ileum
#2
Hidenori Kanda, Takeharu Kaneda, Akira Kawaguchi, Noriyasu Sasaki, Tsuyoshi Tajima, Norimoto Urakawa, Kazumasa Shimizu, Hiroetsu Suzuki
Recent studies have shown that phloridzin, an inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT), strongly decreases high K(+)-induced contraction in phasic muscle, such as tenia coli, but slightly affects tonic muscle, such as trachea . In this study, we examined the inhibitory mechanism of phloridzin on high K(+)-induced muscle contraction in rat ileum, a phasic muscle. Phloridzin inhibited the high K(+)-induced contraction in the ileum and the aorta, and the relaxing effect of phloridzin at 1 mM in the ileum was approximately five-fold more potent than that in the aorta...
February 11, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185153/role-of-the-gut-on-glucose-homeostasis-lesson-learned-from-metabolic-surgery
#3
REVIEW
V Kamvissi-Lorenz, M Raffaelli, S Bornstein, G Mingrone
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Bariatric surgery was initially intended to reduce weight, and only subsequently was the remission of type two diabetes (T2D) observed as a collateral event. At the moment, the term "metabolic surgery" is used to underline the fact that this type of surgery is performed specifically to treat diabetes and its metabolic complications, such as hyperlipidemia. RECENT FINDINGS: Randomized, controlled studies have recently supported the use of bariatric surgery, and in particular of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and biliopancreatic diversion (BPD) as an effective treatment for decompensated T2D...
February 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177388/effects-of-a-3-strain-based-direct-fed-microbial-and-dietary-fiber-concentration-on-growth-performance-and-expression-of-genes-related-to-absorption-and-metabolism-of-volatile-fatty-acids-in-weanling-pigs
#4
N W Jaworski, A Owusu-Asiedu, M C Walsh, J C McCann, J J Loor, H H Stein
Effects of a -based direct-fed microbial (DFM) on growth performance, plasma tumor necrosis factor ɑ (TNFɑ), relative gene expression, and intestinal VFA concentrations in weanling pigs fed low- or high-fiber diets were evaluated. Two hundred pigs (initial BW: 6.31 ± 0.73 kg) were allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (5 pigs per pen and 10 pens per treatment). Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design with 2 diet types [low-fiber (LF) or high-fiber (HF)] and 2 concentrations of DFM (0 or 60 g DFM/t of feed)...
January 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28153842/regional-expression-levels-of-drug-transporters-and-metabolizing-enzymes-along-the-pig-and-human-intestinal-tract-and-comparison-with-caco-2-cells
#5
Stefan F C Vaessen, Marola M H van Lipzig, Raymond H H Pieters, Cyrille A M Krul, Heleen M Wortelboer, Evita van de Steeg
Intestinal transporter proteins and metabolizing enzymes play a crucial role in the oral absorption of a wide variety of drugs. The aim of the current study was to better characterize available intestinal in vitro models by comparing expression levels of these proteins and enzymes between porcine intestine, human intestine and Caco-2 cells. We therefore determined the absolute protein expression of 19 drug transporters and the mRNA expression of 12 metabolic enzymes along the pig intestinal tract (duodenum, jejunum, ileum; N=4), in human intestine (jejunum; N=9) and Caco-2 cells...
February 2, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132653/a-cafeteria-diet-triggers-intestinal-inflammation-and-oxidative-stress-in-obese-rats
#6
K Gil-Cardoso, I Ginés, M Pinent, A Ardévol, X Terra, M Blay
The gastrointestinal alterations associated with the consumption of an obesogenic diet, such as inflammation, permeability impairment and oxidative stress, have been poorly explored in both diet-induced obesity (DIO) and genetic obesity. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of an obesogenic diet on the gut health status of DIO rats in comparison with the Zucker (fa/fa) rat leptin receptor-deficient model of genetic obesity over time. For this purpose, female Wistar rats (n 48) were administered a standard or a cafeteria diet (CAF diet) for 12, 14·5 or 17 weeks and were compared with fa/fa Zucker rats fed a standard diet for 10 weeks...
January 30, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130274/commensal-bacteria-at-the-crossroad-between-cholesterol-homeostasis-and-chronic-inflammation-in-atherosclerosis
#7
Kazuyuki Kasahara, Takeshi Tanoue, Tomoya Yamashita, Keiko Yodoi, Takuya Matsumoto, Takuo Emoto, Taiji Mizoguchi, Tomohiro Hayashi, Naoki Kitano, Naoto Sasaki, Koji Atarashi, Kenya Honda, Ken-Ichi Hirata
The gut microbiota were shown to play critical roles in the development of atherosclerosis, but the detailed mechanism is limited. The purpose of this study is to clarify the influence of gut microbiota on atherogenesis via lipid metabolism and systemic inflammation. Germ-free (GF) or conventionally raised (Conv) Apolipoprotein E deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice were fed chow diet and sacrificed at twenty weeks of age. We found lack of gut microbiota in ApoE(-/-) mice caused a significant increase in the plasma and hepatic cholesterol levels compared to ConvR ApoE(-/-) mice...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125557/o-009-long-ncrna-landscape-in-the-ileum-of-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-early-onset-crohn-disease
#8
Yael Haberman, Marina Ben-Shoshan, Ayelet Di-Segni, Phillip Dexheimer, Tzipi Klein, Batya Weiss, Thomas Walters, Robert Baldassano, Joshua Noe, James Markowitz, Mel Heyman, Joel Rosh, Anne Griffiths, Wallace Crandall, Bruce Aronow, Yair Anikster, Jeffrey Hyams, Subra Kugathasan, Lee Denson
BACKGROUND: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA) regulate gene transcription and diverse cellular functions. We have recently reported a core inflammatory and metabolic ileal gene signature in treatment naïve pediatric Crohn Disease (CD), but the potential role of lncRNA was not known. We hypothesized that differences in ileal lncRNA would be associated with differences in protein-coding gene expression, suggesting a role for lncRNA in regulating those gene signatures. METHODS: Poly-A selected RNA-seq and Ensembl annotation were used to define differentially expressed ileal genes with false discovery rate correction of 0...
February 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119353/fibroblast-growth-factor-15-19-fgf15-19-protects-from-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-development-of-an-fgf19-based-chimeric-molecule-to-promote-fatty-liver-regeneration
#9
Gloria Alvarez-Sola, Iker Uriarte, M Ujue Latasa, Maite G Fernandez-Barrena, Raquel Urtasun, Maria Elizalde, Marina Barcena-Varela, Maddalen Jiménez, Haisul C Chang, Roberto Barbero, Victoria Catalán, Amaia Rodríguez, Gema Frühbeck, José M Gallego-Escuredo, Aleix Gavaldà-Navarro, Francesc Villarroya, Carlos M Rodriguez-Ortigosa, Fernando J Corrales, Jesus Prieto, Pedro Berraondo, Carmen Berasain, Matias A Avila
OBJECTIVE: Fibroblast growth factor 15/19 (FGF15/19), an enterokine that regulates synthesis of hepatic bile acids (BA), has been proposed to influence fat metabolism. Without FGF15/19, mouse liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy (PH) is severely impaired. We studied the role of FGF15/19 in response to a high fat diet (HFD) and its regulation by saturated fatty acids. We developed a fusion molecule encompassing FGF19 and apolipoprotein A-I, termed Fibapo, and evaluated its pharmacological properties in fatty liver regeneration...
January 24, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066937/effect-of-dietary-dry-matter-intake-on-endogenous-nitrogen-flows-in-growing-lambs
#10
W Gao, X Gao, A Chen, F Zhang, D Chen, C Liu
The effect of dietary dry matter intake (DMI) on endogenous nitrogen (N) flows at different part of the digestive tract of growing lambs was determined using a (15) N isotope dilution technique. Three Kazakh male lambs (30 ± 2.75 kg of body weights and 4 months old, average daily gain 200 g/day) were fitted with ruminal, duodenal and ileal cannulae and raised in metabolic cage individually. The experiment was conducted in a 3 × 3 Latin square design with three lambs, three DMI levels (1100, 920 and 736 g/day respectively) and three periods...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055029/gastrointestinal-transcriptomic-response-of-metabolic-vitamin-b12-pathways-in-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#11
Priscila Sala, Giliane Belarmino, Raquel S Torrinhas, Natasha M Machado, Danielle C Fonseca, Graziela R Ravacci, Robson K Ishida, Ismael F M S Guarda, Eduardo G de Moura, Paulo Sakai, Marco A Santo, Ismael D C G da Silva, Claudia C A Pereira, Angela F Logullo, Steven Heymsfield, Daniel Giannella-Neto, Dan L Waitzberg
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin B12 (B12) deficiency after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is highly prevalent and may contribute to postoperative complications. Decreased production of intrinsic factor owing to gastric fundus removal is thought to have a major role, but other components of B12 metabolism may also be affected. We evaluated changes in the expression levels of multiple B12 pathway-encoding genes in gastrointestinal (GI) tissues to evaluate the potential roles in contributing to post-RYGB B12 deficiency...
January 5, 2017: Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043194/differential-regulation-of-intestinal-efflux-transporters-by-pregnancy-in-mice
#12
Jamie E Moscovitz, Gabriel Yarmush, Guadalupe Herrera-Garcia, Grace L Guo, Lauren M Aleksunes
1. In the intestines, the nuclear receptors farnesoid X receptor (Fxr) and pregnane X receptor (Pxr) regulate the transcription of metabolizing enzymes and transporters that dictate the absorption of nutrients and xenobiotics. 2. Here, we sought to determine whether Fxr and Pxr signaling pathways are disrupted in response to high-circulating concentrations of steroid hormones late in pregnancy leading to altered transporter expression. To test this, ileum were collected from virgin and pregnant C57BL/6 mice on gestation days 14, 17 and 19...
January 3, 2017: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011645/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-analyses-reveal-profound-effects-of-fibroblast-growth-factor-16-as-a-metabolic-regulator
#13
Ingrid C Rulifson, Patrick Collins, Li Miao, Dana Nojima, Ki Jeong Lee, Miki Hardy, Jamila Gupte, Kelly Hensley, Kim Samayoa, Cynthia Cam, James B Rottman, Mike Ollmann, William G Richards, Yang Li
The discovery of brown adipose tissue (BAT) as a key regulator of energy expenditure has sparked interest in identifying novel soluble factors capable of activating inducible BAT (iBAT) to combat obesity. Using a high content cell-based screen, we identified fibroblast growth factor 16 (FGF16) as a potent inducer of several physical and transcriptional characteristics analogous to those of both "classical" BAT and iBAT. Overexpression of Fgf16 in vivo recapitulated several of our in vitro findings, specifically the significant induction of the Ucp1 gene and UCP1 protein expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), a common site for emergent active iBAT...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009872/medium-chain-fatty-acids-reduce-serum-cholesterol-by-regulating-the-metabolism-of-bile-acid-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#14
Yinghua Liu, Yong Zhang, Xinsheng Zhang, Qing Xu, Xueyan Yang, Changyong Xue
Hypercholesterolemia is one of the important risk factors of atherosclerosis (AS). The aim of this study is to explore the effect of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) on serum cholesterol levels and their mechanism of action. Hyperlipemia, as a model of abnormal lipid hypermetabolism, was established by using a high fat diet in C57BL/6J mice. Forty eight mice with dyslipidemia were randomly divided into 4 groups, 12 mice per group, including the control group, the 2% caprylic acid (C8:0)-treated group, 2% capric acid (C10:0)-treated group, and 2% oleic acid (C18:1)-treated group...
December 23, 2016: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956475/induction-of-farnesoid-x-receptor-signaling-in-germ-free-mice-colonized-with-a-human-microbiota
#15
Annika Wahlström, Petia Kovatcheva-Datchary, Marcus Ståhlman, Muhammad-Tanweer Khan, Fredrik Bäckhed, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall
The gut microbiota influences the development and progression of metabolic diseases partly by metabolism of bile acids (BAs) and modified signaling through the farnesoid X receptor (FXR). In this study, we aimed to determine how the human gut microbiota metabolizes murine BAs and affects FXR signaling in colonized mice. We colonized germ-free mice with cecal content from a mouse donor or feces from a human donor and euthanized the mice after short-term (2 weeks) or long-term (15 weeks) colonization. We analyzed the gut microbiota and BA composition and expression of FXR target genes in ileum and liver...
February 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956139/characterization-of-stem-cell-derived-liver-and-intestinal-organoids-as-a-model-system-to-study-nuclear-receptor-biology
#16
Ingrid T G W Bijsmans, Alexandra Milona, Noortje Ijssennagger, Ellen C L Willemsen, José M Ramos Pittol, Johan W Jonker, Katja Lange, Guido J E J Hooiveld, Saskia W C van Mil
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors regulating a large variety of processes involved in reproduction, development, and metabolism. NRs are ideal drug targets because they are activated by lipophilic ligands that easily pass cell membranes. Immortalized cell lines recapitulate NR biology poorly and generating primary cultures is laborious and requires a constant need for donor material. There is a clear need for development of novel preclinical model systems that better resemble human physiology...
December 10, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927684/in-vitro-patterning-of-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-intestine-recapitulates-in-vivo-human-development
#17
Yu-Hwai Tsai, Roy Nattiv, Priya H Dedhia, Melinda S Nagy, Alana M Chin, Matthew Thomson, Ophir Klein, Jason Spence
The intestine plays a central role in digestion, nutrient absorption and metabolism, with individual regions of the intestine having distinct functional roles. For example, the most proximal region of the small intestine, the duodenum, is associated with absorption of micronutrients such as iron and folate, whereas the more distal ileum is responsible for recycling bile salts. Many examples of region-specific gene expression in the adult intestine are known, but how intestinal regional identity is established during development is a largely open question...
December 7, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907092/unconjugated-bile-acids-influence-expression-of-circadian-genes-a-potential-mechanism-for-microbe-host-crosstalk
#18
Kalaimathi Govindarajan, John MacSharry, Patrick G Casey, Fergus Shanahan, Susan A Joyce, Cormac G M Gahan
Disruptions to circadian rhythm in mice and humans have been associated with an increased risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiota is known to be essential for the maintenance of circadian rhythm in the host suggesting a role for microbe-host interactions in the regulation of the peripheral circadian clock. Previous work suggested a role for gut bacterial bile salt hydrolase (BSH) activity in the regulation of host circadian gene expression. Here we demonstrate that unconjugated bile acids, known to be generated through the BSH activity of the gut microbiota, are potentially chronobiological regulators of host circadian gene expression...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906625/uric-acid-metabolism-of-kidney-and-intestine-in-a-rat-model-of-chronic-kidney-disease
#19
Michito Nagura, Yoshifuru Tamura, Takanori Kumagai, Makoto Hosoyamada, Shunya Uchida
Uric acid (UA) is a potential risk factor of the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Recently, we reported that intestinal UA excretion might be enhanced via upregulation of the ATP-binding cassette transporter G2 (Abcg2) in a 5/6 nephrectomy (Nx) rat model. In the present study, we examined the mRNA and protein expressions of UA transporters, URAT1, GLUT9/URATv1, ABCG2 and NPT4 in the kidney and ileum in the same rat model. Additionally, we investigated the Abcg2 mRNA expression of ileum in hyperuricemic rat model by orally administering oxonic acid...
December 2016: Nucleosides, Nucleotides & Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895587/vitamin-d-signaling-through-induction-of-paneth-cell-defensins-maintains-gut-microbiota-and-improves-metabolic-disorders-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-animal-models
#20
Danmei Su, Yuanyang Nie, Airu Zhu, Zishuo Chen, Pengfei Wu, Li Zhang, Mei Luo, Qun Sun, Linbi Cai, Yuchen Lai, Zhixiong Xiao, Zhongping Duan, Sujun Zheng, Guihui Wu, Richard Hu, Hidekazu Tsukamoto, Aurelia Lugea, Zhenqui Liu, Stephen J Pandol, Yuan-Ping Han
Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized as obesity, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD), is associated with vitamin D insufficiency/deficiency in epidemiological studies, while the underlying mechanism is poorly addressed. On the other hand, disorder of gut microbiota, namely dysbiosis, is known to cause MetS and NAFLD. It is also known that systemic inflammation blocks insulin signaling pathways, leading to insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, which are the driving force for hepatic steatosis...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
keyword
keyword
93124
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"