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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526795/exploring-a-possible-link-between-the-intestinal-microbiota-and-feed-efficiency-in-pigs
#1
Ursula M McCormack, Tânia Curião, Stefan G Buzoianu, Maria L Prieto, Tomas Ryan, Patrick Varley, Fiona Crispie, Elizabeth Magowan, Barbara U Metzler-Zebeli, Donagh Berry, Orla O'Sullivan, Paul D Cotter, Gillian E Gardiner, Peadar G Lawlor
Feed efficiency (FE) is critical in pig production for both economic and environmental reasons. As the intestinal microbiota plays an important role in energy harvest, it is likely to influence FE. Our aim was therefore to characterize the intestinal microbiota of pigs ranked as low, medium and high residual feed intake (RFI; a metric for FE), where genetic, nutritional and management effects were minimized, in order to explore a possible link between the intestinal microbiota and FE. Eighty one pigs were ranked on RFI between weaning and day 126 post-weaning, and 32 were selected as the extremes in RFI (12 low, 10 medium, 10 high)...
May 19, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524868/diabetes-associated-microbiota-in-fa-fa-rats-is-modified-by-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass
#2
Tulika Arora, Florian Seyfried, Neil G Docherty, Valentina Tremaroli, Carel W le Roux, Rosie Perkins, Fredrik Bäckhed
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and duodenal jejunal bypass (DJB), two different forms of bariatric surgery, are associated with improved glucose tolerance, but it is not clear whether the gut microbiota contributes to this effect. Here we used fa/fa rats as a model of impaired glucose tolerance to investigate whether (i) the microbiota varies between fa/fa and nondiabetic fa/+ rats; (ii) the microbiota of fa/fa rats is affected by RYGB and/or DJB; and (iii) surgically induced microbiota alterations contribute to glucose metabolism...
May 19, 2017: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512779/structure-of-protein-emulsion-in-food-impacts-intestinal-microbiota-caecal-luminal-content-composition-and-distal-intestine-characteristics-in-rats
#3
Martin Beaumont, Daphné Jaoui, Véronique Douard, Damien Mat, Fanny Koeth, Bénédicte Goustard, Camille Mayeur, Stanislas Mondot, Anais Hovaghimian, Steven Le Feunteun, Catherine Chaumontet, Anne-Marie Davila, Daniel Tomé, Isabelle Souchon, Camille Michon, Gilles Fromentin, François Blachier, Marion Leclerc
SCOPE: Few studies have evaluated in vivo the impact of food structure on digestion, absorption of nutrients and on microbiota composition and metabolism. In this study we evaluated in rat the impact of two structures of protein emulsion in food on gut microbiota, luminal content composition, and intestinal characteristics. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rats received for 3 weeks two diets of identical composition but based on lipid-protein matrices of liquid fine (LFE) or gelled coarse (GCE) emulsion...
May 17, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504618/butyrate-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-metabolic-alterations-hepatic-steatosis-and-pancreatic-beta-cell-and-intestinal-barrier-dysfunctions-in-prediabetic-mice
#4
V A Matheus, Lcs Monteiro, R B Oliveira, D A Maschio, C B Collares-Buzato
In this study, we investigated the effect of diet supplementation with sodium butyrate (5% w/w), a short-chain fatty acid produced by the intestinal microbiota, on metabolic parameters, body adiposity, hepatic and pancreatic lipid accumulation, beta cell function/mass as well as on the structure and function of the tight junction-mediated intestinal epithelial barrier in both normal and obese/prediabetic C57 mice fed a regular (control) or high-fat diet for 60 days, respectively. Butyrate treatment significantly inhibited all the high-fat-induced metabolic dysfunctions evaluated, i...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485801/insulin-resistance-in-alzheimer-s-disease-ad-mouse-intestinal-macrophages-is-mediated-by-activation-of-jnk
#5
Y-L Zhou, Y-F Du, H Du, P Shao
OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) has been considered as a metabolic disorder disease, which closely related to insulin signaling impairment. Therefore, identifying the potential mechanism of insulin resistance is important for AD treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An APP/PS1 double transgenic AD mouse model was introduced to study insulin resistance in gut. The expressions of AD markers and key elements of insulin signaling were detected in ileum and intestinal macrophages of AD mice by immunohistochemistry...
April 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474246/pectin-penta-oligogalacturonide-suppresses-intestinal-bile-acids-absorption-and-downregulates-the-fxr-fgf15-axis-in-high-cholesterol-fed-mice
#6
Rugang Zhu, Yuting Hou, Yandi Sun, Tuoping Li, Jungang Fan, Gang Chen, Junxiu Wei
Haw pectin penta-oligogalacturonide (HPPS), purified from the hydrolysates of haw pectin, has important role in decreasing hepatic cholesterol accumulation and promoting bile acids (BA) excretion in the feces of mice fed a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). However, the mechanism is not clear. This study aims to investigate the effects of HPPS on BA reabsorption in ileum and biosynthesis in liver of mice. Results showed that HPPS increased fecal BA output by approximately 110%, but decreased ileal BA and the total BA pool size by approximately 47 and 36%, respectively, compared to HCD...
May 4, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467926/a-specific-gut-microbiota-dysbiosis-of-type-2-diabetic-mice-induces-glp-1-resistance-through-an-enteric-no-dependent-and-gut-brain-axis-mechanism
#7
Estelle Grasset, Anthony Puel, Julie Charpentier, Xavier Collet, Jeffrey E Christensen, François Tercé, Rémy Burcelin
Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)-based therapies control glycemia in type 2 diabetic (T2D) patients. However, in some patients the treatment must be discontinued, defining a state of GLP-1 resistance. In animal models we identified a specific set of ileum bacteria impairing the GLP-1-activated gut-brain axis for the control of insulin secretion and gastric emptying. Using prediction algorithms, we identified bacterial pathways related to amino acid metabolism and transport system modules associated to GLP-1 resistance...
May 2, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467754/metabolomic-analysis-of-mice-exposed-to-gamma-radiation-reveals-a-systemic-understanding-of-total-body-exposure
#8
Srujana Golla, Jaya Prakash Golla, Kristopher W Krausz, Soumen K Manna, Cedric Simillion, Diren Beyoğlu, Jeffrey R Idle, Frank J Gonzalez
Diagnostic markers are needed for accidental or deliberate radiation exposure that could cause acute and chronic radiation toxicity. Biomarkers of temporal, dose-dependent, aging-attenuated and multiple radiation exposures have been previously described by others. However, the physiological origin and biochemical networks that generate these biomarkers and their association at the molecular level have yet to be explored. Hence, the discovery and identification of total-body-irradiation-induced tissue specific biomarkers remains an enormous challenge within radiation biodosimetry research...
May 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462379/prolonged-absence-of-mechanoluminal-stimulation-in-human-intestine-alters-the-transcriptome-and-intestinal-stem-cell-niche
#9
Minna M Wieck, Christopher R Schlieve, Matthew E Thornton, Kathryn L Fowler, Mubina Isani, Christa N Grant, Ashley E Hilton, Xiaogang Hou, Brendan H Grubbs, Mark R Frey, Tracy C Grikscheit
BACKGROUND & AIMS: For patients with short-bowel syndrome, intestinal adaptation is required to achieve enteral independence. Although adaptation has been studied extensively in animal models, little is known about this process in human intestine. We hypothesized that analysis of matched specimens with and without luminal flow could identify new potential therapeutic pathways. METHODS: Fifteen paired human ileum samples were collected from children aged 2-20 months during ileostomy-reversal surgery after short-segment intestinal resection and diversion...
May 2017: Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459658/enhanced-oral-bioavailability-of-domperidone-with-piperine-in-male-wistar-rats-involvement-of-cyp3a1-and-p-gp-inhibition
#10
Bhargavi Latha Athukuri, Prasad Neerati
PURPOSE: Domperidone is a commonly used antiemetic drug. The oral bioavailability of domperidone is very low due to its rapid first pass metabolism in the intestine and liver. Piperine, the main alkaloid present in black pepper has been reported to show inhibitory effects on Cytochrome P-450 (CYP-450) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp). In the present study we investigated the effect of piperine pretreatment on the intestinal transport and oral bioavailability of domperidone in male Wistar rats...
2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences: a Publication of the Canadian Society for Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400412/western-diet-consumption-induces-alteration-of-barrier-function-mechanisms-in-the-ileum-that-correlates-with-metabolic-endotoxemia-in-rats
#11
Mathilde Guerville, Anaïs Leroy, Annaëlle Sinquin, Fabienne Laugerette, Marie-Caroline Michalski, Gaëlle Boudry
Obesity and its related disorders have been associated to the presence in the blood of gut bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharides (LPS). However, the factors underlying this low-grade elevation in plasma LPS, so-called metabolic endotoxemia, are not fully elucidated. We aimed to investigate the effects of Western diet (WD) feeding on intestinal and hepatic LPS handling mechanisms in a rat model of diet-induced obesity (DIO). Rats were fed either a standard chow diet (C) or a Western Diet (WD, 45% fat) for 6 weeks...
April 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392238/organochloride-pesticides-modulated-gut-microbiota-and-influenced-bile-acid-metabolism-in-mice
#12
Qian Liu, Wentao Shao, Chunlan Zhang, Cheng Xu, Qihan Wang, Hui Liu, Haidong Sun, Zhaoyan Jiang, Aihua Gu
Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) can persistently accumulate in body and threaten human health. Bile acids and intestinal microbial metabolism have emerged as important signaling molecules in the host. However, knowledge on which intestinal microbiota and bile acids are modified by OCPs remains unclear. In this study, adult male C57BL/6 mice were exposed to p, p'-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (p, p'-DDE) and β-hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH) for 8 weeks. The relative abundance and composition of various bacterial species were analyzed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
April 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385801/mechanisms-controlling-glucose-induced-glp-1-secretion-in-human-small-intestine
#13
Emily W Sun, Dayan de Fontgalland, Philippa Rabbitt, Paul Hollington, Luigi Sposato, Steven L Due, David A Wattchow, Christopher K Rayner, Adam M Deane, Richard L Young, Damien J Keating
Intestinal glucose stimulates secretion of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The mechanisms underlying this pathway have not been fully investigated in humans. In this study, we showed that a 30 minute intraduodenal glucose infusion activated half of all duodenal L cells in humans. This infusion was sufficient to increase plasma GLP-1. With an ex vivo model using human gut tissue specimens, we showed a dose-responsive GLP-1 secretion in ileum at 200mM glucose or above. In ex vivo tissue from duodenum and ileum, but not colon, 300mM glucose potently stimulated GLP-1 release...
April 6, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380520/the-addition-of-protein-bound-amino-acids-in-low-protein-diets-improves-the-metabolic-and-immunological-characteristics-in-fifteen-to-thirty-five-kg-pigs
#14
L Q Che, X Peng, L Hu, C Wu, Q Xu, Z F Fang, Y Lin, S Y Xu, J Li, B Feng, G Tian, R N Zhang, H Sun, D Wu, D W Chen
This study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of AA form (crystalline vs. protein bound) in low-protein diets on growth, metabolic, and immunological characteristics of pigs. A total of 80 barrows (PIC 327 × 1050; 15.57 ± 0.13 kg BW and 48 ± 2 d of age), housed in 4 pigs per pen with 5 pens per treatment, were assigned to 4 dietary treatments of 17, 15, and 13% CP and 13% CP plus casein for 28 d. The crystalline AA were supplemented to meet the requirement of indispensable AA in pigs. Results showed that pigs fed the 13% CP diet or the 13% CP plus casein diet had lower ( < 0...
March 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356436/intestinal-barrier-function-and-the-gut-microbiome-are-differentially-affected-in-mice-fed-a-western-style-diet-or-drinking-water-supplemented-with-fructose
#15
Valentina Volynets, Sandrine Louis, Dominik Pretz, Lisa Lang, Maureen J Ostaff, Jan Wehkamp, Stephan C Bischoff
Background: The consumption of a Western-style diet (WSD) and high fructose intake are risk factors for metabolic diseases. The underlying mechanisms are largely unclear.Objective: To unravel the mechanisms by which a WSD and fructose promote metabolic disease, we investigated their effects on the gut microbiome and barrier function.Methods: Adult female C57BL/6J mice were fed a sugar- and fat-rich WSD or control diet (CD) for 12 wk and given access to tap water or fructose-supplemented water. The microbiota was analyzed with the use of 16S rRNA gene sequencing...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344557/dissecting-target-toxic-tissue-and-tissue-specific-responses-of-irinotecan-in-rats-using-metabolomics-approach
#16
Yiran Yao, Pei Zhang, Jing Wang, Jiaqing Chen, Yong Wang, Yin Huang, Zunjian Zhang, Fengguo Xu
As an anticancer agent, irinotecan (CPT-11) has been widely applied in clinical, especially in the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, its clinical use has long been limited by the side effects and potential tissue toxicity. To discriminate the target toxic tissues and dissect the specific response of target tissues after CPT-11 administration in rats, untargeted metabolomic study was conducted. First, differential metabolites between CPT-11 treated group and control group in each tissue were screened out...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342610/intentionally-induced-intestinal-barrier-dysfunction-causes-inflammation-affects-metabolism-and-reduces-productivity-in-lactating-holstein-cows
#17
S K Kvidera, M J Dickson, M Abuajamieh, D B Snider, M V Sanz Fernandez, J S Johnson, A F Keating, P J Gorden, H B Green, K M Schoenberg, L H Baumgard
Study objectives were to evaluate the effects of intentionally reduced intestinal barrier function on productivity, metabolism, and inflammatory indices in otherwise healthy dairy cows. Fourteen lactating Holstein cows (parity 2.6 ± 0.3; 117 ± 18 d in milk) were enrolled in 2 experimental periods. Period 1 (5 d) served as the baseline for period 2 (7 d), during which cows received 1 of 2 i.v. treatments twice per day: sterile saline or a gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI; 1.5 mg/kg of body weight). Gamma-secretase inhibitors reduce intestinal barrier function by inhibiting crypt cell differentiation into absorptive enterocytes...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317980/biodistribution-excretion-and-toxicity-of-polyethyleneimine-modified-nayf4-yb-er-upconversion-nanoparticles-in-mice-via-different-administration-routes
#18
Jie Yu, Wenyan Yin, Tao Peng, Ya-Nan Chang, Yan Zu, Juan Li, Xiao He, Xiaoyan Ma, Zhanjun Gu, Yuliang Zhao
Upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have drawn much attention in biomedicine, and the clinical translation of UCNPs is closely related to their toxicity and metabolism in vivo. In this study, we chose polyethyleneimine modified NaYF4:Yb,Er upconversion nanoparticles (abbreviated as PEI@UCNPs) to systematically study the biodistribution in mice using intravenous (i.v.), intraperitoneal (i.p.), and intragastric (i.g.) administration. The i.p. injected PEI@UCNPs exhibited obvious accumulation in the spleen within 30 days...
March 20, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295549/uric-acid-ameliorates-indomethacin-induced-enteropathy-in-mice-through-its-antioxidant-activity
#19
Yuichi Yasutake, Kengo Tomita, Masaaki Higashiyama, Hirotaka Furuhashi, Kazuhiko Shirakabe, Takeshi Takajo, Koji Maruta, Hirokazu Sato, Kazuyuki Narimatsu, Kenichi Yoshikawa, Yoshikiyo Okada, Chie Kurihara, Chikako Watanabe, Shunsuke Komoto, Shigeaki Nagao, Hirotaka Matsuo, Soichiro Miura, Ryota Hokari
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Uric acid is excreted from blood into the intestinal lumen, yet the roles of uric acid in intestinal diseases remain to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to determine whether uric acid could reduce endpoints associated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced enteropathy. METHODS: A mouse model of NSAID-induced enteropathy was generated by administering indomethacin intraperitoneally to 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice, and then vehicle or uric acid was administered orally...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283178/activation-of-constitutive-androstane-receptor-prevents-cholesterol-gallstone-formation
#20
Shihai Cheng, Min Zou, Qinhui Liu, Jiangying Kuang, Jing Shen, Shiyun Pu, Lei Chen, Hong Li, Tong Wu, Rui Li, Yanping Li, Wei Jiang, Zhiyong Zhang, Jinhan He
Cholesterol gallstone disease (CGD) is one of the most common gastrointestinal diseases. Lithogenic hepatic bile secretion precedes the formation of cholesterol gallstones. Constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), a member of nuclear family, plays an important role in cholesterol and bile acid metabolism. To examine whether activation of CAR can prevent cholesterol gallstone formation, we treated C57BL6/J mice maintained on a lithogenic diet with CAR agonist 1,4-bis-[2-(3, 5-dichlorpyridyloxy)] benzene and performed bile duct cannulation to study the dynamics of biliary lipids...
April 2017: American Journal of Pathology
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