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Zebrafish bipolar

Rong-Wei Zhang, Xiao-Quan Li, Koichi Kawakami, Jiu-Lin Du
Glutamatergic retinal waves, the spontaneous patterned neural activities propagating among developing retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), instruct the activity-dependent refinement of visuotopic maps. However, its initiation and underlying mechanism remain largely elusive. Here using larval zebrafish and multiple in vivo approaches, we discover that bipolar cells (BCs) are responsible for the generation of glutamatergic retinal waves. The wave originates from BC axon terminals (ATs) and propagates laterally to nearby BCs and vertically to downstream RGCs and the optic tectum...
2016: Nature Communications
Florence D D'Orazi, Xiao-Feng Zhao, Rachel O Wong, Takeshi Yoshimatsu
Stereotypic patterns of synaptic connections between neurons underlie the ability of the CNS to perform complex but circuit-specific information processing. Tremendous progress has been made toward advancing our understanding of how circuits are assembled during development, but whether the precision of this process can be recaptured after regeneration of neurons in the damaged CNS remains unclear. Here, we harnessed the endogenous regenerative capacity of the zebrafish retina to reconstruct the circuitry of neurons produced after damage...
September 12, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Paride Antinucci, Oniz Suleyman, Clinton Monfries, Robert Hindges
The orientation of visual stimuli is a salient feature of visual scenes. In vertebrates, the first neural processing steps generating orientation selectivity take place in the retina. Here, we dissect an orientation-selective circuit in the larval zebrafish retina and describe its underlying synaptic, cellular, and molecular mechanisms. We genetically identify a class of amacrine cells (ACs) with elongated dendritic arbors that show orientation tuning. Both selective optogenetic ablation of ACs marked by the cell-adhesion molecule Teneurin-3 (Tenm3) and pharmacological interference with their function demonstrate that these cells are critical components for orientation selectivity in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) by being a source of tuned GABAergic inhibition...
July 25, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Lauren L Daniele, Farida Emran, Glenn P Lobo, Robert J Gaivin, Brian D Perkins
PURPOSE: Tail-anchored (TA) proteins contain a single hydrophobic domain at the C-terminus and are posttranslationally inserted into the ER membrane via the GET (guided entry of tail-anchored proteins) pathway. The role of the GET pathway in photoreceptors is unexplored. The goal of this study was to characterize the zebrafish pinball wizard mutant, which disrupts Wrb, a core component of the GET pathway. METHODS: Electroretinography, optokinetic response measurements (OKR), immunohistochemistry, and electron microscopy analyses were employed to assess ribbon synapse function, protein expression, and ultrastructure in 5-day-old zebrafish larvae...
June 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Stella M K Glasauer, Robert Wäger, Matthias Gesemann, Stephan C F Neuhauss
Metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are mainly known for regulating excitability of neurons. However, mGluR6 at the photoreceptor-ON bipolar cell synapse mediates sign inversion through glutamatergic inhibition. Although this is currently the only confirmed function of mGluR6, other functions have been suggested. Here we present Tg(mglur6b:EGFP)zh1, a new transgenic zebrafish line recapitulating endogenous expression of one of the two mglur6 paralogs in zebrafish. Investigating transgene as well as endogenous mglur6b expression within the zebrafish retina indicates that EGFP and mglur6b mRNA are not only expressed in bipolar cells, but also in a subset of ganglion and amacrine cells...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Juliana M Rosa, Sabine Ruehle, Huayu Ding, Leon Lagnado
In daylight, the input to the retinal circuit is provided primarily by cone photoreceptors acting as band-pass filters, but the retinal output also contains neuronal populations transmitting sustained signals. Using in vivo imaging of genetically encoded calcium reporters, we investigated the circuits that generate these sustained channels within the inner retina of zebrafish. In OFF bipolar cells, sustained transmission was found to depend on crossover inhibition from the ON pathway through GABAergic amacrine cells...
April 20, 2016: Neuron
Stephan Maxeiner, Fujun Luo, Alison Tan, Frank Schmitz, Thomas C Südhof
Synaptic ribbons are large proteinaceous scaffolds at the active zone of ribbon synapses that are specialized for rapid sustained synaptic vesicles exocytosis. A single ribbon-specific protein is known, RIBEYE, suggesting that ribbons may be constructed from RIBEYE protein. RIBEYE knockdown in zebrafish, however, only reduced but did not eliminate ribbons, indicating a more ancillary role. Here, we show in mice that full deletion of RIBEYE abolishes all presynaptic ribbons in retina synapses. Using paired recordings in acute retina slices, we demonstrate that deletion of RIBEYE severely impaired fast and sustained neurotransmitter release at bipolar neuron/AII amacrine cell synapses and rendered spontaneous miniature release sensitive to the slow Ca(2+)-buffer EGTA, suggesting that synaptic ribbons mediate nano-domain coupling of Ca(2+) channels to synaptic vesicle exocytosis...
May 17, 2016: EMBO Journal
Yumi Ueki, Matthew S Wilken, Kristen E Cox, Laura Chipman, Nikolas Jorstad, Kristen Sternhagen, Milesa Simic, Kristy Ullom, Masato Nakafuku, Thomas A Reh
Müller glial cells are the source of retinal regeneration in fish and birds; although this process is efficient in fish, it is less so in birds and very limited in mammals. It has been proposed that factors necessary for providing neurogenic competence to Müller glia in fish and birds after retinal injury are not expressed in mammals. One such factor, the proneural transcription factor Ascl1, is necessary for retinal regeneration in fish but is not expressed after retinal damage in mice. We previously reported that forced expression of Ascl1 in vitro reprograms Müller glia to a neurogenic state...
November 3, 2015: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Renee W Chow, Alexandra D Almeida, Owen Randlett, Caren Norden, William A Harris
The mature vertebrate retina is a highly ordered neuronal network of cell bodies and synaptic neuropils arranged in distinct layers. Little, however, is known about the emergence of this spatial arrangement. Here, we investigate how the three main types of retinal inhibitory neuron (RIN)--horizontal cells (HCs), inner nuclear layer amacrine cells (iACs) and displaced amacrine cells (dACs)--reach their specific laminar positions during development. Using in vivo time-lapse imaging of zebrafish retinas, we show that RINs undergo distinct phases of migration...
August 1, 2015: Development
Ting Xu, Jing Zhao, Daqiang Yin, Qingshun Zhao, Bingzhi Dong
BACKGROUND: 2,2',4,4'-Tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE47) is a prevalent environmental pollutant and has been demonstrated to be a serious toxicant in both humans and animals, but little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying its toxic effect on the early development of vertebrates. BDE47-treated zebrafish larvae were found to present the light-related locomotion reduction in our previous study, therefore, we aimed to use high throughput sequencing to investigate the possible reasons from a transcriptomic perspective...
2015: BMC Genomics
Y Goldshmit, F Frisca, J Kaslin, A R Pinto, J-K K Y Tang, A Pébay, R Pinkas-Kramarski, P D Currie
Previously, we have demonstrated a role for fibroblast growth factor (Fgf) in spinal cord regeneration in both zebrafish and mouse. We have shown that exogenous Fgf2 treatment attenuates astrocytic gliosis and induces glia cells to become progenitors that undergo neurogenesis as well as differentiating into bipolar astrocytes that support axonal regeneration (Goldshmit et al., 2012, 2014). One of the downstream signaling target genes of Fgf is spry4, which acts as a feedback inhibitor for Fgf signaling. In this study we examined the effects of increased endogenous Fgf signaling, in spry4-/- mice, on the early events that occur after spinal cord injury (SCI)...
February 26, 2015: Neuroscience
Alaron A Lewis, Joseph T Mahoney, Neil Wilson, Susan E Brockerhoff
We previously identified Celsr3, an atypical cadherin, as essential for normal inhibitory circuit formation in the inner retina. Its absence during retinal development leads to increases in GABA receptor numbers on ON-bipolar cell terminals and consequent changes in retinal physiology, but does not cause obvious cell spacing or synaptic lamination defects. This study focuses on defining the subset of amacrine cells that express celsr3 during development of the wild type zebrafish retina. We have developed a BAC transgene expressing EGFP under the control of celsr3 promoter, Tg(celsr3:EGFP)...
January 2015: Experimental Eye Research
Bongsoo Suh, Stephen A Baccus
Sensory systems must be able to extract features of a stimulus to detect and represent properties of the world. Because sensory signals are constantly changing, a critical aspect of this transformation relates to the timing of signals and the ability to filter those signals to select dynamic properties, such as visual motion. At first assessment, one might think that the primary biophysical properties that construct a temporal filter would be dynamic mechanisms such as molecular concentration or membrane electrical properties...
October 2014: PLoS Biology
Tom Baden, Anton Nikolaev, Federico Esposti, Elena Dreosti, Benjamin Odermatt, Leon Lagnado
The visual system transmits information about fast and slow changes in light intensity through separate neural pathways. We used in vivo imaging to investigate how bipolar cells transmit these signals to the inner retina. We found that the volume of the synaptic terminal is an intrinsic property that contributes to different temporal filters. Individual cells transmit through multiple terminals varying in size, but smaller terminals generate faster and larger calcium transients to trigger vesicle release with higher initial gain, followed by more profound adaptation...
October 2014: PLoS Biology
Jamie Johnston, Huayu Ding, Sofie H Seibel, Federico Esposti, Leon Lagnado
Neurons in the visual system vary widely in the spatiotemporal properties of their receptive fields (RFs), and understanding these variations is key to elucidating how visual information is processed. We present a new approach for mapping RFs based on the filtered back projection (FBP), an algorithm used for tomographic reconstructions. To estimate RFs, a series of bars were flashed across the retina at pseudo-random positions and at a minimum of five orientations. We apply this method to retinal neurons and show that it can accurately recover the spatial RF and impulse response of ganglion cells recorded on a multi-electrode array...
November 15, 2014: Journal of Physiology
Miki Dozawa, Hiromitsu Kono, Yuki Sato, Yoko Ito, Hideomi Tanaka, Toshio Ohshima
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) has been used to treat epilepsy and bipolar disorder. Several reports have demonstrated that VPA functions as a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. While VPA is known to cause teratogenic changes in the embryonic zebrafish brain, its effects on neural stem cells (NSCs) in both the embryonic and adult zebrafish are not well understood. RESULTS: In this study, we observed a proliferative effect of VPA on NSCs in the embryonic hindbrain...
November 2014: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
Thirumalini Vaithianathan, Gary Matthews
Ribbon synapses of photoreceptor cells and second-order bipolar neurons in the retina are specialized to transmit graded signals that encode light intensity. Neurotransmitter release at ribbon synapses exhibits two kinetically distinct components, which serve different sensory functions. The faster component is depleted within milliseconds and generates transient postsynaptic responses that emphasize changes in light intensity. Despite the importance of this fast release for processing temporal and spatial contrast in visual signals, the physiological basis for this component is not precisely known...
June 10, 2014: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Steven Raft, Andrew K Groves
The vertebrate inner ear is composed of multiple sensory receptor epithelia, each of which is specialized for detection of sound, gravity, or angular acceleration. Each receptor epithelium contains mechanosensitive hair cells, which are connected to the brainstem by bipolar sensory neurons. Hair cells and their associated neurons are derived from the embryonic rudiment of the inner ear epithelium, but the precise spatial and temporal patterns of their generation, as well as the signals that coordinate these events, have only recently begun to be understood...
January 2015: Cell and Tissue Research
Rozan Vroman, Lauw J Klaassen, Marcus H C Howlett, Valentina Cenedese, Jan Klooster, Trijntje Sjoerdsma, Maarten Kamermans
Neuronal computations strongly depend on inhibitory interactions. One such example occurs at the first retinal synapse, where horizontal cells inhibit photoreceptors. This interaction generates the center/surround organization of bipolar cell receptive fields and is crucial for contrast enhancement. Despite its essential role in vision, the underlying synaptic mechanism has puzzled the neuroscience community for decades. Two competing hypotheses are currently considered: an ephaptic and a proton-mediated mechanism...
May 2014: PLoS Biology
Laura R Nery, Natália S Eltz, Lídia Martins, Laura D Guerim, Talita C Pereira, Maurício R Bogo, Monica R M Vianna
Lithium has been the paradigmatic treatment for bipolar disorder since 1950s, offering prophylactic and acute efficacy against maniac and depressive episodes. Its use during early pregnancy and the perinatal period remains controversial due to reports of negative consequences on the newborn including teratogenic and neurobehavioral effects generally referred as Floppy baby syndrome. The mechanisms underlying lithium therapeutic action are still elusive but exacerbation of Wnt signaling pathway due to GSK-3 inhibition is believed to represent its main effect...
December 3, 2014: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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