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Brian smith

Brian Tilston Smith, Robert W Bryson, William M Mauck, Jaime Chaves, Mark B Robbins, Alexandre Aleixo, John Klicka
The New World avian family Polioptilidae (gnatcatchers and gnatwrens) is distributed from Argentina to Canada and includes 15 species and more than 60 subspecies. No study to date has evaluated phylogenetic relationships within this family and the historical pattern of diversification within the group remains unknown. Moreover, species limits, particularly in widespread taxa that show geographic variation, remain unclear. In this study, we delimited species and estimated phylogenetic relationships using multilocus data for the entire family...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution
Kathleen W Zhang, Brian S Finkelman, Gaurav Gulati, Hari K Narayan, Jenica Upshaw, Vivek Narayan, Ted Plappert, Virginia Englefield, Amanda M Smith, Carina Zhang, W Gregory Hundley, Bonnie Ky
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to evaluate the changes in three-dimensional (3D) speckle-tracking echocardiography-derived measures of mechanics and their associations with systolic and diastolic dysfunction after anthracyclines. BACKGROUND: An improved understanding of the changes in 3D cardiac mechanics with anthracyclines may provide important mechanistic insight and identify new metrics to detect cardiac dysfunction. METHODS: A total of 142 women with breast cancer receiving doxorubicin (240 mg/m2 ) with or without trastuzumab underwent 3D speckle-tracking echocardiography at standardized intervals prior to, during, and annually after chemotherapy...
March 9, 2018: JACC. Cardiovascular Imaging
Ronald L Ariagno, Henry C Lee, David K Stevenson, Daniel K Benjamin, P Brian Smith, Marilyn B Escobedo, Dilip R Bhatt
Directories of contact information have evolved over time from thick paperback times such as the "Yellow Pages" to electronic forms that are searchable and have other functionalities. In our clinical specialty, the development of a professional directory helped to promote collaboration in clinical care, education, and quality improvement. However, there are opportunities for increasing the utility of the directory by taking advantage of modern web-based tools, and expanding the use of the directory to fill a gap in the area of collaborative research...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Thomas V Brogan, Cary Thurm, Adam L Hersh, Jeffrey S Gerber, Michael J Smith, Samir S Shah, Joshua D Courter, Sameer J Patel, Sarah K Parker, Matthew P Kronman, Brian R Lee, Jason G Newland
OBJECTIVES: To characterize and compare antibiotic prescribing across PICUs to evaluate the degree of variability. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis from 2010 through 2014 of the Pediatric Health Information System. SETTING: Forty-one freestanding children's hospital. SUBJECTS: Children aged 30 days to 18 years admitted to a PICU in children's hospitals contributing data to Pediatric Health Information System. INTERVENTIONS: To normalize for potential differences in disease severity and case mix across centers, a subanalysis was performed of children admitted with one of the 20 All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Groups and the seven All Patient Refined-Diagnosis Related Groups shared by all PICUs with the highest antibiotic use...
March 10, 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Terril L Verplaetse, Kelly E Moore, Brian P Pittman, Walter Roberts, Lindsay M Oberleitner, Philip H Smith, Kelly P Cosgrove, Sherry A McKee
Background: Stress contributes to the development and maintenance of substance use disorders (SUD), with some research suggesting that the impact of stress on SUD is greater in women. However, this has yet to be evaluated in a national dataset, across major substances of abuse. Methods: Using data from the newly available U.S. National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC; Wave 3; n =36,309) we evaluated relationships among past year stressful life events (0 or 1 vs...
January 2018: Chronic stress
Brian W Patterson, Michael D Repplinger, Michael S Pulia, Robert J Batt, James E Svenson, Alex Trinh, Eneida A Mendonça, Maureen A Smith, Azita G Hamedani, Manish N Shah
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the utility of routinely collected Hendrich II fall scores in predicting returns to the emergency department (ED) for falls within 6 months. DESIGN: Retrospective electronic record review. SETTING: Academic medical center ED. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals aged 65 and older seen in the ED from January 1, 2013, through September 30, 2015. MEASUREMENTS: We evaluated the utility of routinely collected Hendrich II fall risk scores in predicting ED visits for a fall within 6 months of an all-cause index ED visit...
March 6, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Harriet Smith, Adele Horobin, Kathryn Fackrell, Veronica Colley, Brian Thacker, Deborah A Hall
Plain English summary: Outcome domains are aspects of a condition that matter to patients and clinicians and can be measured to assess treatment effects. For tinnitus, examples include 'tinnitus loudness' and 'ability to concentrate'. This study focuses on the first stage of agreeing which outcome domains should be measured in all clinical trials of tinnitus. Crucially, it involves identifying outcome domains, prior to a voting process. This article describes how we effectively involved patients in that study design process, and reflects on the impact of their input...
2018: Research Involvement and Engagement
Aaron Bowers, Chase Meyer, Daniel Tritz, Courtney Cook, Kaleb Fuller, Caleb Smith, Brian Diener, Matt Vassar
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have highlighted the risk of bias and the fragility of results in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical practice guidelines created by the Society for Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES) for fragility, statistical power, and risk of bias. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We screened the SAGES clinical practice guideline references for qualifying RCTs. RCTs were assessed for risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias tool 2...
April 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Matthew J Kraeutler, Eric C McCarty, John W Belk, Brian R Wolf, Carolyn M Hettrich, Shannon F Ortiz, Jonathan T Bravman, Keith M Baumgarten, Julie Y Bishop, Matthew J Bollier, Robert H Brophy, James L Carey, James E Carpenter, Charlie L Cox, Brian T Feeley, John A Grant, Grant L Jones, John E Kuhn, John D Kelly, C Benjamin Ma, Robert G Marx, Bruce S Miller, Brian J Sennett, Matthew V Smith, Rick W Wright, Alan L Zhang
BACKGROUND: Shoulder instability is a common diagnosis among patients undergoing shoulder surgery. PURPOSE: To perform a descriptive analysis of patients undergoing surgery for shoulder instability through a large multicenter consortium. STUDY DESIGN: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. METHODS: All patients undergoing surgery for shoulder instability who were enrolled in the MOON Shoulder Instability Study were included...
March 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Maarten Timmers, Vikash Sinha, Borje Darpo, Brian Smith, Randy Brown, Hongqi Xue, Georg Ferber, Johannes Streffer, Alberto Russu, Luc Tritsmans, Bhavna Solanki, Jennifer Bogert, Luc Van Nueten, Giacomo Salvadore, Partha Nandy
Nonclinical assays with JNJ-54861911, a β-secretase 1 inhibitor have indicated that at high concentrations, it may delay cardiac repolarization. A 4-way crossover thorough QT (TQT) study was performed in 64 healthy subjects with 50 and 150 mg JNJ-54861911 once daily for 7 days, placebo, and 400 mg moxifloxacin. Retrospective high-precision QT (HPQT) analysis was performed on serial elecrocardiograms extracted from first-in-human single-ascending dose (SAD) and multiple-ascending dose (MAD) studies to evaluate if early studies could detect and predict QT effect...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Nisha M Badders, Ane Korff, Helen C Miranda, Pradeep K Vuppala, Rebecca B Smith, Brett J Winborn, Emmanuelle R Quemin, Bryce L Sopher, Jennifer Dearman, James Messing, Nam Chul Kim, Jennifer Moore, Brian D Freibaum, Anderson P Kanagaraj, Baochang Fan, Heather Tillman, Ping-Chung Chen, Yingzhe Wang, Burgess B Freeman, Yimei Li, Hong Joo Kim, Albert R La Spada, J Paul Taylor
Spinal bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is a motor neuron disease caused by toxic gain of function of the androgen receptor (AR). Previously, we found that co-regulator binding through the activation function-2 (AF2) domain of AR is essential for pathogenesis, suggesting that AF2 may be a potential drug target for selective modulation of toxic AR activity. We screened previously identified AF2 modulators for their ability to rescue toxicity in a Drosophila model of SBMA. We identified two compounds, tolfenamic acid (TA) and 1-[2-(4-methylphenoxy)ethyl]-2-[(2-phenoxyethyl)sulfanyl]-1H-benzimidazole (MEPB), as top candidates for rescuing lethality, locomotor function and neuromuscular junction defects in SBMA flies...
March 5, 2018: Nature Medicine
Timothy T Spear, Yuan Wang, Thomas W Smith, Patricia E Simms, Elizabeth Garrett-Mayer, Lance M Hellman, Brian M Baker, Michael I Nishimura
The use of T cell receptor (TCR) gene-modified T cells in adoptive cell transfer has had promising clinical success, but often, simple preclinical evaluation does not necessarily accurately predict treatment efficacy or safety. Preclinical studies generally evaluate one or a limited number of type 1 cytokines to assess antigen recognition. However, recent studies have implicated other "typed" T cells in effective anti-tumor/viral immunity, and limited functional evaluations may underestimate cross-reactivity...
February 2, 2018: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
Robert J Moreau, Colin K Skepper, Brent A Appleton, Anke Blechschmidt, Carl J Balibar, Bret M Benton, Joseph E Drumm, Brian Y Feng, Mei Geng, Cindy Li, Mika K Lindvall, Andreas Lingel, Yipin Lu, Mulugeta Mamo, Wosenu Mergo, Valery Polyakov, Thomas M Smith, Kenneth Takeoka, Kyoko Uehara, Lisha Wang, Jun-Rong Wei, Andrew H Weiss, Lili Xie, Wenjian Xu, Qiong Zhang, Javier de Vicente
The discovery and development of new antibiotics capable of curing infections due to multidrug-resistant and pandrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria is a major challenge with fundamental importance to our global healthcare system. Part of our broad program at Novartis to address this urgent, unmet need includes the search for new agents that inhibit novel bacterial targets. Here we report the discovery and hit-to-lead optimization of new inhibitors of phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) from Gram-negative bacteria...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Farhan A Mirza, Brian Synder, Vanessa D Smith, Raul A Vasquez
Pediatric cerebral ganglioneuroblastoma is an exceedingly rare tumor. We describe the case of a four-year-old male presenting with sudden mental status decline who was found to have a large intracranial lesion with intraventricular extension. Management of the case and pathological findings are discussed, along with a review of literature on this rare entity.
February 26, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Miao Zhang, Bronwen G Smith, Brian H McArdle, Ramesh R Chavan, Bryony J James, Philip J Harris
Variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy was used to investigate the dimensional changes in longitudinal, tangential and radial directions, on wetting and drying, of tracheids of opposite wood (OW) and three grades of compression woods (CWs), including severe CW (SCW) and two grades of mild compression wood (MCW) (MCW1 and MCW2) in corewood of radiata pine ( Pinus radiata ) saplings. The CW was formed on the underside and OW on the upper side of slightly tilted stems. In the longitudinal direction, the shrinkage of SCW tracheids was ~300% greater than that of OW tracheids, with the shrinkage of the MCW1 and MCW2 tracheids being intermediate...
February 27, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Gabriel R Smith, Brian S Steidinger, Thomas D Bruns, Kabir G Peay
Findings of immense microbial diversity are at odds with observed functional redundancy, as competitive exclusion should hinder coexistence. Tradeoffs between dispersal and competitive ability could resolve this contradiction, but the extent to which they influence microbial community assembly is unclear. Because fungi influence the biogeochemical cycles upon which life on earth depends, understanding the mechanisms that maintain the richness of their communities is critically important. Here, we focus on ectomycorrhizal fungi, which are microbial plant mutualists that significantly affect global carbon dynamics and the ecology of host plants...
February 28, 2018: ISME Journal
John R Keefe, Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, Zachary D Cohen, Robert J DeRubeis, Brian N Smith, Patricia A Resick
BACKGROUND: Dropout rates for effective therapies for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can be high, especially in practice settings. Although clinicians have intuitions regarding what treatment patients may complete, there are few systematic data to drive those judgments. METHODS: A multivariable model of dropout risk was constructed with randomized clinical trial data (n = 160) comparing prolonged exposure (PE) and cognitive processing therapy (CPT) for rape-induced PTSD...
February 28, 2018: Depression and Anxiety
Joel J Bruegger, Brian C Smith, Sarah L Wynia-Smith, Michael A Marletta
Cysteine S-nitrosation is a reversible posttranslational modification mediated by nitric oxide (·NO)-derived agents. S-nitrosation participates in cellular signaling and is associated with several diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular diseases, and neuronal disorders. Despite the physiological importance of this nonclassical ·NO signaling pathway, little is understood about how much S-nitrosation affects protein function. Moreover, identifying physiologically relevant targets of S-nitrosation is difficult because of the dynamics of transnitrosation and a limited understanding of the physiological mechanisms leading to selective protein S-nitrosation...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Beverly E Thorn, Joshua C Eyer, Benjamin P Van Dyke, Calia A Torres, John W Burns, Minjung Kim, Andrea K Newman, Lisa C Campbell, Brian Anderson, Phoebe R Block, Bentley J Bobrow, Regina Brooks, Toya T Burton, Jennifer S Cheavens, Colette M DeMonte, William D DeMonte, Crystal S Edwards, Minjeong Jeong, Mazheruddin M Mulla, Terence Penn, Laura J Smith, Deborah H Tucker
Background: Chronic pain is common and challenging to treat. Although cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is efficacious, its benefit in disadvantaged populations is largely unknown. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of literacy-adapted and simplified group CBT versus group pain education (EDU) versus usual care. Design: Randomized controlled trial. ( NCT01967342). Setting: Community health centers serving low-income patients in Alabama...
February 27, 2018: Annals of Internal Medicine
Jane C Johnson, Brian F Degenhardt, Carol K Smith, Thomas M Wolf, D Fred Peterson
Context: Acute stress during medical school affects the health of students and is associated with burnout. The Medical Education Hassles Scale-R (MEHS-R) is designed to measure acute stress among medical students. Researchers using the MEHS-R primarily report overall hassles scores, which are unable to discriminate between different categories of hassles encountered. Objective: The present study examined the factor structure of the MEHS-R to identify subscales that would be useful to categorize hassles for research and assessment purposes...
March 1, 2018: Journal of the American Osteopathic Association
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