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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923248/timing-of-multiorgan-dysfunction-among-hospitalized-infants-with-fatal-fulminant-sepsis
#1
James L Wynn, Matthew S Kelly, Daniel K Benjamin, Reese H Clark, Rachel Greenberg, Daniel K Benjamin, P Brian Smith
Objective Identify the progression of specific signs of multiorgan dysfunction among infants with fatal sepsis. Study Design Cohort study of 679 infants who died within 3 days of the start of a late-onset sepsis (LOS) episode in neonatal intensive care units from 1997 to 2012. We extracted clinical and laboratory data on the day of death (day 0) and the preceding 5 days (days -5 to -1). Results Median (25th percentile-75th percentile) gestational age was 25 (24-28) weeks. Compared with day -1, day 0 was characterized by an increased requirement for mechanical ventilation and higher mean fraction of inspired oxygen...
December 6, 2016: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921276/relationship-between-physician-adjudicated-adverse-events-and-patient-reported-health-related-quality-of-life-in-a-phase-ii-clinical-trial-nct01143402-of-patients-with-metastatic-uveal-melanoma
#2
Thomas M Atkinson, Jennifer L Hay, Alexander Shoushtari, Yuelin Li, Daniel J Paucar, Sloane C Smith, Ragini R Kudchadkar, Austin Doyle, Jeffrey A Sosman, Jorge Fernando Quevedo, Mohammed M Milhem, Anthony M Joshua, Gerald P Linette, Thomas F Gajewski, Jose Lutzky, David H Lawson, Christopher D Lao, Patrick J Flynn, Mark R Albertini, Takami Sato, Karl Lewis, Brian Marr, David H Abramson, Mark Andrew Dickson, Gary K Schwartz, Richard D Carvajal
PURPOSE: Clinical trials commonly use physician-adjudicated adverse event (AE) assessment via the common terminology criteria for adverse events (CTCAE) for decision-making. Patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQoL) data are becoming more frequent in oncology; however, the relationship between physician-adjudicated AE assessment and HRQoL is understudied. METHODS: Data from a phase II trial (clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01143402) where patients with metastatic uveal melanoma were randomized to receive selumetinib, an oral MEK inhibitor, or chemotherapy were analyzed...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920969/examining-the-effects-of-video-modeling-and-prompts-to-teach-activities-of-daily-living-skills
#3
Catarina Aldi, Alexandra Crigler, Kelly Kates-McElrath, Brian Long, Hillary Smith, Kim Rehak, Lisa Wilkinson
Video modeling has been shown to be effective in teaching a number of skills to learners diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In this study, we taught two young men diagnosed with ASD three different activities of daily living skills (ADLS) using point-of-view video modeling. Results indicated that both participants met criterion for all ADLS. Participants did not maintain mastery criterion at a 1-month follow-up, but did score above baseline at maintenance with and without video modeling. • Point-of-view video models may be an effective intervention to teach daily living skills...
December 2016: Behavior Analysis in Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918836/evolvix-best-names-for-semantic-reproducibility-across-code2brain-interfaces
#4
Laurence Loewe, Katherine S Scheuer, Seth A Keel, Vaibhav Vyas, Ben Liblit, Bret Hanlon, Michael C Ferris, John Yin, Inês Dutra, Anthony Pietsch, Christine G Javid, Cecilia L Moog, Jocelyn Meyer, Jerdon Dresel, Brian McLoone, Sonya Loberger, Arezoo Movaghar, Morgaine Gilchrist-Scott, Yazeed Sabri, Dave Sescleifer, Ivan Pereda-Zorrilla, Andrew Zietlow, Rodrigo Smith, Samantha Pietenpol, Jacob Goldfinger, Sarah L Atzen, Erika Freiberg, Noah P Waters, Claire Nusbaum, Erik Nolan, Alyssa Hotz, Richard M Kliman, Ayalew Mentewab, Nathan Fregien, Martha Loewe
Names in programming are vital for understanding the meaning of code and big data. We define code2brain (C2B) interfaces as maps in compilers and brains between meaning and naming syntax, which help to understand executable code. While working toward an Evolvix syntax for general-purpose programming that makes accurate modeling easy for biologists, we observed how names affect C2B quality. To protect learning and coding investments, C2B interfaces require long-term backward compatibility and semantic reproducibility (accurate reproduction of computational meaning from coder-brains to reader-brains by code alone)...
December 5, 2016: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918229/prevalence-of-and-risk-factors-for-trachoma-in-southern-nations-nationalities-and-peoples-region-ethiopia-results-of-40-population-based-prevalence-surveys-carried-out-with-the-global-trachoma-mapping-project
#5
Tesfaye Haileselassie Adera, Colin Macleod, Misganu Endriyas, Michael Dejene, Rebecca Willis, Brian K Chu, Yohannes Letamo, Tebeje Misganaw, Tamiru Mesele, Emebet Mekonnen, Alemayehu Sisay, Yeneneh Mulugeta, Wondu Alemayehu, Khumbo Kalua, Tezera Kifle Destu, Yilikal Adamu, Jennifer L Smith, Abu Beyene, Addisu Tadesse, Anthony W Solomon
PURPOSE: We sought to estimate the prevalence of trachoma at sufficiently fine resolution to allow elimination interventions to begin, where required, in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. METHODS: We carried out cross-sectional population-based surveys in 14 rural zones. A 2-stage cluster randomized sampling technique was used. A total of 40 evaluation units (EUs) covering 110 districts ("woredas") were surveyed from February 2013 to May 2014 as part of the Global Trachoma Mapping Project (GTMP), using the standardized GTMP training package and methodology...
December 5, 2016: Ophthalmic Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915027/tonotopic-representation-of-loudness-in-the-human-cortex
#6
Andrew Thwaites, Josef Schlittenlacher, Ian Nimmo-Smith, William D Marslen-Wilson, Brian C J Moore
A prominent feature of the auditory system is that neurons show tuning to audio frequency; each neuron has a characteristic frequency (CF) to which it is most sensitive. Furthermore, there is an orderly mapping of CF to position, which is called tonotopic organization and which is observed at many levels of the auditory system. In a previous study (Thwaites et al., 2016) we examined cortical entrainment to two auditory transforms predicted by a model of loudness, instantaneous loudness and short-term loudness, using speech as the input signal...
November 30, 2016: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903679/the-bruton-s-tyrosine-kinase-btk-inhibitor-acalabrutinib-demonstrates-potent-on-target-effects-and-efficacy-in-two-mouse-models-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia
#7
Sarah E M Herman, Arnau Montraveta, Carsten U Niemann, Helena Mora-Jensen, Michael Gulrajani, Fanny Krantz, Rose Mantel, Lisa L Smith, Fabienne McClanahan, Bonnie Harrington, Dolors Colomer, Todd Covey, John C Byrd, Raquel Izumi, Allard Kaptein, Roger Ulrich, Amy Johnson, Brian J Lannutti, Adrian Wiestner, Jennifer A Woyach
PURPOSE: Acalabrutinib (ACP-196) is a novel, potent, and highly selective BTK inhibitor, which binds covalently to Cys481 in the ATP-binding pocket of BTK. We sought to evaluate the anti-tumor effects of acalabrutinib treatment in two established mouse models of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Two distinct mouse models were used, the TCL1 adoptive transfer model where leukemic cells from Eμ-TCL1 transgenic mice are transplanted into C57BL/6 mice, and the human NSG primary CLL xenograft model...
November 30, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903197/upfront-boost-gamma-knife-leading-edge-radiosurgery-to-flair-mri-defined-tumor-migration-pathways-in-174-patients-with-glioblastoma-multiforme-a-15-year-assessment-of-a-novel-therapy
#8
Christopher M Duma, Brian S Kim, Peter V Chen, Marianne E Plunkett, Ralph Mackintosh, Marlon S Mathews, Ryan M Casserly, Gustavo A Mendez, Daniel J Furman, Garrett Smith, Nathan Oh, Chad A Caraway, Ami R Sanathara, Robert O Dillman, Azzurra-Sky Riley, David Weiland, Lian Stemler, Ruslana Cannell, Daniela Alexandru Abrams, Alexa Smith, Christopher M Owen, Burton Eisenberg, Michael Brant-Zawadzki
OBJECTIVE Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is composed of cells that migrate through the brain along predictable white matter pathways. Targeting white matter pathways adjacent to, and leading away from, the original contrast-enhancing tumor site (termed leading-edge radiosurgery [LERS]) with single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery as a boost to standard therapy could limit the spread of glioma cells and improve clinical outcomes. METHODS Between December 2000 and May 2016, after an initial diagnosis of GBM and prior to or during standard radiation therapy and carmustine or temozolomide chemotherapy, 174 patients treated with radiosurgery to the leading edge (LE) of tumor cell migration were reviewed...
December 2016: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901075/membrane-core-specific-antimicrobial-action-of-cathelicidin-ll-37-peptide-switches-between-pore-and-nanofibre-formation
#9
Mahdi Shahmiri, Marta Enciso, Christopher G Adda, Brian J Smith, Matthew A Perugini, Adam Mechler
Membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides provide broad-spectrum defence against localized bacterial invasion in a range of hosts including humans. The most generally held consensus is that targeting to pathogens is based on interactions with the head groups of membrane lipids. Here we show that the action of LL-37, a human antimicrobial peptide switches the mode of action based on the structure of the alkyl chains, and not the head groups of the membrane forming lipids. We demonstrate that LL-37 exhibits two distinct interaction pathways: pore formation in bilayers of unsaturated phospholipids and membrane modulation with saturated phospholipids...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894259/genomic-signatures-of-mannheimia-haemolytica-that-associate-with-the-lungs-of-cattle-with-respiratory-disease-an-integrative-conjugative-element-and-antibiotic-resistance-genes
#10
Michael L Clawson, Robert W Murray, Michael T Sweeney, Michael D Apley, Keith D DeDonder, Sarah F Capik, Robert L Larson, Brian V Lubbers, Brad J White, Theodore S Kalbfleisch, Gennie Schuller, Aaron M Dickey, Gregory P Harhay, Michael P Heaton, Carol G Chitko-McKown, Dayna M Brichta-Harhay, James L Bono, Timothy P L Smith
BACKGROUND: Mannheimia haemolytica typically resides in cattle as a commensal member of the upper respiratory tract microbiome. However, some strains can invade their lungs and cause respiratory disease and death, including those with multi-drug resistance. A nucleotide polymorphism typing system was developed for M. haemolytica from the genome sequences of 1133 North American isolates, and used to identify genetic differences between isolates from the lungs and upper respiratory tract of cattle with and without clinical signs of respiratory disease...
November 29, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893897/imaging-of-glial-cell-activation-and-white-matter-integrity-in-brains-of-active-and-recently-retired-national-football-league-players
#11
Jennifer M Coughlin, Yuchuan Wang, Il Minn, Nicholas Bienko, Emily B Ambinder, Xin Xu, Matthew E Peters, John W Dougherty, Melin Vranesic, Soo Min Koo, Hye-Hyun Ahn, Merton Lee, Chris Cottrell, Haris I Sair, Akira Sawa, Cynthia A Munro, Christopher J Nowinski, Robert F Dannals, Constantine G Lyketsos, Michael Kassiou, Gwenn Smith, Brian Caffo, Susumu Mori, Tomas R Guilarte, Martin G Pomper
Importance: Microglia, the resident immune cells of the central nervous system, play an important role in the brain's response to injury and neurodegenerative processes. It has been proposed that prolonged microglial activation occurs after single and repeated traumatic brain injury, possibly through sports-related concussive and subconcussive injuries. Limited in vivo brain imaging studies months to years after individuals experience a single moderate to severe traumatic brain injury suggest widespread persistent microglial activation, but there has been little study of persistent glial cell activity in brains of athletes with sports-related traumatic brain injury...
November 28, 2016: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889953/ecology-under-lake-ice
#12
REVIEW
Stephanie E Hampton, Aaron W E Galloway, Stephen M Powers, Ted Ozersky, Kara H Woo, Ryan D Batt, Stephanie G Labou, Catherine M O'Reilly, Sapna Sharma, Noah R Lottig, Emily H Stanley, Rebecca L North, Jason D Stockwell, Rita Adrian, Gesa A Weyhenmeyer, Lauri Arvola, Helen M Baulch, Isabella Bertani, Larry L Bowman, Cayelan C Carey, Jordi Catalan, William Colom-Montero, Leah M Domine, Marisol Felip, Ignacio Granados, Corinna Gries, Hans-Peter Grossart, Juta Haberman, Marina Haldna, Brian Hayden, Scott N Higgins, Jeff C Jolley, Kimmo K Kahilainen, Enn Kaup, Michael J Kehoe, Sally MacIntyre, Anson W Mackay, Heather L Mariash, Robert M McKay, Brigitte Nixdorf, Peeter Nõges, Tiina Nõges, Michelle Palmer, Don C Pierson, David M Post, Matthew J Pruett, Milla Rautio, Jordan S Read, Sarah L Roberts, Jacqueline Rücker, Steven Sadro, Eugene A Silow, Derek E Smith, Robert W Sterner, George E A Swann, Maxim A Timofeyev, Manuel Toro, Michael R Twiss, Richard J Vogt, Susan B Watson, Erika J Whiteford, Marguerite A Xenopoulos
Winter conditions are rapidly changing in temperate ecosystems, particularly for those that experience periods of snow and ice cover. Relatively little is known of winter ecology in these systems, due to a historical research focus on summer 'growing seasons'. We executed the first global quantitative synthesis on under-ice lake ecology, including 36 abiotic and biotic variables from 42 research groups and 101 lakes, examining seasonal differences and connections as well as how seasonal differences vary with geophysical factors...
November 27, 2016: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884691/aapt-diagnostic-criteria-for-chronic-cancer-pain-conditions
#13
REVIEW
Judith A Paice, Matt Mulvey, Michael Bennett, Patrick M Dougherty, John T Farrar, Patrick W Mantyh, Christine Miaskowski, Brian Schmidt, Thomas J Smith
: Chronic cancer pain is a serious complication of malignancy or its treatment. Currently, no comprehensive, universally accepted cancer pain classification system exists. Clarity in classification of common cancer pain syndromes would improve clinical assessment and management. Moreover, an evidence-based taxonomy would enhance cancer pain research efforts by providing consistent diagnostic criteria, ensuring comparability across clinical trials. As part of a collaborative effort between the Analgesic, Anesthetic, and Addiction Clinical Trial Translations Innovations Opportunities and Networks (ACTTION) and the American Pain Society (APS), the ACTTION-APS Pain Taxonomy (AAPT) initiative worked to develop the characteristics of an optimal diagnostic system...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875310/extending-halogen-based-medicinal-chemistry-to-proteins-iodo-insulin-as-a-case-study
#14
Krystel El Hage, Vijay Pandyarajan, Nelson B Phillips, Brian J Smith, John G Menting, Jonathan Whittaker, Michael C Lawrence, Markus Meuwly, Michael A Weiss
Insulin, a protein critical for metabolic homeostasis, provides a classical model for protein design with application to human health. Recent efforts to improve its pharmaceutical formulation demonstrated that iodination of a conserved tyrosine (Tyr(B26)) enhances key properties of a rapid-acting clinical analog. Moreover, the broad utility of halogens in medicinal chemistry has motivated use of hybrid quantum- and molecular-mechanical methods to study proteins. Here, we (i) undertook quantitative atomic-level simulations of 3-I-Tyr(B26)-insulin to predict its structural features and (ii) tested these predictions by X-ray crystallography...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872105/multiethnic-exome-wide-association-study-of-subclinical-atherosclerosis
#15
Pradeep Natarajan, Joshua C Bis, Lawrence F Bielak, Amanda J Cox, Marcus Dörr, Mary F Feitosa, Nora Franceschini, Xiuqing Guo, Shih-Jen Hwang, Aaron Isaacs, Min A Jhun, Maryam Kavousi, Ruifang Li-Gao, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Riccardo E Marioni, Ulf Schminke, Nathan O Stitziel, Hayato Tada, Jessica van Setten, Albert V Smith, Dina Vojinovic, Lisa R Yanek, Jie Yao, Laura M Yerges-Armstrong, Najaf Amin, Usman Baber, Ingrid B Borecki, J Jeffrey Carr, Yii-Der Ida Chen, L Adrienne Cupples, Pim A de Jong, Harry de Koning, Bob D de Vos, Ayse Demirkan, Valentin Fuster, Oscar H Franco, Mark O Goodarzi, Tamara B Harris, Susan R Heckbert, Gerardo Heiss, Udo Hoffmann, Albert Hofman, Ivana Išgum, J Wouter Jukema, Mika Kähönen, Sharon L R Kardia, Brian G Kral, Lenore J Launer, Joseph Massaro, Roxana Mehran, Braxton D Mitchell, Thomas H Mosley, Renée de Mutsert, Anne B Newman, Khanh-Dung Nguyen, Kari E North, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Matthijs Oudkerk, James S Pankow, Gina M Peloso, Wendy Post, Michael A Province, Laura M Raffield, Olli T Raitakari, Dermot F Reilly, Fernando Rivadeneira, Frits Rosendaal, Samantha Sartori, Kent D Taylor, Alexander Teumer, Stella Trompet, Stephen T Turner, André G Uitterlinden, Dhananjay Vaidya, Aad van der Lugt, Uwe Völker, Joanna M Wardlaw, Christina L Wassel, Stefan Weiss, Mary K Wojczynski, Diane M Becker, Lewis C Becker, Eric Boerwinkle, Donald W Bowden, Ian J Deary, Abbas Dehghan, Stephan B Felix, Vilmundur Gudnason, Terho Lehtimäki, Rasika Mathias, Dennis O Mook-Kanamori, Bruce M Psaty, Daniel J Rader, Jerome I Rotter, James G Wilson, Cornelia M van Duijn, Henry Völzke, Sekar Kathiresan, Patricia A Peyser, Christopher J O'Donnell
BACKGROUND: -The burden of subclinical atherosclerosis in asymptomatic individuals is heritable and associated with elevated risk of developing clinical coronary heart disease (CHD). We sought to identify genetic variants in protein-coding regions associated with subclinical atherosclerosis and the risk of subsequent CHD. METHODS AND RESULTS: -We studied a total of 25,109 European ancestry and African-American participants with coronary artery calcification (CAC) measured by cardiac computed tomography and 52,869 with common carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) measured by ultrasonography within the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium...
November 21, 2016: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864922/estimates-of-local-biodiversity-change-over-time-stand-up-to-scrutiny
#16
Mark Vellend, Maria Dornelas, Lander Baeten, Robin Beauséjour, Carissa D Brown, Pieter De Frenne, Sarah C Elmendorf, Nicholas J Gotelli, Faye Moyes, Isla H Myers-Smith, Anne E Magurran, Brian J McGill, Hideyasu Shimadzu, Caya Sievers
We present new data and analyses revealing fundamental flaws in a critique of two recent meta-analyses of local-scale temporal biodiversity change. First, the conclusion that short-term time series lead to biased estimates of long-term change was based on two errors in the simulations used to support it. Second, the conclusion of negative relationships between temporal biodiversity change and study duration was entirely dependent on unrealistic model assumptions, the use of a subset of data, and inclusion of one outlier data point in one study...
November 19, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861810/the-effects-of-mother-participation-in-relationship-education-on-coparenting-parenting-and-child-social-competence-modeling-spillover-effects-for-low-income-minority-preschool-children
#17
Francesca Adler-Baeder, Chelsea Garneau, Brian Vaughn, Julianne McGill, Kate Taylor Harcourt, Scott Ketring, Thomas Smith
Although suggestions are that benefits of relationship and marriage education (RME) participation extend from the interparental relationship with parenting and child outcomes, few evaluation studies of RME test these assumptions and the relationship among changes in these areas. This quasi-experimental study focuses on a parallel process growth model that tests a spillover hypothesis of program effects and finds, in a sample of low-income minority mothers with a child attending a Head Start program, that increases in mother reports of coparenting agreement for RME participants predict decreases in their reports of punitive parenting behaviors...
November 14, 2016: Family Process
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850475/837-comparative-effectiveness-of-enoxaparin-vs-dalteparin-for-thromboprophylaxis-after-traumatic-injury
#18
Todd Miano, Niels Martin, Adam Cuker, Brian Smith, Jason Christie, Wensheng Guo, Sean Hennessy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843335/incidence-of-clinical-symptoms-during-long-duration-orbital-spaceflight
#19
Brian Crucian, Adriana Babiak-Vazquez, Smith Johnston, Duane L Pierson, C Mark Ott, Clarence Sams
BACKGROUND: The environment of spaceflight may elevate an astronaut's clinical risk for specific diseases. The purpose of this study was to derive, as accurately as currently possible, an assessment of in-flight clinical "incidence" data, based on observed clinical symptoms in astronauts on board the International Space Station (ISS). METHODS: Electronic medical records were examined from 46 long-duration ISS crew members, each serving approximately a 6-month mission on board the ISS, constituting 20...
2016: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832156/bioppsy-an-open-source-platform-for-qsar-qspr-analysis
#20
Marta Enciso, Nastaran Meftahi, Michael L Walker, Brian J Smith
The reliability of quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) and quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models is often difficult to assess due to the problems of accessing the tools and data used to build the models. We present here BioPPSy, which aims to fill this gap by providing an easy-to-use open-source software platform. We demonstrate the program capabilities by calculating three key properties used in drug discovery, aqueous solubility, Caco-2 cell permeability and blood-brain barrier permeability...
2016: PloS One
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