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Brian smith

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445246/single-delivery-of-high-diversity-fecal-microbiota-preparation-by-colonoscopy-is-safe-and-effective-in-increasing-microbial-diversity-in-active-ulcerative-colitis
#1
Vinita Jacob, Carl Crawford, Shirley Cohen-Mekelburg, Monica Viladomiu, Gregory G Putzel, Yecheskel Schneider, Fatiha Chabouni, Sarah OʼNeil, Brian Bosworth, Viola Woo, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Ylaine Gerardin, Zain Kassam, Mark Smith, Iliyan D Iliev, Gregory F Sonnenberg, David Artis, Ellen Scherl, Randy S Longman
BACKGROUND: Recent trials suggest fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) with repeated enemas and high-diversity FMT donors is a promising treatment to induce remission in ulcerative colitis. METHODS: We designed a prospective, open-label pilot study to assess the safety, clinical efficacy, and microbial engraftment of single FMT delivery by colonoscopy for active ulcerative colitis using a 2-donor fecal microbiota preparation (FMP). Safety and clinical endpoints of response, remission, and mucosal healing at week 4 were assessed...
April 25, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444697/population-pharmacokinetics-of-dexmedetomidine-in-infants
#2
Rachel G Greenberg, Huali Wu, Matthew Laughon, Edmund Capparelli, Stevie Rowe, Kanecia O Zimmerman, P Brian Smith, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez
Despite limited pharmacokinetic (PK) data, dexmedetomidine is increasingly being used off-label for sedation in infants. We aimed to characterize the developmental PK changes of dexmedetomidine during infancy. In this open-label, single-center PK study of dexmedetomidine in infants receiving dexmedetomidine per clinical care, ≤10 blood samples per infant were collected. A set of structural PK models and residual error models were explored using nonlinear mixed-effects modeling in NONMEM. Covariates including postmenstrual age (PMA), serum creatinine, and recent history of cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass were investigated for their influence on PK parameters...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442582/lx2761-a-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-1-inhibitor-restricted-to-the-intestine-improves-glycemic-control-in-mice
#3
David R Powell, Melinda G Smith, Deon D Doree, Angela L Harris, Jennifer Greer, Christopher M DaCosta, Andrea Thompson, Sabrina Jeter-Jones, Wendy Xiong, Kenneth G Carson, Nicole C Goodwin, Bryce A Harrison, David B Rawlins, Eric D Strobel, Suma Gopinathan, Alan Wilson, Faika Mseeh, Brian Zambrowicz, Zhi-Ming Ding
LX2761 is a potent sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 inhibitor restricted to the intestinal lumen after oral administration. Studies presented here evaluated the effect of orally administered LX2761 on glycemic control in preclinical models. In healthy mice and rats treated with LX2761, blood glucose excursions were lower and plasma total glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels higher after an oral glucose challenge; these decreased glucose excursions persisted even when the glucose challenge occurred 15 hours after LX2761 dosing in ad-lib-fed mice...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440105/effect-of-doxazosin-on-stress-reactivity-and-the-ability-to-resist-smoking
#4
Terril L Verplaetse, Andrea H Weinberger, Lindsay M Oberleitner, Kathryn Mz Smith, Brian P Pittman, Julia M Shi, Jeanette M Tetrault, Meaghan E Lavery, Marina R Picciotto, Sherry A McKee
Preclinical findings support a role for α1-adrenergic antagonists in reducing nicotine-motivated behaviors, but these findings have yet to be translated to humans. The current study evaluated whether doxazosin would attenuate stress-precipitated smoking in the human laboratory. Using a well-validated laboratory analogue of smoking-lapse behavior, this pilot study evaluated whether doxazosin (4 and 8 mg/day) versus placebo attenuated the effect of stress (vs neutral imagery) on tobacco craving, the ability to resist smoking and subsequent ad-libitum smoking in nicotine-deprived smokers ( n=35)...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437190/consuming-a-ketogenic-diet-while-receiving-radiation-and-chemotherapy-for-locally-advanced-lung-cancer-and-pancreatic-cancer-the-university-of-iowa-experience-of-two-phase-1-clinical-trials
#5
Amir Zahra, Melissa A Fath, Emyleigh Opat, Kranti A Mapuskar, Sudershan K Bhatia, Daniel C Ma, Samuel N Rodman Iii, Travis P Snyders, Catherine A Chenard, Julie M Eichenberger-Gilmore, Kellie L Bodeker, Logan Ahmann, Brian J Smith, Sandy A Vollstedt, Heather A Brown, Taher Abu Hejleh, Gerald H Clamon, Daniel J Berg, Luke I Szweda, Douglas R Spitz, John M Buatti, Bryan G Allen
Ketogenic diets are low in carbohydrates and high in fat, which forces cells to rely more heavily upon mitochondrial oxidation of fatty acids for energy. Relative to normal cells, cancer cells are believed to exist under a condition of chronic mitochondrial oxidative stress that is compensated for by increases in glucose metabolism to generate reducing equivalents. In this study we tested the hypothesis that a ketogenic diet concurrent with radiation and chemotherapy would be clinically tolerable in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and pancreatic cancer and could potentially exploit cancer cell oxidative metabolism to improve therapeutic outcomes...
April 24, 2017: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434881/muramyl-dipeptide-based-postbiotics-mitigate-obesity-induced-insulin-resistance-via-irf4
#6
Joseph F Cavallari, Morgan D Fullerton, Brittany M Duggan, Kevin P Foley, Emmanuel Denou, Brennan K Smith, Eric M Desjardins, Brandyn D Henriksbo, Kalvin J Kim, Brian R Tuinema, Jennifer C Stearns, David Prescott, Philip Rosenstiel, Brian K Coombes, Gregory R Steinberg, Jonathan D Schertzer
Intestinal dysbiosis contributes to obesity and insulin resistance, but intervening with antibiotics, prebiotics, or probiotics can be limited by specificity or sustained changes in microbial composition. Postbiotics include bacterial components such as lipopolysaccharides, which have been shown to promote insulin resistance during metabolic endotoxemia. We found that bacterial cell wall-derived muramyl dipeptide (MDP) is an insulin-sensitizing postbiotic that requires NOD2. Injecting MDP lowered adipose inflammation and reduced glucose intolerance in obese mice without causing weight loss or altering the composition of the microbiome...
April 6, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433453/attending-documentation-contribution-to-billing-at-an-academic-emergency-department-with-an-electronic-health-record
#7
Brian J Yun, Stephen C Dorner, Brian M Baccari, John Brennan, Karen Smith, Ali S Raja, Benjamin A White
INTRODUCTION: In emergency medicine (EM), patient care documentation serves many functions, including supporting reimbursement. In addition, many electronic health record systems facilitate automatically populating certain data fields. As a result, in the academic model, the attending's note may now more often recapitulate many of the same elements found in the resident's or physician assistant's (PA) note. We sought to determine the value of additional attending documentation, and how often the attending documentation prevented a downcoding event...
April 14, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430825/discovery-and-fine-mapping-of-adiposity-loci-using-high-density-imputation-of-genome-wide-association-studies-in-individuals-of-african-ancestry-african-ancestry-anthropometry-genetics-consortium
#8
Maggie C Y Ng, Mariaelisa Graff, Yingchang Lu, Anne E Justice, Poorva Mudgal, Ching-Ti Liu, Kristin Young, Lisa R Yanek, Mary F Feitosa, Mary K Wojczynski, Kristin Rand, Jennifer A Brody, Brian E Cade, Latchezar Dimitrov, Qing Duan, Xiuqing Guo, Leslie A Lange, Michael A Nalls, Hayrettin Okut, Salman M Tajuddin, Bamidele O Tayo, Sailaja Vedantam, Jonathan P Bradfield, Guanjie Chen, Wei-Min Chen, Alessandra Chesi, Marguerite R Irvin, Badri Padhukasahasram, Jennifer A Smith, Wei Zheng, Matthew A Allison, Christine B Ambrosone, Elisa V Bandera, Traci M Bartz, Sonja I Berndt, Leslie Bernstein, William J Blot, Erwin P Bottinger, John Carpten, Stephen J Chanock, Yii-Der Ida Chen, David V Conti, Richard S Cooper, Myriam Fornage, Barry I Freedman, Melissa Garcia, Phyllis J Goodman, Yu-Han H Hsu, Jennifer Hu, Chad D Huff, Sue A Ingles, Esther M John, Rick Kittles, Eric Klein, Jin Li, Barbara McKnight, Uma Nayak, Barbara Nemesure, Adesola Ogunniyi, Andrew Olshan, Michael F Press, Rebecca Rohde, Benjamin A Rybicki, Babatunde Salako, Maureen Sanderson, Yaming Shao, David S Siscovick, Janet L Stanford, Victoria L Stevens, Alex Stram, Sara S Strom, Dhananjay Vaidya, John S Witte, Jie Yao, Xiaofeng Zhu, Regina G Ziegler, Alan B Zonderman, Adebowale Adeyemo, Stefan Ambs, Mary Cushman, Jessica D Faul, Hakon Hakonarson, Albert M Levin, Katherine L Nathanson, Erin B Ware, David R Weir, Wei Zhao, Degui Zhi, Donna K Arnett, Struan F A Grant, Sharon L R Kardia, Olufunmilayo I Oloapde, D C Rao, Charles N Rotimi, Michele M Sale, L Keoki Williams, Babette S Zemel, Diane M Becker, Ingrid B Borecki, Michele K Evans, Tamara B Harris, Joel N Hirschhorn, Yun Li, Sanjay R Patel, Bruce M Psaty, Jerome I Rotter, James G Wilson, Donald W Bowden, L Adrienne Cupples, Christopher A Haiman, Ruth J F Loos, Kari E North
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified >300 loci associated with measures of adiposity including body mass index (BMI) and waist-to-hip ratio (adjusted for BMI, WHRadjBMI), but few have been identified through screening of the African ancestry genomes. We performed large scale meta-analyses and replications in up to 52,895 individuals for BMI and up to 23,095 individuals for WHRadjBMI from the African Ancestry Anthropometry Genetics Consortium (AAAGC) using 1000 Genomes phase 1 imputed GWAS to improve coverage of both common and low frequency variants in the low linkage disequilibrium African ancestry genomes...
April 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426939/high-throughput-agonist-shift-assay-development-for-the-analysis-of-m1-positive-allosteric-modulators
#9
Michelle F Homsher, Douglas C Beshore, Jason Cassaday, Brian Squadroni, Elizabeth Mohammed, Michelle Hartnett, Stephen Day, Lei Ma, David Pechter, Michelle D Smith, Fredrick Monsma, Paul Zuck, Michael F Finley, Victor N Uebele, Jeffrey D Hermes
Agonist shift assays feature cross-titrations of allosteric modulators and orthosteric ligands. Information generated in agonist shift assays can include a modulator's effect on the orthosteric agonist's potency (alpha) and efficacy (beta), as well as direct agonist activity of the allosteric ligand (tauB) and the intrinsic binding affinity of the modulator to the unoccupied receptor (KB). Because of the heavy resource demand and complex data handling, these allosteric parameters are determined infrequently during the course of a drug discovery program and on a relatively small subset of compounds...
April 1, 2017: SLAS Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422753/steroid-metabolome-analysis-reveals-prevalent-glucocorticoid-excess-in-primary-aldosteronism
#10
Wiebke Arlt, Katharina Lang, Alice J Sitch, Anna S Dietz, Yara Rhayem, Irina Bancos, Annette Feuchtinger, Vasileios Chortis, Lorna C Gilligan, Philippe Ludwig, Anna Riester, Evelyn Asbach, Beverly A Hughes, Donna M O'Neil, Martin Bidlingmaier, Jeremy W Tomlinson, Zaki K Hassan-Smith, D Aled Rees, Christian Adolf, Stefanie Hahner, Marcus Quinkler, Tanja Dekkers, Jaap Deinum, Michael Biehl, Brian G Keevil, Cedric H L Shackleton, Jonathan J Deeks, Axel K Walch, Felix Beuschlein, Martin Reincke
BACKGROUND: Adrenal aldosterone excess is the most common cause of secondary hypertension and is associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. However, adverse metabolic risk in primary aldosteronism extends beyond hypertension, with increased rates of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, and osteoporosis, which cannot be easily explained by aldosterone excess. METHODS: We performed mass spectrometry-based analysis of a 24-hour urine steroid metabolome in 174 newly diagnosed patients with primary aldosteronism (103 unilateral adenomas, 71 bilateral adrenal hyperplasias) in comparison to 162 healthy controls, 56 patients with endocrine inactive adrenal adenoma, 104 patients with mild subclinical, and 47 with clinically overt adrenal cortisol excess...
April 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418761/economic-evaluation-of-a-hospital-based-palliative-care-program
#11
Sarina R Isenberg, Chunhua Lu, John McQuade, Rab Razzak, Brian W Weir, Natasha Gill, Thomas J Smith, David R Holtgrave
PURPOSE: Establish costs of an inpatient palliative care unit (PCU) and conduct a threshold analysis to estimate the maximum possible costs for the PCU to be considered cost effective. METHODS: We used a hospital perspective to determine costs on the basis of claims from administrative data from Johns Hopkins PCU between March 2013 and March 2014. Using existing literature, we estimated the number of quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) that the PCU could generate...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416662/adapt-to-more-wildfire-in-western-north-american-forests-as-climate-changes
#12
Tania Schoennagel, Jennifer K Balch, Hannah Brenkert-Smith, Philip E Dennison, Brian J Harvey, Meg A Krawchuk, Nathan Mietkiewicz, Penelope Morgan, Max A Moritz, Ray Rasker, Monica G Turner, Cathy Whitlock
Wildfires across western North America have increased in number and size over the past three decades, and this trend will continue in response to further warming. As a consequence, the wildland-urban interface is projected to experience substantially higher risk of climate-driven fires in the coming decades. Although many plants, animals, and ecosystem services benefit from fire, it is unknown how ecosystems will respond to increased burning and warming. Policy and management have focused primarily on specified resilience approaches aimed at resistance to wildfire and restoration of areas burned by wildfire through fire suppression and fuels management...
April 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415782/glutaminase-inhibitor-cb-839-synergizes-with-carfilzomib-in-resistant-multiple-myeloma-cells
#13
Ravyn M Thompson, Dominik Dytfeld, Leticia Reyes, Reeder M Robinson, Brittany Smith, Yefim Manevich, Andrzej Jakubowiak, Mieczyslaw Komarnicki, Anna Przybylowicz-Chalecka, Tomasz Szczepaniak, Amit K Mitra, Brian G Van Ness, Magdalena Luczak, Nathan G Dolloff
Curative responses in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) are limited by the emergence of therapeutic resistance. To address this problem, we set out to identify druggable mechanisms that convey resistance to proteasome inhibitors (PIs; e.g., bortezomib), which are cornerstone agents in the treatment of MM. In isogenic pairs of PI sensitive and resistant cells, we observed stark differences in cellular bioenergetics between the divergent phenotypes. PI resistant cells exhibited increased mitochondrial respiration driven by glutamine as the principle fuel source...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410277/use-of-population-pharmacokinetics-and-electronic-health-records-to-assess-piperacillin-tazobactam-safety-in-infants
#14
Sara Salerno, Christoph P Hornik, Michael Cohen-Wolkowiez, P Brian Smith, Lawrence C Ku, Matthew S Kelly, Reese Clark, Daniel Gonzalez
BACKGROUND: Piperacillin, in combination with tazobactam, is frequently used in infants for treating nosocomial infections, although safety data in this population are limited. Electronic health record (EHR) data can be used to evaluate drug safety in infants, but measures of drug exposure are lacking. METHODS: To relate simulated piperacillin exposure with adverse events (AEs) in infants using EHR data, we identified infants discharged from 333 neonatal intensive care units managed by the Pediatrix Medical Group between 1997 and 2012...
April 13, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406905/a-latitudinal-phylogeographic-diversity-gradient-in-birds
#15
Brian Tilston Smith, Glenn F Seeholzer, Michael G Harvey, Andrés M Cuervo, Robb T Brumfield
High tropical species diversity is often attributed to evolutionary dynamics over long timescales. It is possible, however, that latitudinal variation in diversification begins when divergence occurs within species. Phylogeographic data capture this initial stage of diversification in which populations become geographically isolated and begin to differentiate genetically. There is limited understanding of the broader implications of intraspecific diversification because comparative analyses have focused on species inhabiting and evolving in restricted regions and environments...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404779/open-data-and-digital-morphology
#16
REVIEW
Thomas G Davies, Imran A Rahman, Stephan Lautenschlager, John A Cunningham, Robert J Asher, Paul M Barrett, Karl T Bates, Stefan Bengtson, Roger B J Benson, Doug M Boyer, José Braga, Jen A Bright, Leon P A M Claessens, Philip G Cox, Xi-Ping Dong, Alistair R Evans, Peter L Falkingham, Matt Friedman, Russell J Garwood, Anjali Goswami, John R Hutchinson, Nathan S Jeffery, Zerina Johanson, Renaud Lebrun, Carlos Martínez-Pérez, Jesús Marugán-Lobón, Paul M O'Higgins, Brian Metscher, Maëva Orliac, Timothy B Rowe, Martin Rücklin, Marcelo R Sánchez-Villagra, Neil H Shubin, Selena Y Smith, J Matthias Starck, Chris Stringer, Adam P Summers, Mark D Sutton, Stig A Walsh, Vera Weisbecker, Lawrence M Witmer, Stephen Wroe, Zongjun Yin, Emily J Rayfield, Philip C J Donoghue
Over the past two decades, the development of methods for visualizing and analysing specimens digitally, in three and even four dimensions, has transformed the study of living and fossil organisms. However, the initial promise that the widespread application of such methods would facilitate access to the underlying digital data has not been fully achieved. The underlying datasets for many published studies are not readily or freely available, introducing a barrier to verification and reproducibility, and the reuse of data...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402559/occipital-nerve-stimulation-attenuates-neuronal-firing-response-to-mechanical-stimuli-in-the-ventral-posteromedial-thalamus-of-a-rodent-model-of-chronic-migraine
#17
Ian Walling, Heather Smith, Lucy E Gee, Brian Kaszuba, Arun Chockalingam, Andrei Barborica, Cristian Donos, Damian S Shin, Julie G Pilitsis
BACKGROUND: Chronic migraine (CM) is a highly debilitating disease, and many patients remain refractory to medicinal therapy. Given the convergent nature of neuronal networks in the ventral posteromedial nucleus (VPM) and the evidence of sensitization of pain circuitry in this disease, we hypothesize CM rats will have increased VPM neuronal firing, which can be attenuated using occipital nerve stimulation (ONS). OBJECTIVE: To determine whether VPM firing frequency differs between CM and sham rats, and whether ONS significantly alters firing rates during the application of mechanical stimuli...
April 10, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402389/impacts-of-the-psyllid-arytinnis-hakani-homoptera-psyllidae-on-invasive-french-broom-in-relation-to-plant-size-and-psyllid-density
#18
Brian N Hogg, Patrick J Moran, Lincoln Smith
The impacts of weed biological control agents may vary with plant ontogeny. As plants grow, structural and chemical changes can alter plant resistance, which may reduce herbivory via chemical or structural defenses, and plant tolerance, which may enable plants to maintain fitness despite attack. Resistance and tolerance generally increase as plants grow. Nonetheless, prerelease tests of agent efficacy often overlook plant ontogeny. Here, we assess the performance and impacts of a candidate biocontrol agent, the psyllid Arytinnis hakani (Loginova), in relation to the age of its host plant, the invasive shrub French broom, Genista monspessulana...
April 10, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400118/pre-clinical-therapeutic-development-of-a-series-of-metalloporphyrins-for-parkinson-s-disease
#19
Li-Ping Liang, Jie Huang, Ruth Fulton, Jennifer N Pearson-Smith, Brian J Day, Manisha Patel
Reactive oxygen species are a well-defined therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease (PD) and pharmacological agents that catalytically scavenge reactive species are promising neuroprotective strategies for treatment. Metalloporphyrins are synthetic catalytic antioxidants that mimic the body's own antioxidant enzymes i.e. superoxide dismutases and catalase. The goal of this study was to determine if newly designed metalloporphyrins have enhanced pharmacodynamics including oral bioavailability, longer plasma elimination half-lives, penetrate the blood brain barrier, and show promise for PD treatment...
April 8, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398425/primary-cutaneous-cryptococcosis-presenting-as-an-extensive-eroded-plaque
#20
Franki Lambert Smith, Mary Gail Mercurio, Brian Poligone
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
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