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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219985/activity-induced-synaptic-structural-modifications-by-an-activator-of-integrin-signaling-at-the-drosophila-neuromuscular-junction
#1
Joo Yeun Lee, Junhua Geng, Juhyun Lee, Andrew R Wang, Karen T Chang
Activity-induced synaptic structural modification is crucial for neural development and synaptic plasticity, but the molecular players involved in this process are not well defined. Here, we report that a protein named Shriveled, Shv, regulates synaptic growth and activity-dependent synaptic remodeling at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. Depletion of Shv causes synaptic overgrowth and an accumulation of immature boutons. We find that Shv physically and genetically interacts with βPS integrin. Furthermore, Shv is secreted during intense, but not mild, neuronal activity to acutely activate integrin signaling, induce synaptic bouton enlargement, and increase postsynaptic glutamate receptor abundance...
February 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213459/acting-on-an-impulse-or-two-advantages-of-high-frequency-tetanic-onset-in-skeletal-muscle
#2
Richard L Moss, Thomas L Lynch, Daniel P Fitzsimons
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212985/nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drugs-in-clinical-and-experimental-epilepsy
#3
REVIEW
Beatrice Mihaela Radu, Florin Bogdan Epureanu, Mihai Radu, Paolo Francesco Fabene, Giuseppe Bertini
Current antiepileptic drugs have limited efficacy and provide little or no benefits in 30% of the patients. Given that a role for brain inflammation in epilepsy has been repeatedly reported in recent years, the potential of anti-inflammatory drugs should be explored in depth, as they may provide new therapeutical approaches in preventing or reducing epileptogenesis. Here, we review preclinical (both in vivo and in vitro) and clinical epilepsy studies in which nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), i...
February 9, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209802/doublet-stimulation-increases-ca-2-binding-to-troponin-c-to-ensure-rapid-force-development-in-skeletal-muscle
#4
Anthony J Bakker, Tanya R Cully, Catherine D Wingate, Christopher J Barclay, Bradley S Launikonis
Fast-twitch skeletal muscle fibers are often exposed to motor neuron double discharges (≥200 Hz), which markedly increase both the rate of contraction and the magnitude of the resulting force responses. However, the mechanism responsible for these effects is poorly understood, likely because of technical limitations in previous studies. In this study, we measured cytosolic Ca(2+) during doublet activation using the low-affinity indicator Mag-Fluo-4 at high temporal resolution and modeled the effects of doublet stimulation on sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) release, binding of Ca(2+) to cytosolic buffers, and force enhancement in fast-twitch fibers...
February 16, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183581/chemotherapy-alters-cisatracurium-induced-neuromuscular-blockade-characteristics-a-prospective-cohort-study
#5
Amir Poya Zanjani, Maziar Maghsoudloo, Jalil Makarem, Fahimeh Farokhnia, Morteza Fazli, Zahid Hussain Khan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the characteristics of NMDR induced muscle paralysis in breast cancer patients with and without a history of recent chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil (CAF) regimen. DESIGN: This is a non-randomized prospective cohort study. SETTING: Operating room of a university-affiliated teaching hospital. PATIENTS: Out of a total of 50 patients who had undergone mastectomy, 22 patients were allocated to the "Chemo group" and 28 patients to the "Non-Chemo group", based on a valid history of recent chemotherapy...
February 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152385/propofol-fentanyl-interaction-in-beagles-apnea-response-to-mechanical-ventilation-endotracheal-tube-and-tetanic-stimulation
#6
T Iizuka, K Masui, T Miyabe-Nishiwaki, H Kanazawa, R Nishimura
The objective of this study was to characterize the propofol-fentanyl interaction in Beagles for four pharmacodynamic endpoints: apnea, response to mechanical ventilation, endotracheal tube, and tetanic stimulation. After anesthesia was induced with varying combinations of propofol and fentanyl, the pharmacodynamic endpoints were assessed in intubated dogs (n=6) using the cross-over design. Effective concentrations of propofol plasma concentration (Cp) and fentanyl Cp were assessed using additive, reduced Greco, Minto, and hierarchical interaction models...
January 23, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152009/superoxide-dismutase-catalase-mimetic-euk-134-prevents-diaphragm-muscle-weakness-in-monocrotalin-induced-pulmonary-hypertension
#7
Koichi Himori, Masami Abe, Daisuke Tatebayashi, Jaesik Lee, Håkan Westerblad, Johanna T Lanner, Takashi Yamada
Patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) suffer from inspiratory insufficiency, which has been associated with intrinsic contractile dysfunction in diaphragm muscle. Here, we examined the role of redox stress in PH-induced diaphragm weakness by using the novel antioxidant, EUK-134. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control (CNT), CNT + EUK-134 (CNT + EUK), monocrotaline-induced PH (PH), and PH + EUK groups. PH was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg body weight)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140341/estimating-the-minimum-stimulation-frequency-necessary-to-evoke-tetanic-progression-based-on-muscle-twitch-parameters
#8
Shogo Watanabe, Shinichi Fukuhara, Takeshi Fujinaga, Hisao Oka
The summation of the muscle force caused by an increase in the firing rate is named a tetanic contraction (tetanus), and the minimum stimulation frequency necessary to evoke an unfused/fused tetanus is related to the contraction time (CT) and relaxation time (RT) of the twitch. In particular, the fusion index (FI) is a very useful indicator, and it is used to evaluate the change in the muscle fiber component ratio. However, the measurement of the FI is invasive, because most patients experience pain during the electrical stimulation for tetanus...
January 31, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125972/gitelman-syndrome-in-a-south-african-family-presenting-with-hypokalaemia-and-unusual-food-cravings
#9
Pieter Du Toit van der Merwe, Megan A Rensburg, William L Haylett, Soraya Bardien, M Razeen Davids
BACKGROUND: Gitelman syndrome (GS) is an autosomal recessive renal tubular disorder characterised by renal salt wasting with hypokalaemia, metabolic alkalosis, hypomagnesaemia and hypocalciuria. It is caused by mutations in SLC12A3 encoding the sodium-chloride cotransporter on the apical membrane of the distal convoluted tubule. We report a South African family with five affected individuals presenting with hypokalaemia and unusual food cravings. METHODS: The affected individuals and two unaffected first degree relatives were enrolled into the study...
January 26, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118494/strain-dependent-effects-of-acute-alcohol-on-synaptic-vesicle-recycling-and-post-tetanic-potentiation-in-medial-glutamate-inputs-to-the-mouse-basolateral-amygdala
#10
Dominic A Gioia, Brian A McCool
BACKGROUND: Inbred mouse strains are differentially sensitive to the acute effects of ethanol and are useful tools for examining how unique genomes differentially affect alcohol-related behaviors and physiology. DBA/2J mice have been shown to be sensitive to the acute anxiolytic effects of alcohol as well as the anxiogenic effects of withdrawal from chronic alcohol exposure, while B6 mice are resistant to both. Considering that the basolateral amygdala is an important brain region for the acute and chronic effects of ethanol on fear and anxiety related behaviors, we hypothesized that there would be strain-dependent differences in the acute effects of ethanol in BLA slices...
January 24, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110136/impaired-muscle-force-production-and-higher-fatigability-in-a-mouse-model-of-sickle-cell-disease
#11
Benjamin Chatel, Christophe Hourdé, Julien Gondin, Alexandre Fouré, Yann Le Fur, Christophe Vilmen, Monique Bernard, Laurent A Messonnier, David Bendahan
Skeletal muscle function has been scarcely investigated in sickle cell disease (SCD) so that the corresponding impact of sickle hemoglobin is still a matter of debate. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscle force production and fatigability in SCD and to identify whether exercise intensity could have a modulatory effect. Ten homozygous sickle cell (HbSS), ten control (HbAA) and ten heterozygous (HbAS) mice were submitted to two stimulation protocols (moderate and intense) to assess force production and fatigability...
January 11, 2017: Blood Cells, Molecules & Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107273/influence-of-depth-of-hypnosis-on-pupillary-reactivity-to-a-standardized-tetanic-stimulus-in-patients-under-propofol-remifentanil-target-controlled-infusion-a-crossover-randomized-pilot-study
#12
Nada Sabourdin, Jean-Baptiste Peretout, Eliane Khalil, Marie-Laurence Guye, Nicolas Louvet, Isabelle Constant
BACKGROUND: Pupillometry allows the measurement of pupillary diameter variations in response to nociceptive stimuli. This technique has been used to monitor the balance between analgesia and nociception. Under general anesthesia, the amplitude of pupillary dilation is related to the amount of administered opioids. The objective of this study was to determine whether at a constant infusion rate of opioids, the pupillary response was influenced by depth of hypnosis assessed by the bispectral index (BIS)...
January 19, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087340/electrophysiological-alterations-in-diaphragm-muscle-caused-by-abdominal-ischemia-reperfusion
#13
Seckin Tuncer, Nizamettin Dalkilic, Ilksen Burat
Ischemia-reperfusion injury is the major complication of abdominal aortic surgery, and it mainly affects the lower extremities and remote organs. In the present study, the electrophysiological alterations in diaphragm that underlie the post-operative respiratory dysfunction were investigated. Wistar Albino rats were randomly divided into two groups: SHAM (only laparotomy was performed) and IR (abdominal aorta was clamped for 30min and reperfused for 2h). Following the operational period diaphragm muscles were isolated and electrophysiological experiments were carried out in-vitro...
January 10, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057817/contractile-efficiency-of-dystrophic-mdx-mouse-muscle-in-vivo-and-ex-vivo-assessment-of-adaptation-to-exercise-of-functional-end-points
#14
Roberta Francesca Capogrosso, Paola Mantuano, Anna Cozzoli, Francesca Sanarica, Ada Maria Massari, Elena Conte, Adriano Fonzino, Arcangela Giustino, Jean-Francois Rolland, Angelo Quaranta, Michela De Bellis, Giulia Maria Camerino, Robert W Grange, Annamaria De Luca
Progressive weakness is a typical feature of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) patients and is exacerbated in the benign mdx mouse model by in vivo treadmill exercise. We hypothesized a different threshold for functional adaptation of mdx muscles in response to the duration of the exercise protocol. In vivo weakness was confirmed by grip strength after 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exercise in mdx mice. Torque measurements revealed that exercise-related weakness in mdx mice correlated with the duration of the protocol, while wild-type (wt) mice were stronger...
January 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018233/carbonic-anhydrase-iii-is-expressed-in-mouse-skeletal-muscles-independent-of-fiber-type-specific-myofilament-protein-isoforms-and-plays-a-role-in-fatigue-resistance
#15
Han-Zhong Feng, J-P Jin
Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is a metabolic enzyme and a regulator for intracellular pH. CAIII has been reported with high level expression in slow twitch skeletal muscles. Here we demonstrate that CAIII is expressed in multiple slow and fast twitch muscles of adult mouse independent of the expression of myosin isoforms. Expressing similar fast type of myofilament proteins, CAIII-positive tibial anterior (TA) muscle exhibits higher tolerance to fatigue than that of CAIII-negative fast twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in in situ contractility studies...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000044/dysregulation-between-trim63-fbxo32-expression-and-soleus-muscle-wasting-in-diabetic-rats-potential-role-of-mir-1-3p-29a-b-3p-and-133a-b-3p
#16
Frederico Gerlinger-Romero, Caio Yogi Yonamine, Danilo Correa Pinto Junior, João Victor DelConti Esteves, Ubiratan Fabres Machado
Diabetes mellitus (DM) induces a variable degree of muscle sarcopenia, which may be related to protein degradation and to the expression of both E3 ubiquitin ligases and some specific microRNAs (miRNAs). The present study investigated the effect of diabetes and acute muscle contraction upon the TRIM63 and FBXO32 expression as well as the potential involvement of some miRNAs. Diabetes was induced by streptozotocin and studied after 30 days. Soleus muscles were harvested, stimulated to contract in vitro for twitch tension analysis (0...
March 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27979982/role-of-calpain-in-eccentric-contraction-induced-proteolysis-of-ca2-regulatory-proteins-and-force-depression-in-rat-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscle
#17
Keita Kanzaki, Daiki Watanabe, Mai Kuratani, Takashi Yamada, Satoshi Matsunaga, Masanobu Wada
The aim of this study was to examine the in vivo effects of eccentric contraction (ECC) on calpain-dependent proteolysis of Ca(2+)-regulatory proteins and force production in fast-twitch skeletal muscles. Rat extensor digitorum longus muscles were exposed to 200-repeated ECC in situ and excised immediately (recovery 0) or 3 days (recovery 3) after cessation of ECC. Calpain inhibitor (CI)-treated rats were intraperitoneally injected with MDL-28170 before ECC and during 3 days of recovery. Tetanic force was markedly reduced at recovery 0 and remained reduced at recovery 3...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936214/deep-neuromuscular-block-improves-surgical-conditions-during-bariatric-surgery-and-reduces-postoperative-pain-a-randomized-double-blind-controlled-trial
#18
Bart Torensma, Chris H Martini, Martijn Boon, Erik Olofsen, Bas In 't Veld, Ronald S L Liem, Mireille T T Knook, Dingeman J Swank, Albert Dahan
BACKGROUND: It remains unknown whether the administration of a deep neuromuscular block (NMB) during bariatric surgery improves surgical conditions and patient outcome. The authors studied the effect of deep versus moderate NMB in laparoscopic bariatric surgery on surgical conditions and postoperative pain. METHODS AND RESULTS: One hundred patients scheduled to undergo elective bariatric surgery were randomized to a deep NMB (post-tetanic-count 2-3) or a moderate NMB (train-of-four 1-2)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906053/attenuated-ca-2-release-in-a-mouse-model-of-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-2a
#19
Marino DiFranco, Irina Kramerova, Julio L Vergara, Melissa Jan Spencer
BACKGROUND: Mutations in CAPN3 cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), a progressive muscle wasting disease. CAPN3 is a non-lysosomal, Ca-dependent, muscle-specific proteinase. Ablation of CAPN3 (calpain-3 knockout (C3KO) mice) leads to reduced ryanodine receptor (RyR1) expression and abnormal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Ca-CaMKII)-mediated signaling. We previously reported that Ca(2+) release measured by fura2-FF imaging in response to single action potential stimulation was reduced in old C3KO mice; however, the use of field stimulation prevented investigation of the mechanisms underlying this impairment...
February 24, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898654/effect-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-satellite-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-immobilization-induced-muscle-atrophy-in-rats
#20
Tie-Shan Li, Hao Shi, Lin Wang, Chuanzhu Yan
BACKGROUND Muscle atrophy due to disuse occurs along with adverse physiological and functional changes, but bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) may be able to act as muscle satellite cells to restore myofibers. Thus, we investigated whether MSCs could enhance the proliferation of satellite cells and suppress myonuclear apoptosis during immobilization. MATERIAL AND METHODS We isolated, purified, amplified, and identified MSCs. Rats (n=48) were randomized into 3 groups: WB group (n=16), IM-PBS group (n=16), and IM-MSC (n=16)...
November 29, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
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