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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984836/balanced-diet-fed-fat-1-transgenic-mice-exhibit-lower-hindlimb-suspension-induced-soleus-muscle-atrophy
#1
Gabriel Nasri Marzuca-Nassr, Gilson Masahiro Murata, Amanda Roque Martins, Kaio Fernando Vitzel, Amanda Rabello Crisma, Rosângela Pavan Torres, Jorge Mancini-Filho, Jing Xuan Kang, Rui Curi
The consequences of two-week hindlimb suspension (HS) on skeletal muscle atrophy were investigated in balanced diet-fed Fat-1 transgenic and C57BL/6 wild-type mice. Body composition and gastrocnemius fatty acid composition were measured. Skeletal muscle force, cross-sectional area (CSA), and signaling pathways associated with protein synthesis (protein kinase B, Akt; ribosomal protein S6, S6, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1, 4EBP1; glycogen synthase kinase3-beta, GSK3-beta; and extracellular-signal-regulated kinases 1/2, ERK 1/2) and protein degradation (atrophy gene-1/muscle atrophy F-box, atrogin-1/MAFbx and muscle RING finger 1, MuRF1) were evaluated in the soleus muscle...
October 6, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981145/rapid-versus-slow-ascending-vasodilatation-intercellular-conduction-versus-flow-mediated-signalling-with-tetanic-versus-rhythmic-muscle-contractions
#2
Shenghua Y Sinkler, Steven S Segal
In response to exercise, vasodilatation initiated within the microcirculation of skeletal muscle ascends the resistance network into upstream feed arteries (FAs) located external to the tissue. Ascending vasodilatation (AVD) is essential to reducing FA resistance that otherwise restricts blood flow into the microcirculation. We tested the hypothesis that signalling events underlying AVD vary with the intensity and duration of muscle contraction. In the gluteus maximus muscle of anaesthetized male C57BL/6 mice (age, 3-4 months), brief tetanic contraction (100 Hz, 500 ms) evoked rapid onset vasodilatation (ROV) in FAs that peaked within 4 s...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980321/post-exercise-recovery-of-contractile-function-and-endurance-in-humans-and-mice-is-accelerated-by-heating-and-slowed-by-cooling-skeletal-muscle
#3
Arthur J Cheng, Sarah J Willis, Christoph Zinner, Thomas Chaillou, Niklas Ivarsson, Niels Ørtenblad, Johanna T Lanner, Hans-Christer Holmberg, Håkan Westerblad
Manipulation of muscle temperature is believed to improve post-exercise recovery, with cooling being especially popular among athletes. However, it is unclear whether such temperature manipulations actually have positive effects. Accordingly, we studied the effect of muscle temperature on the acute recovery of force and fatigue resistance after endurance exercise. One hour of moderate-intensity arm cycling exercise in humans was followed by two hours recovery in which the upper arms were either heated to 38°C, not treated (33°C), or cooled to ∼15°C...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972685/effects-of-manipulating-tetanic-calcium-on-the-curvature-of-the-force-velocity-relationship-in-isolated-rat-soleus-muscles
#4
A M Kristensen, O B Nielsen, K Overgaard
AIM: In dynamically contracting muscles, increased curvature of the force-velocity relationship contributes to the loss of power during fatigue. It has been proposed that fatigue-induced reduction in [Ca(++) ]i causes this increased curvature. However, earlier studies on single fibers have been conducted at low temperatures. Here, we investigated the hypothesis that curvature is increased by reductions in tetanic [Ca(++) ]i in isolated skeletal muscle at near-physiological temperatures...
October 3, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969327/influence-of-deep-neuromuscular-block-on-the-surgeon%C3%A5-assessment-of-surgical-conditions-during-laparotomy-a-randomized-controlled-double-blinded-trial-with-rocuronium-and-sugammadex
#5
M V Madsen, S Scheppan, E Mørk, P Kissmeyer, J Rosenberg, M R Gätke
Background: During laparotomy, surgeons may experience difficult surgical conditions if the patient's abdominal wall or diaphragm is tense. Deep neuromuscular block (NMB), defined as a post-tetanic-count (PTC) between 0-1, paralyses the abdominal wall muscles and the diaphragm. We hypothesized that deep NMB (PTC 0-1) would improve subjective ratings of surgical conditions during upper laparotomy as compared with standard NMB. Methods: This was a double blinded, randomized study...
September 1, 2017: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965520/the-multifaceted-role-of-inhibitory-interneurons-in-the-dorsal-lateral-geniculate-nucleus
#6
Charles L Cox, Joseph A Beatty
Intrinsic interneurons within the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) provide a feed-forward inhibitory pathway for afferent visual information originating from the retina. These interneurons are unique because in addition to traditional axodendritic output onto thalamocortical neurons, these interneurons have presynaptic dendrites that form dendrodendritic synapses onto thalamocortical neurons as well. These presynaptic dendrites, termed F2 terminals, are tightly coupled to the retinogeniculate afferents that synapse onto thalamocortical relay neurons...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946802/label-free-high-throughput-purification-of-satellite-cells-using-microfluidic-inertial-separation
#7
Brian C Syverud, Eric Lin, Sunitha Nagrath, Lisa Marie Larkin
Skeletal muscle satellite cells have tremendous therapeutic potential in cell therapy or skeletal muscle tissue engineering. Obtaining a sufficiently pure satellite cell population, however, presents a significant challenge. We hypothesized that size differences between satellite cells and fibroblasts, two primary cell types obtained from skeletal muscle dissociation, would allow for label-free, inertial separation in a microfluidic device, termed a "Labyrinth", and that these purified satellite cells could be used to engineer skeletal muscle...
September 25, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939337/natural-polymeric-3-alkylpyridinium-salt-affects-vertebrate-skeletal-muscle-contractility-by-preferentially-blocking-neuromuscular-transmission
#8
Monika Cecilija Žužek, Marjana Grandič, Evelyne Benoit, Robert Frangež
The effects of natural polymeric alkylpyridinium salt (nPoly-3-APS), a potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitor isolated from the marine sponge Reniera sarai, were studied on isolated mouse phrenic nerve-hemidiaphragm muscle preparations using electrophysiological approaches. nPoly-3-APS inhibited nerve-evoked isometric muscle twitch and tetanic contraction in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50=29.4μM and 18.5μM, respectively) and produced a 30-44% decrease of directly muscle-elicited twitch and tetanus amplitudes at 54...
September 20, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938532/modulation-of-gdf11-expression-and-synaptic-plasticity-by-age-and-training
#9
Emanuela De Domenico, Giovanna D'Arcangelo, Isabella Faraoni, Mattia Palmieri, Virginia Tancredi, Grazia Graziani, Paola Grimaldi, Lucio Tentori
The Growth Differentiation Factor 11 (GDF11) has been controversially involved in the aging/rejuvenation process. To clarify whether GDF11 is differently expressed during aging, we have evaluated GDF11 levels in skeletal muscles and hippocampi of young and old mice, sedentary or subjected to a 12-weeks triweekly training protocol. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot analyses indicate that skeletal muscles of sedentary old mice express higher levels of GDF11 compared to young animals (p < 0.05)...
August 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874684/damage-free-peripheral-nerve-stimulation-by-12-ns-pulsed-electric-field
#10
Maura Casciola, Shu Xiao, Andrei G Pakhomov
Modern technologies enable deep tissue focusing of nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) for non-invasive nerve and muscle stimulation. However, it is not known if PEF orders of magnitude shorter than the activation time of voltage-gated sodium channels (VGSC) would evoke action potentials (APs). One plausible scenario requires the loss of membrane integrity (electroporation) and resulting depolarization as an intermediate step. We report, for the first time, that the excitation of a peripheral nerve can be accomplished by 12-ns PEF without electroporation...
September 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871556/lessons-from-a-tarantula-new-insights-into-muscle-thick-filament-and-myosin-interacting-heads-motif-structure-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Lorenzo Alamo, Natalia Koubassova, Antonio Pinto, Richard Gillilan, Andrey Tsaturyan, Raúl Padrón
The tarantula skeletal muscle X-ray diffraction pattern suggested that the myosin heads were helically arranged on the thick filaments. Electron microscopy (EM) of negatively stained relaxed tarantula thick filaments revealed four helices of heads allowing a helical 3D reconstruction. Due to its low resolution (5.0 nm), the unambiguous interpretation of densities of both heads was not possible. A resolution increase up to 2.5 nm, achieved by cryo-EM of frozen-hydrated relaxed thick filaments and an iterative helical real space reconstruction, allowed the resolving of both heads...
September 4, 2017: Biophysical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870837/post-tetanic-transcranial-motor-evoked-potentials-augment-the-amplitude-of-compound-muscle-action-potentials-recorded-from-innervated-and-non-innervated-muscles
#12
Hideki Shigematsu, Masahiko Kawaguchi, Hironobu Hayashi, Tsunenori Takatani, Eiichiro Iwata, Masato Tanaka, Akinori Okuda, Yasuhiko Morimoto, Keisuke Masuda, Yusuke Yamamoto, Yasuhito Tanaka
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Transcranial electrical stimulation used to produce motor evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) and subsequent compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recording is widely used to monitor motor function during surgery when there is risk of damaging the spinal cord. Nonetheless, some muscles do not produce CMAP amplitudes sufficient for intraoperative monitoring. PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the utility of tetanic stimulation at single and multiple peripheral nerve sites for augmenting CMAP amplitudes recorded from innervated and non-innervated muscles...
September 1, 2017: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860175/skeletal-muscle-contractile-properties-in-a-novel-murine-model-for-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-2i
#13
Jordan D Rehwaldt, Buel D Rodgers, David C Lin
Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy (LGMD) 2i results from mutations in fukutin-related protein and aberrant α-dystroglycan glycosylation. Although this significantly compromises muscle function and ambulation, the comprehensive characteristics of contractile dysfunction are unknown. We therefore quantified the in situ contractile properties of the medial gastrocnemius in young adult P448L mice, an affected muscle and novel model of LGMD2i, respectively. Maximal twitch force, tetanic force and power normalized to physiological cross-sectional area were significantly smaller in P448L mice, compared to sex-matched wild-type mice...
August 31, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810820/quantitative-label-free-evaluation-of-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-through-multiphoton-microscopy
#14
Brian C Syverud, Mary-Ann Mycek, Lisa Marie Larkin
The lack of tools for assessing engineered tissue viability and function in a non-invasive manner is a major regulatory and translational challenge facing tissue engineers. Label-free, nonlinear optical molecular imaging (OMI) has utilized endogenous nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) fluorescence to indicate metabolic activity. Similarly, second harmonic generation (SHG) signals from myosin and collagen can measure overall muscle structural integrity and function...
August 16, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806918/systemic-lps-resulted-in-a-transient-hippocampus-malfunction-but-a-prolonged-corpus-callosum-injury
#15
Jie Zhang, Aiyuan Li, Zongbin Song
BACKGROUND: To investigate the effect of systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on function of hippocampus and corpus callosum (CC) in adult rats. METHODS: Adult rats with mature white matter tract were divided into systemic LPS and saline injection groups. Animal were euthanized following 3 daily injections (day 3) and 3-day after cessation of injections (day 6). At both time points, hippocampal long term potentiation (LTP) and CC compound action potentials (CAP) were recorded, beta amyloid precursor protein (β-APP) level in CC tissue was measured by Western blot, and microglia activation was examined by immunostaining and proportional area analysis...
August 14, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806470/efficacy-and-safety-of-sugammadex-versus-neostigmine-in-reversing-neuromuscular-blockade-in-adults
#16
REVIEW
Ana-Marija Hristovska, Patricia Duch, Mikkel Allingstrup, Arash Afshari
BACKGROUND: Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, such as neostigmine, have traditionally been used for reversal of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents. However, these drugs have significant limitations, such as indirect mechanisms of reversal, limited and unpredictable efficacy, and undesirable autonomic responses. Sugammadex is a selective relaxant-binding agent specifically developed for rapid reversal of non-depolarizing neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium. Its potential clinical benefits include fast and predictable reversal of any degree of block, increased patient safety, reduced incidence of residual block on recovery, and more efficient use of healthcare resources...
August 14, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803367/the-role-of-agonist-and-antagonist-muscles-in-explaining-isometric-knee-extension-torque-variation-with-hip-joint-angle
#17
Theodoros M Bampouras, Neil D Reeves, Vasilios Baltzopoulos, Constantinos N Maganaris
PURPOSE: The biarticular rectus femoris (RF), operating on the ascending limb of the force-length curve, produces more force at longer lengths. However, experimental studies consistently report higher knee extension torque when supine (longer RF length) compared to seated (shorter RF length). Incomplete activation in the supine position has been proposed as the reason for this discrepancy, but differences in antagonistic co-activation could also be responsible due to altered hamstrings length...
August 12, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802619/sugammadex-efficacy-for-reversal-of-rocuronium-and-vecuronium-induced-neuromuscular-blockade-a-pooled-analysis-of-26-studies
#18
William Joseph Herring, Tiffany Woo, Christopher A Assaid, Robert J Lupinacci, Hendrikus J Lemmens, Manfred Blobner, Karin S Khuenl-Brady
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To summarize and compare efficacy of sugammadex with neostigmine or placebo for reversal of rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade (NMB), and to demonstrate consistency of sugammadex results across various patient populations. DESIGN: Pooled analysis on data from 26 multicenter, randomized, Phase II and III studies. SETTING: Operating room. PATIENTS: 1855 adults undergoing surgery under general anesthesia and receiving rocuronium or vecuronium for NMB...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795964/neuromuscular-monitoring-in-the-perioperative-period
#19
Glenn S Murphy
Neuromuscular monitoring devices were introduced into clinical practice in the 1970s. Qualitative neuromuscular monitors, or peripheral nerve stimulators, provide an electrical stimulus to a motor nerve and the response of corresponding muscle subjectively evaluated. A standard peripheral nerve stimulator provides several patterns of nerve stimulation, including train-of-four (TOF), double-burst, tetanic, and post-tetanic count. Qualitative (and quantitative) monitors are needed to determine onset of neuromuscular blockade, maintain the required depth of muscle relaxation during the surgical procedure, and assess an appropriate dose of reversal agent...
August 8, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792625/the-effect-of-full-dose-composite-tissue-allotransplantation-immunosuppression-on-allograft-motor-nerve-regeneration-in-a-rat-sciatic-nerve-model
#20
Jong Pil Kim, Caroline A Hundepool, Patricia F Friedrich, Steven L Moran, Allen T Bishop, Alexander Y Shin
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to identify which triple immunosuppressive protocols, currently used for vascularized composite allotransplantation in the clinic, will have the best effect on motor function recovery following nerve allograft reconstruction. METHODS: Eighty-eight Lewis rats underwent a 1-cm sciatic nerve allograft transplantation and skin graft from 44 Brown-Norway rats. Group I received 0.9% isotonic saline (control); Group II, 2 mg/kg FK506; Group III, 1 mg/kg FK506 with 15 mg/kg mycophenolate mofetil (MMF); and Group IV, 2 mg/kg FK506 with 30 mg/kg MMF and prednisone...
August 9, 2017: Microsurgery
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