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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638701/reinnervation-of-denervated-muscle-by-implantation-of-nerve-muscle-endplate-band-graft-to-the-native-motor-zone-of-the-target-muscle
#1
Liancai Mu, Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: Motor endplate reinnervation is critical for restoring motor function of the denervated muscle. We developed a novel surgical technique called nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) for muscle reinnervation. METHODS: Experimentally denervated sternomastoid muscle in the rat was reinnervated by transferring a NMEG from the ipsilateral sternohyoid muscle to the native motor zone (NMZ) of the target muscle. A NMEG pedicle contained a block of muscle (~ 6 × 6 × 3 mm), a nerve branch with axon terminals, and a motor endplate band with numerous neuromuscular junctions...
June 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632904/ngf-and-fgf-2-promote-reinnervation-by-nerve-muscle-endplate-grafting
#2
Liancai Mu, Stanislaw Sobotka, Jingming Chen, Themba Nyirenda
INTRODUCTION: This study was designed to test whether exogenous application of nerve growth factor (NGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) to muscles reinnervated with nerve-muscle-endplate band grafting (NMEG) could promote specific outcomes. METHODS: The right sternomastoid muscle in adult rats was experimentally denervated and immediately reinnervated by implanting a NMEG pedicle from the ipsilateral sternohyoid muscle. A fibrin sealant containing NGF and FGF-2 was focally applied to the implantation site...
June 20, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619096/presenilins-regulate-synaptic-plasticity-and-mitochondrial-calcium-homeostasis-in-the-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-pathway
#3
Sang Hun Lee, David Lutz, Mohanad Mossalam, Vadim Y Bolshakov, Michael Frotscher, Jie Shen
BACKGROUND: Presenilins play a major role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease, in which the hippocampus is particularly vulnerable. Previous studies of Presenilin function in the synapse, however, focused exclusively on the hippocampal Schaffer collateral (SC) pathway. Whether Presenilins play similar or distinct roles in other hippocampal synapses is unknown. METHODS: To investigate the role of Presenilins at mossy fiber (MF) synapses we performed field and whole-cell electrophysiological recordings and Ca(2+) imaging using acute hippocampal slices of postnatal forebrain-restricted Presenilin conditional double knockout (PS cDKO) and control mice at 2 months of age...
June 15, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612319/involvement-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-the-cx3cr1-signaling-network-in-mechanical-allodynia-induced-by-tetanic-sciatic-stimulation
#4
Zhe-Chen Wang, Li-Hong Li, Chao Bian, Liu Yang, Ning Lv, Yu-Qiu Zhang
Tetanic stimulation of the sciatic nerve (TSS) triggers long-term potentiation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and long-lasting pain hypersensitivity. CX3CL1-CX3CR1 signaling is an important pathway in neuronal-microglial activation. Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is a key signal transduction molecule that regulates neuroinflammation and neuropathic pain. Here, we set out to determine whether and how NF-κB and CX3CR1 are involved in the mechanism underlying the pathological changes induced by TSS. After unilateral TSS, significant bilateral mechanical allodynia was induced, as assessed by the von Frey test...
June 13, 2017: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596267/adaptations-of-motoneuron-properties-after-weight-lifting-training-in-rats
#5
Piotr Krutki, Włodzimierz Mrówczyński, Marcin Bączyk, Dawid Łochyński, Jan Celichowski
Resistance training, with repeated short-term and high-intensity exercises, is responsible for an increase in muscle mass and force. The aim of this study was to determine whether such training induces adaptations in the electrophysiological properties of motoneurons innervating the trained muscles and to relate these adaptive changes to previous observations made on motor unit contractile properties. The study was performed on adult male Wistar rats. Animals from the training group were subjected to a five-week voluntary progressive weight-lifting program, while control rats were restricted to standard cage activity...
June 8, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591954/-the-effect-of-emulsified-sevofluran-on-muscular-relaxation-through-selective-blockage-of-peripheral-nerves
#6
Ling Ye, Xin-Xin Sun, Tao Zhu, Ping-Liang Yang
OBJECTIVES: To identify the site that emulsified sevoflurane influences in the nerve system. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy New Zealand rabbits were randomly and equally divided into low concentration emulsified sevoflurane group [4 mL/(kg·h)], medium concentration [6 mL/(kg·h)]group, high concentration group[10 mL/(kg·h)]and intralipid control group. Emulsified sevoflurane was infused through arterial to selectively block peripheral nerves, neuro-muscular junctions and muscle fibers...
July 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587562/a-method-to-induce-human-cortical-long-term-potentiation-by-acoustic-stimulation
#7
Guanxiong Lei, Zeqi Zhao, Yalan Li, Liming Yu, Xin Zhang, Yan Yan, Xiaoyan Ma, Qian Wang, Keshuang Wang, Duo Zhang, Weidong Shen, Yuehua Qiao, Shiming Yang
OBJECT: Acoustic stimulation induced LTP in the human auditory cortex was successfully recorded for the first time by electroencephalography (EEG) using a stimulus of 1 kHz pure-tone in 2005. However, it was barely reproduced, given considerable challenges to reliably elicit and accurately record the enhanced potentials in vivo. The purpose of this paper was to explore whether acoustic stimuli other than 1 kHz pure-tone could generate LTP or not. MEASURES: To answer this question, we proposed a tetanic-stimulation paradigm of pure-tones, narrow-band noises (NBNs) and white noise (WN) to elicit LTP in human subjects...
June 7, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576821/contraction-induced-enhancement-of-relaxation-during-high-force-contractions-of-mouse-lumbrical-muscle-at-37%C3%A2-c
#8
Ian C Smith, Rene Vandenboom, A Russell Tupling
Repeated stimulation of unfatigued rodent fast twitch skeletal muscle accelerates the kinetics of tension relaxation through an unknown mechanism. This effect varies with muscle type and stimulation parameters, and has been observed at physiological temperatures for submaximal but not maximal contractions. The purpose of this study was to compare relaxation kinetics of C57BL/6 mouse lumbrical muscles ex vivo from maximal isometric force (500 Hz for 20 ms) when evoked before (Pre) and after (Post) an intervening tetanic contraction at 37°C...
June 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556515/musculoskeletal-structure-and-function-in-response-to-the-combined-effect-of-an-obesogenic-diet-and-age-in-male-c57bl-6j-mice
#9
Kirsten N Bott, William Gittings, Val Andrew Fajardo, Bradley Baranowski, Rene Vandenboom, Paul J LeBlanc, Wendy E Ward, Sandra J Peters
SCOPE: The effects of a long-term high fat and sucrose diet (HFS) superimposed with aging on bone and muscle structure and/or function. METHODS AND RESULTS: Male C57BL/6J mice (20 weeks of age) were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: baseline (BSL, n = 12), or assigned to a control (AGE, n = 12) or HFS (HFS-AGE, n = 11) diet for 13 weeks. Trabecular bone structure, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), and body composition, were measured longitudinally at 20, 24, and 32 weeks of age...
May 26, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529052/prenatal-melamine-exposure-induces-impairments-of-spatial-cognition-and-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity-in-female-adolescent-rats
#10
Lei An, Wei Sun
Developmental exposure to melamine induces long-term effects on brain and behavior in male rodents. To examine whether this prenatal event damages cognitive function in female offspring, we evaluated the behavioral effects and further attempted to investigate synaptic function. Prenatal melamine exposure (PME) was given by oral treatment to pregnant females through the whole gestational days with 400mg/day/kg bodyweight. On postnatal day (PD) 36, female offspring were assessed for spatial cognition in the Morris Water Maze (MWM) test...
May 18, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527013/central-activation-metabolites-and-calcium-handling-during-fatigue-with-repeated-maximal-isometric-contractions-in-human-muscle
#11
Simeon P Cairns, Luke A G Inman, Caroline P MacManus, Ingrid G L van de Port, Patricia A Ruell, Jeanette M Thom, Martin W Thompson
PURPOSE: To determine the roles of calcium (Ca(2+)) handling by sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and central activation impairment (i.e., central fatigue) during fatigue with repeated maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) in human muscles. METHODS: Contractile performance was assessed during 3 min of repeated MVCs (7-s contraction, 3-s rest, n = 17). In ten participants, in vitro SR Ca(2+)-handling, metabolites, and fibre-type composition were quantified in biopsy samples from quadriceps muscle, along with plasma venous [K(+)]...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509762/beetroot-juice-increases-human-muscle-force-without-changing-ca2-handling-proteins
#12
Jamie Whitfield, Daniel Gamu, George J F Heigenhauser, Luc J C van Loon, Lawrence L Spriet, A Russell Tupling, Graham P Holloway
Dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3) supplementation improves skeletal muscle (SkM) contractile efficiency, and while rodent literature has suggested improvements in calcium handling or redox modifications as likely explanations, the direct mechanism-of-action in humans remains unknown. PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 7-d of beetroot juice (BRJ) supplementation on SkM contractile characteristics and function. METHODS: Recreationally active males (n=8) underwent transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation of the vastus lateralis for evaluation of contractile characteristics before (pre) and after (post) 7-d of BRJ supplementation (280 mL/day, ~26 mmol NO3)...
May 15, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489642/pupillary-reflex-for-evaluation-of-thoracic-paravertebral-block-a-prospective-observational-feasibility-study
#13
Baptiste Duceau, Mélanie Baubillier, Gaëlle Bouroche, Aline Albi-Feldzer, Christian Jayr
BACKGROUND: Although thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) is recommended in major breast surgery, there is no gold standard to assess the success of TPVB. Pupillary dilation reflex (PDR) is the variation of the pupillary diameter after a noxious stimulus. The objective was to evaluate the feasibility of recording the PDR to assess analgesia in an anesthetized thoracic dermatome after TPVB. METHODS: This prospective, observational, single-center study included 32 patients requiring breast surgery under general anesthesia and TPVB...
May 4, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489614/validation-of-innovative-techniques-for-monitoring-nociception-during-general-anesthesia-a-clinical-study-using-tetanic-and-intracutaneous-electrical-stimulation
#14
Sandra Funcke, Sven Sauerlaender, Hans O Pinnschmidt, Bernd C Saugel, Kai Bremer, Daniel A Reuter, Rainer Nitzschke
BACKGROUND: This study compares the analgesic indices Analgesia Nociception Index (heart rate variability), Surgical Pleth Index (photoplethysmography), and pupillary dilatation, to heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and bispectral index, with regard to diagnostic accuracy and prediction probability for nociceptive response. The primary endpoint was the correlation between Δ values and the remifentanil dose administered. METHODS: We anesthetized 38 patients with propofol and increasing doses of remifentanil and applied standardized tetanic and intracutaneous electrical painful stimulations on each analgesic level...
May 10, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467619/repair-of-the-musculocutaneous-nerve-using-the-vagus-nerve-as-donor-by-helicoid-end-to-side-technique-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#15
Ji-Geng Yan, Feng-Yi Shen, Jacob Thayer, Yuhui Yan, John LoGiudice, Hani Matloub, James Sanger, Lin-Ling Zhang, Robert Havlik
Although several donor nerves can be chosen to repair avulsed brachial plexus nerve injury, available nerves are still limited. The purpose of this study is to validate whether the vagus nerve (VN) can be used as a donor. Eighteen Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three groups (n = 6). The right musculocutaneous nerve (McN) was transected with differing subsequent repair. (1) HS-VN group: a saphenous nerve (SN) graft-end was helicoidally wrapped round the VN side (epi-and perineurium was opened) with a 30 ° angle, distal SN end was coapted to the McN with end-to-end repair...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446426/the-ablation-of-s1p3-receptor-protects-mouse-soleus-from-age-related-drop-of-muscle-mass-force-and-regenerative-capacity
#16
Michela Bondi, Elena Germinario, Marco Pirazzini, Giulia Zanetti, Francesca Cencetti, Chiara Donati, Luisa Gorza, Romeo Betto, Paola Bruni, Daniela Danieli-Betto
We investigated the effects of S1P3 deficiency on the age-related atrophy, decline of force and regenerative capacity of soleus muscle from 23-month-old male mice. During ageing, in old wild type mice, soleus mass and muscle fiber cross-sectional area (CSA) were reduced by about 26% and 24%, respectively, compared to the adult muscle. By contrast, the mass and fiber CSA of old S1P3-null soleus were comparable to the adult muscle. Moreover, in wild type soleus twitch and tetanic tensions diminished from adult to old age...
April 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438761/improved-skeletal-muscle-ca-2-regulation-in-vivo-following-contractions-in-mice-overexpressing-pgc-1%C3%AE
#17
Hiroaki Eshima, Shinji Miura, Nanami Senoo, Koji Hatakeyama, David C Poole, Yutaka Kano
In skeletal muscle, resting intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) homeostasis is exquisitely regulated by Ca(2+) transport across the sarcolemmal, mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) membranes. Of these three systems, the relative importance of the mitochondria in [Ca(2+)]i regulation remains poorly understood in in vivo skeletal muscle. We tested the hypothesis that the capacity for Ca(2+) uptake by mitochondria is a primary factor in determining [Ca(2+)]i regulation in muscle at rest and following contractions...
April 24, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420761/in-situ-measurements-of-tensile-forces-in-the-tibialis-anterior-tendon-of-the-rat-in-concentric-isometric-and-resisted-co-contractions
#18
Martin Schmoll, Ewald Unger, Hazel Sutherland, Michael Haller, Manfred Bijak, Hermann Lanmüller, Jonathan C Jarvis
Tensile-force transmitted by the tibialis anterior (TA) tendon of 11 anesthetized adult male Wistar rats (body-mass: 360.6 ± 66.3 g) was measured in-situ within the intact biomechanical system of the hind-limb using a novel miniature in-line load-cell. The aim was to demonstrate the dependence of the loading-profile experienced by the muscle, on stimulation-frequency and the resistance to shortening in a group of control-animals. Data from these acute-experiments shows the type of loading achievable by means of implantable electrical stimulators activating agonists or agonist/antagonist groups of muscles during programmed resistance-training in freely moving healthy subjects...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408640/long-term-but-not-short-term-high-fat-diet-induces-fiber-composition-changes-and-impaired-contractile-force-in-mouse-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscle
#19
Hiroaki Eshima, Yoshifumi Tamura, Saori Kakehi, Nagomi Kurebayashi, Takashi Murayama, Kyoko Nakamura, Ryo Kakigi, Takao Okada, Takashi Sakurai, Ryuzo Kawamori, Hirotaka Watada
In this study, we investigated the effects of a short-term and long-term high-fat diet (HFD) on morphological and functional features of fast-twitch skeletal muscle. Male C57BL/6J mice were fed a HFD (60% fat) for 4 weeks (4-week HFD) or 12 weeks (12-week HFD). Subsequently, the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle was isolated, and the composition of muscle fiber type, expression levels of proteins involved in muscle contraction, and force production on electrical stimulation were analyzed. The 12-week HFD, but not the 4-week HFD, resulted in a decreased muscle tetanic force on 100 Hz stimulation compared with control (5...
April 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403681/atrophy-ultra-structural-disorders-severe-atrophy-and-degeneration-of-denervated-human-muscle-in-sci-and-aging-implications-for-their-recovery-by-functional-electrical-stimulation-updated-2017
#20
Helmut Kern, Cristian Hofer, Stefan Loefler, Sandra Zampieri, Paolo Gargiulo, Alfonc Baba, Andrea Marcante, Francesco Piccione, Amber Pond, Ugo Carraro
OBJECTIVES: Long-term lower motor neuron denervation of skeletal muscle is known to result in degeneration of muscle with replacement by adipose and fibrotic tissues. However, long-term survival of a subset of skeletal myofibers also occurs. METHODS: We performed transverse and longitudinal studies of patients with spinal cord injury (SCI), patients specifically complete Conus and Cauda Equina Syndrome and also of active and sedentary seniors which included analyses of muscle biopsies from the quadriceps m...
April 13, 2017: Neurological Research
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