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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906053/attenuated-ca-2-release-in-a-mouse-model-of-limb-girdle-muscular-dystrophy-2a
#1
Marino DiFranco, Irina Kramerova, Julio L Vergara, Melissa Jan Spencer
BACKGROUND: Mutations in CAPN3 cause limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), a progressive muscle wasting disease. CAPN3 is a non-lysosomal, Ca-dependent, muscle-specific proteinase. Ablation of CAPN3 (calpain-3 knockout (C3KO) mice) leads to reduced ryanodine receptor (RyR1) expression and abnormal Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (Ca-CaMKII)-mediated signaling. We previously reported that Ca(2+) release measured by fura2-FF imaging in response to single action potential stimulation was reduced in old C3KO mice; however, the use of field stimulation prevented investigation of the mechanisms underlying this impairment...
February 24, 2016: Skeletal Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898654/effect-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-on-satellite-cell-proliferation-and-apoptosis-in-immobilization-induced-muscle-atrophy-in-rats
#2
Tie-Shan Li, Hao Shi, Lin Wang, Chuanzhu Yan
BACKGROUND Muscle atrophy due to disuse occurs along with adverse physiological and functional changes, but bone marrow stromal cells (MSCs) may be able to act as muscle satellite cells to restore myofibers. Thus, we investigated whether MSCs could enhance the proliferation of satellite cells and suppress myonuclear apoptosis during immobilization. MATERIAL AND METHODS We isolated, purified, amplified, and identified MSCs. Rats (n=48) were randomized into 3 groups: WB group (n=16), IM-PBS group (n=16), and IM-MSC (n=16)...
November 29, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884960/can-inorganic-phosphate-explain-sag-during-unfused-tetanic-contractions-of-skeletal-muscle
#3
Ian C Smith, Catherine Bellissimo, Walter Herzog, A Russell Tupling
We test the hypothesis that cytosolic inorganic phosphate (Pi) can account for the contraction-induced reductions in twitch duration which impair summation and cause force to decline (sag) during unfused tetanic contractions of fast-twitch muscle. A five-state model of crossbridge cycling was used to simulate twitch and unfused tetanic contractions. As Pi concentration ([Pi]) was increased from 0 to 30 mmol·L(-1), twitch duration decreased, with progressive reductions in sensitivity to Pi as [Pi] was increased...
November 2016: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866776/activation-of-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-facilitates-long-term-potentiation-at-the-hippocampal-prefrontal-cortex-synapses-in-vivo
#4
Milan Stoiljkovic, Craig Kelley, Dávid Nagy, Raymond Hurst, Mihály Hajós
Activation of α7 nAChRs has been shown to improve performance in a variety of nonclinical assays of cognitive function. The role of α7 nAChRs in cognitive processes is likely related to their role in modulating synaptic transmission and plasticity that have been reported in cell culture, brain slices, and intact animals. Here we report the effects of the α7 nAChR agonist FRM-17874 on synaptic plasticity within the hippocampal-medial prefrontal cortex pathway. Long-term potentiation (LTP) was generated by tetanic stimulation of CA1/subiculum region in urethane anesthetized male rats...
November 17, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27855526/morphometric-properties-and-innervation-of-muscle-compartments-in-rat-medial-gastrocnemius
#5
Malwina Taborowska, Dorota Bukowska, Hanna Drzymała-Celichowska, Barbara Mierzejewska-Krzyżowska, Jan Celichowski
The rat medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscle is composed of the proximal and distal compartments. In this study, morphometric properties of the compartments and their muscle fibres at five levels of the muscle length and the innervation pattern of these compartments from lumbar segments were investigated. The size and number of muscle fibres in the compartments were different. The proximal compartment at the largest cross section (25% of the muscle length) had 34% smaller cross-sectional area but contained a slightly higher number of muscle fibres (max...
September 2016: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853885/an-acute-session-of-roller-massage-prolongs-voluntary-torque-development-and-diminishes-evoked-pain
#6
Mark Tyler Cavanaugh, Alexander Döweling, James Douglas Young, Patrick John Quigley, Daniel David Hodgson, Joseph H D Whitten, Jonathan C Reid, Saied Jalal Aboodarda, David G Behm
INTRODUCTION: Roller massage (RM) has been reported to reduce pain associated with exercise-induced muscle soreness and increase range of motion without force or activation impairments. The objective was to examine RM effects on evoked pain and contractile properties. METHODS: Twelve men received three sets of 30-s RM at a perceived discomfort level of 7/10 on a visual analogue scale on the ipsilateral (IPSI-R) stimulated plantar flexors (PF), contralateral PF (CONTRA-R), Sham (light rolling on stimulated PF), or Control...
November 16, 2016: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852736/the-role-of-retinoic-acid-in-the-formation-and-modulation-of-invertebrate-central-synapses
#7
Cailin M Rothwell, Eric de Hoog, Gaynor Elizabeth Spencer
Trophic factors can influence many aspects of nervous system function, such as neurite outgrowth, synapse formation and synapse modulation. The vitamin A metabolite, retinoic acid can exert trophic effects to promote neuronal survival and outgrowth in many species, and is also known to modulate vertebrate hippocampal synapses. However, its role in synaptogenesis has not been well studied, and whether it can modulate existing invertebrate synapses is also not known. In this study, we first examined a potential trophic effect of retinoic acid on the formation of excitatory synapses, independently of its role in neurite outgrowth, using cultured neurons of the mollusc Lymnaea stagnalis...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846318/a-long-gap-peripheral-nerve-injury-therapy-using-human-skeletal-muscle-derived-stem-cells-sk-scs-an-achievement-of-significant-morphological-numerical-and-functional-recovery
#8
Tetsuro Tamaki, Maki Hirata, Nobuyuki Nakajima, Kosuke Saito, Hiroyuki Hashimoto, Shuichi Soeda, Yoshiyasu Uchiyama, Masahiko Watanabe
Losses in vital functions of the somatic motor and sensory nervous system are induced by severe long-gap peripheral nerve transection injury. In such cases, autologous nerve grafts are the gold standard treatment, despite the unavoidable sacrifice of other healthy functions, whereas the prognosis is not always favorable. Here, we use human skeletal muscle-derived stem cells (Sk-SCs) to reconstitute the function after long nerve-gap injury. Muscles samples were obtained from the amputated legs from 9 patients following unforeseen accidents...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828786/the-effect-of-prior-tetanic-stimulation-on-train-of-four-monitoring-in-paediatric-patients-a-randomised-open-label-controlled-trial
#9
Ricardo V Carlos, Hans Donald de Boer, Marcelo Luis Abramides Torres, Maria José Carvalho Carmona
BACKGROUND: In clinical research, neuromuscular monitoring must present a stable response for a period of 2 to 5 min before administration of a neuromuscular blocking agent. The time required to reach this stable response may be shortened by applying a 5-s tetanic stimulus. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test whether tetanic stimulation interferes with onset and recovery times after a single dose of rocuronium 0.6 mg kg followed by spontaneous recovery...
November 8, 2016: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813050/long-term-follow-up-and-treatment-of-postoperative-permanent-hypoparathyroidism-in-patients-with-medullary-thyroid-carcinoma-differences-in-complete-and-partial-disease
#10
G Leidig-Bruckner, T Bruckner, F Raue, K Frank-Raue
This study aimed to identify factors influencing long-term outcome in complete or partial postoperative hypoparathyroidism (parathyroid hormone ≤10 or >10 ng/l, respectively) in medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). It was designed as retrospective, long-term follow-up with single-center outpatient visits. Quality of treatment, renal calcification, and function were evaluated. In 33 patients with MTC and postoperative hypoparathyroidism, current medication includes: calcium (73%), calcitriol (73%), alfacalcidol (6%), dihydrotachysterol (3%), and cholecalciferol supplements (21%)...
November 3, 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799552/calcium-sensor-regulation-of-the-cav2-1-ca2-channel-contributes-to-long-term-potentiation-and-spatial-learning
#11
Evanthia Nanou, Todd Scheuer, William A Catterall
Many forms of short-term synaptic plasticity rely on regulation of presynaptic voltage-gated Ca(2+) type 2.1 (CaV2.1) channels. However, the contribution of regulation of CaV2.1 channels to other forms of neuroplasticity and to learning and memory are not known. Here we have studied mice with a mutation (IM-AA) that disrupts regulation of CaV2.1 channels by calmodulin and related calcium sensor proteins. Surprisingly, we find that long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission at the Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapse in the hippocampus is substantially weakened, even though this form of synaptic plasticity is thought to be primarily generated postsynaptically...
October 31, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793139/a-short-term-statin-treatment-changes-the-contractile-properties-of-fast-twitch-skeletal-muscles
#12
Antoine Boulanger Piette, Sébastien S Dufresne, Jérôme Frenette
BACKGROUND: Cumulative evidence indicates that statins induce myotoxicity. However, the lack of understanding of how statins affect skeletal muscles at the structural, functional, and physiological levels hampers proper healthcare management. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the early after-effects of lovastatin on the slow-twitch soleus (Sol) and fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 mice were orally administrated with placebo or lovastatin [50 mg/kg/d] for 28 days...
October 28, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784806/contractile-function-and-motor-unit-firing-rates-of-the-human-hamstrings
#13
Eric A Kirk, Charles L Rice
AIM: Neuromuscular properties of the lower limb in health, aging and disease are well-described for major lower limb muscles comprising the quadriceps, triceps surae and dorsiflexors with the notable exception of the posterior thigh (hamstrings). The purpose was to further characterize major muscles of the lower limb by comprehensively exploring contractile properties in relation to spinal motor neuron output expressed as motor unit firing rates (MUFRs) in the hamstrings of 11 (26.5 ± 3...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780032/plasticity-dependent-full-detonation-at-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-ca3-pyramidal-neuron-synapses
#14
Nicholas P Vyleta, Carolina Borges-Merjane, Peter Jonas
Mossy fiber synapses on CA3 pyramidal cells are 'conditional detonators' that reliably discharge postsynaptic targets. The 'conditional' nature implies that burst activity in dentate gyrus granule cells is required for detonation. Whether single unitary excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) trigger spikes in CA3 neurons remains unknown. Mossy fiber synapses exhibit both pronounced short-term facilitation and uniquely large post-tetanic potentiation (PTP). We tested whether PTP could convert mossy fiber synapses from subdetonator into detonator mode, using a recently developed method to selectively and noninvasively stimulate individual presynaptic terminals in rat brain slices...
October 25, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776515/protective-effects-of-hydroponic-teucrium-polium-on-hippocampal-neurodegeneration-in-ovariectomized-rats
#15
K V Simonyan, V A Chavushyan
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is a target of ovarian hormones, and is necessary for memory. Ovarian hormone loss is associated with a progressive reduction in synaptic strength and dendritic spine. Teucrium polium has beneficial effects on learning and memory. However, it remains unknown whether Teucrium polium ameliorates hippocampal cells spike activity and morphological impairments induced by estrogen deficiency. METHODS: In the present study, we investigated the effects of hydroponic Teucrium polium on hippocampal neuronal activity and morpho-histochemistry of bilateral ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
October 24, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768064/applications-of-in-vivo-functional-testing-of-the-rat-tibialis-anterior-for-evaluating-tissue-engineered-skeletal-muscle-repair
#16
Ellen L Mintz, Juliana A Passipieri, Daniel Y Lovell, George J Christ
Despite the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle, permanent functional and/or cosmetic deficits (e.g., volumetric muscle loss (VML) resulting from traumatic injury, disease and various congenital, genetic and acquired conditions are quite common. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine technologies have enormous potential to provide a therapeutic solution. However, utilization of biologically relevant animal models in combination with longitudinal assessments of pertinent functional measures are critical to the development of improved regenerative therapeutics for treatment of VML-like injuries...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764767/muscle-dysfunction-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-duchenne-muscular-dystrophy
#17
Jeffrey J Widrick, Matthew Alexander, Benjamin Sanchez, Devin Gibbs, Genri Kawahara, Alan Beggs, Louis Kunkel
Sapje zebrafish lack the protein dystrophin and are the smallest vertebrate model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Their small size makes them ideal for large-scale drug discovery screens. However, the extent that sapje mimic the muscle dysfunction of higher vertebrate models of DMD is unclear. We used an optical birefringence assay to differentiate affected dystrophic sapje larvae from their unaffected siblings and then studied trunk muscle contractility at 4-7 days post fertilization. Preparation cross-sectional area (CSA) was similar for affected and unaffected larvae, yet tetanic forces of affected preparations were only 30-60% of normal...
October 7, 2016: Physiological Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763660/minimum-number-of-myosin-motors-accounting-for-shortening-velocity-under-zero-load-in-skeletal-muscle
#18
Luca Fusi, Valentina Percario, Elisabetta Brunello, Marco Caremani, Pasquale Bianco, Joseph D Powers, Massimo Reconditi, Vincenzo Lombardi, Gabriella Piazzesi
KEY POINTS: Myosin filament mechanosensing determines the efficiency of the contraction by adapting the number of switched ON motors to the load. Accordingly, the unloaded shortening velocity (V0 ) is already set at the end of the latency relaxation (LR), ∼10 ms after the start of stimulation, when the myosin filament is still in the OFF state. Here the number of actin-attached motors per half-myosin filament (n) during V0 shortening imposed either at the end of LR or at the plateau of the isometric contraction is estimated from the relation between half-sarcomere compliance and force during the force redevelopment after the shortening...
October 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27763551/the-snake-with-the-scorpion-s-sting-novel-three-finger-toxin-sodium-channel-activators-from-the-venom-of-the-long-glanded-blue-coral-snake-calliophis-bivirgatus
#19
Daryl C Yang, Jennifer R Deuis, Daniel Dashevsky, James Dobson, Timothy N W Jackson, Andreas Brust, Bing Xie, Ivan Koludarov, Jordan Debono, Iwan Hendrikx, Wayne C Hodgson, Peter Josh, Amanda Nouwens, Gregory J Baillie, Timothy J C Bruxner, Paul F Alewood, Kelvin Kok Peng Lim, Nathaniel Frank, Irina Vetter, Bryan G Fry
Millions of years of evolution have fine-tuned the ability of venom peptides to rapidly incapacitate both prey and potential predators. Toxicofera reptiles are characterized by serous-secreting mandibular or maxillary glands with heightened levels of protein expression. These glands are the core anatomical components of the toxicoferan venom system, which exists in myriad points along an evolutionary continuum. Neofunctionalisation of toxins is facilitated by positive selection at functional hotspots on the ancestral protein and venom proteins have undergone dynamic diversification in helodermatid and varanid lizards as well as advanced snakes...
October 18, 2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746873/developmental-effect-of-light-deprivation-on-synaptic-plasticity-of-rats-hippocampus-implications-for-melatonin
#20
Sayyed Alireza Talaei, Abolfazl Azami, Mahmoud Salami
OBJECTIVES: There are few reports have demonstrated the effect of a change-in-light experience on the structure and function of hippocampus. A change-in-light experience also affects the circadian pattern of melatonin secretion. This study aimed to investigate developmental effect of exogenous melatonin on synaptic plasticity of hippocampus of light deprived rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of 2μg/5μl melatonin was evaluated on the basic and tetanized field excitatory post-synaptic potentials (fEPSPs) recorded in the hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway of normal light-reared (LR) and dark-reared (DR) rats at 2, 4, and 6 weeks of age...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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