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Emergency medicie

Janet Lin, Cammeo Mauntel-Medici, Sara Heinert, Sara Baghikar
Emergency Departments (EDs) are important settings for routine HIV screening because they are safety nets for populations with limited access to primary care and high risk for HIV infection. However, EDs rarely perform routine HIV screening due to logistical barriers. An electronic medical record (EMR)-driven routine opt-out HIV screening program was implemented in an urban academic ED and led to rapid scale-up of screening volume and detection of unknown HIV infection. The streamlined tool, requiring 4 mouse clicks, automates screening for eligibility, facilitates documentation of consent and orders the HIV test...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Clara Reece Medici, Claus Høstrup Vestergaard, Dusan Hadzi-Pavlovic, Povl Munk-Jørgensen, Gordon Parker
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder is characterized by a seasonal pattern with emerging evidence that weather conditions may trigger symptoms. Thus, our aims were to investigate if year-to-year variations in admissions with mania correlated with year-to-year variations in key meteorological variables, if there was a secular trend in light of climate change and if gender or admission status influenced the seasonal pattern. METHODS: We undertook a Danish register-based nationwide historical cohort study...
June 25, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Maria Cristina Medici, Fabio Tummolo, Vito Martella, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Flora De Conto, Carlo Chezzi, Alessandro Magrì, Enikő Fehér, Szilvia Marton, Adriana Calderaro, Krisztián Bányai
After a sporadic detection in 1990s, G3P[8] rotaviruses emerged as a predominant genotype during recent years in many areas worldwide, including parts of Italy. The present study describes the molecular epidemiology and evolution of G3P[8] rotaviruses detected in Italian children with gastroenteritis during two survey periods (2004-2005 and 2008-2013). Whole genome of selected G3P[8] strains was determined and antigenic differences between these strains and rotavirus vaccine strains were analyzed. Among 819 (271 in 2004-2005 and 548 in 2008-2013) rotaviruses genotyped during the survey periods, the number of G3P[8] rotavirus markedly varied over the years (0/83 in 2004, 30/188 in 2005 and 0/96 in 2008, 6/88 in 2009, 4/97 in 2010, 0/83 in 2011, 9/82 in 2012, 56/102 cases in 2013)...
June 2016: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Roberto Bruni, Stefania Taffon, Michele Equestre, Paola Chionne, Elisabetta Madonna, Caterina Rizzo, Maria Elena Tosti, Valeria Alfonsi, Lara Ricotta, Dario De Medici, Simona Di Pasquale, Gaia Scavia, Enrico Pavoni, Marina Nadia Losio, Luisa Romanò, Alessandro Remo Zanetti, Anna Morea, Monia Pacenti, Giorgio Palù, Maria Rosaria Capobianchi, Maria Chironna, Maria Grazia Pompa, Anna Rita Ciccaglione
BACKGROUND: Foodborne Hepatitis A Virus (HAV) outbreaks are being recognized as an emerging public health problem in industrialized countries. In 2013 three foodborne HAV outbreaks occurred in Europe and one in USA. During the largest of the three European outbreaks, most cases occurred in Italy (>1,200 cases as of March 31, 2014). A national Task Force was established at the beginning of the outbreak by the Ministry of Health. Mixed frozen berries were early demonstrated to be the source of infection by the identity of viral sequences in patients and in food...
2016: PloS One
Natasha P Medici, Maurizio Del Poeta
Fungal infections are emerging as a major problem in part due to high mortality associated with systemic infections, especially in the case of immunocompromised patients. With the development of new treatments for diseases such as cancer and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome pandemic, the number of immunosuppressed patients has increased and, as a consequence, also the number of invasive fungal infections has increased. Several studies have proposed new strategies for the development of effective fungal vaccines...
December 2015: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Maria Cristina Medici, Fabio Tummolo, Adriana Calderaro, Maria Chironna, Giovanni Maurizio Giammanco, Simona De Grazia, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Flora De Conto, Carlo Chezzi, Vito Martella
Surveillance of noroviruses in Italy identified the novel GII.17 human norovirus strain, Kawasaki 2014, in February 2015. This novel strain emerged as a major cause of gastroenteritis in Asia during 2014/15, replacing the pandemic GII.4 norovirus strain Sydney 2012, but being reported only sporadically elsewhere. This novel strain is undergoing fast diversification and continuous monitoring is important to understand the evolution of noroviruses and to implement the future strategies on norovirus vaccines.
2015: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Raman Tanwar, Nikhil Khattar, Rajeev Sood, Arun Makkar
INTRODUCTION: Information derived from social media sources is being used to save lives and take vital life altering decisions. You Tube is one of the most widely used social media for seeking medical information. Quality of information available to patients and medical professionals on YouTube with regards to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a common urological condition, assessed. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First 1 00 videos results on BPH were analysed by three independent observers and graded based on the quality of information provided using an indigenous grading system of five points ranging from not useful to Informative for the Medical Professional...
July 2015: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Maria Cristina Medici, Fabio Tummolo, Simona De Grazia, Adriana Calderaro, Flora De Conto, Valentina Terio, Maria Chironna, Floriana Bonura, Marzia Pucci, Kristián Bányai, Vito Martella, Giovanni Maurizio Giammanco
Norovirus (NoV) is one of the major causes of diarrhoeal disease with epidemic, outbreak and sporadic patterns in humans of all ages worldwide. NoVs of genotype GII.4 cause nearly 80-90 % of all NoV infections in humans. Periodically, some GII.4 strains become predominant, generating major pandemic variants. Retrospective analysis of the GII.4 NoV strains detected in Italy between 2007 and 2013 indicated that the pandemic variant New Orleans 2009 emerged in Italy in the late 2009, became predominant in 2010-2011 and continued to circulate in a sporadic fashion until April 2013...
September 2015: Journal of General Virology
Kenneth Beer, Richard G Glogau, Jeffrey S Dover, Ava Shamban, Lata Handiwala, Jason T Olin, Brian Bulley
OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and effectiveness of small particle hyaluronic acid plus lidocaine (SPHAL) versus no treatment for lip augmentation and perioral rhytides. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Adults scoring 1 (very thin) to 2 (thin) on the Medicis Lip Fullness Scale (MLFS) for upper and lower lips were randomized (3:1) to SPHAL or no treatment. Treatment success was an MLFS increase ≥1 point at Week 8. Secondary end points (MLFS score, independent photographic review, Global Aesthetic Improvement Scale, Wrinkle Assessment Scale for Upper Lip Lines) and safety were assessed throughout...
April 2015: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Fabrizio Anniballi, Davide Lonati, Alfonsina Fiore, Bruna Auricchio, Dario De Medici, Carlo Alessandro Locatelli
Botulism is a severe neuroparalytic disease resulting from exposure to one of the most poisonous toxins to humans. Because of this high potency and the use of toxins as biological weapons, botulism is a public health concern and each case represents an emergency. Current therapy involves respiratory supportive care and anti-toxins administration. As a preventive measure, vaccination against toxins represents an effective strategy but is undesirable due the rarity of botulism and the effectiveness of toxins in treating several neuromuscular disorders...
September 2014: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Adriana Calderaro, Giovanna Piccolo, Chiara Gorrini, Sara Montecchini, Mirko Buttrini, Sabina Rossi, Maddalena Piergianni, Flora De Conto, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Carlo Chezzi, Maria Cristina Medici
BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis, a spirochaetal zoonotic disease of worldwide distribution, endemic in Europe, has been recognized as an important emerging infectious disease, though yet it is mostly a neglected disease which imparts its greatest burden on impoverished populations from developing countries. Leptospirosis is caused by the infection with any of the more than 230 serovars of pathogenic Leptospira sp. In this study we aimed to implement the MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) database currently available in our laboratory with Leptospira reference pathogenic (L...
2014: BMC Research Notes
Maria Cristina Medici, Fabio Tummolo, Vito Martella, Giovanni Maurizio Giammanco, Simona De Grazia, Maria Cristina Arcangeletti, Flora De Conto, Carlo Chezzi, Adriana Calderaro
Novel norovirus strains are continuously emerging worldwide. Molecular investigation and phylogenetic analysis identified GII.P16 recombinant noroviruses from the stools of four Italian children with gastroenteritis. The capsid gene was characterized as either GII.13 or GII.3. The GII.P16_GII.13 Italian strains were closely related to German strains involved in a large outbreak in the second half of 2012 and the Italian strains are the first recorded occurrence of GII.P16_GII.13 in Europe.
August 8, 2014: Virus Research
Laura Mancini, Stefania Marcheggiani, Annamaria D'Angelo, Camilla Puccinelli, Filippo Chiudioni, Flavia Rossi, Elisabetta Delibato, Dario De Medici, Anna Maria Dionisi, Slawomir Owczarek, Ida Luzzi
Salmonella enterica serovar Napoli (S. Napoli) is an emerging serovar in Italy. It accounts for 2-4% of all serovars isolated from human infections. The zoonotic origin of this serovar is still unknown and this makes difficult to apply any control intervention. We report here the isolation of S. Napoli from a river nightingale (Cettia cetti, Temminck 1820) which represents the first description of this serovar from wild birds. This finding adds knowledge to the ecology of S. Napoli and addresses further studies aimed to assess the epidemiologic link between S...
2014: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
G M Giammanco, S De Grazia, V Terio, G Lanave, C Catella, F Bonura, L Saporito, M C Medici, F Tummolo, A Calderaro, K Bányai, G Hansman, V Martella
Global surveillance for norovirus identified in 2012 the emergence of a novel pandemic GII.4 variant, termed Sydney 2012. In Italy, the novel pandemic variant was identified as early as November 2011 but became predominant only in the winter season 2012-2013. Upon sequencing and comparison with strains of global origin, the early Sydney 2012 strains were found to differ from those spreading in 2012-2013 in the capsid (ORF2) putative epitopes B, C and D, segregating into a distinct phylogenetic clade. At least three residues (333, 340 and 393, in epitopes B, C and D, respectively) of the VP1 varied among Sydney 2012 strains of different clades...
February 2014: Virology
M C Medici, F Tummolo, V Martella, C Chezzi, M C Arcangeletti, F De Conto, A Calderaro
During a 5-year (2007-2011) surveillance period a total of 435 (15·34%) of 2834 stool specimens from children aged <14 years with acute gastroenteritis tested positive for norovirus and 217 strains were characterized upon partial sequence analysis of the polymerase gene as either genogroup (G)I or GII. Of the noroviruses, 99·2% were GII with the GII.P4 genotype being predominant (80%). GII.P4 variants (Yerseke 2006a, Den Haag 2006b, Apeldoorn 2008, New Orleans 2009) emerged sequentially during the study period...
November 2014: Epidemiology and Infection
Romeo Bellini, Arianna Puggioli, Fabrizio Balestrino, Paolo Brunelli, Anna Medici, Sandra Urbanelli, Marco Carrieri
Aedes albopictus male survival in laboratory cages is no more than 4-5 days when kept without any access to sugar indicating their need to feed on a sugar source soon after emergence. We therefore developed a device to administer energetic substances to newly emerged males when released as pupae as part of a sterile insect technique (SIT) programme, made with a polyurethane sponge 4 cm thick and perforated with holes 2 cm in diameter. The sponge was imbibed with the required sugar solution and due to its high retention capacity the sugar solution was available for males to feed for at least 48 h...
April 2014: Acta Tropica
Joana Aldekoa, Chiara Medici, Victoria Osorio, Sandra Pérez, Rafael Marcé, Damià Barceló, Félix Francés
The present research aims at giving an insight into the increasingly important issue of water pollution due to emerging contaminants. In particular, the source and fate of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac have been analyzed at catchment scale for the Llobregat River in Catalonia (Spain). In fact, water from the Llobregat River is used to supply a significant part of the Metropolitan Area of Barcelona. At the same time, 59 wastewater treatment plants discharge into this basin. GREAT-ER model has been implemented in this basin in order to reproduce a static balance for this pollutant for two field campaigns data set...
December 15, 2013: Journal of Hazardous Materials
V Martella, M C Medici, S De Grazia, F Tummolo, A Calderaro, F Bonura, L Saporito, V Terio, C Catella, G Lanave, C Buonavoglia, G M Giammanco
During 2012, a novel pandemic GII.4 norovirus variant, Sydney 2012, emerged worldwide. A signature of the variant was a GII.Pe ORF1, in association with GII.4 Apeldoorn 2008-like ORF2-ORF3 genes. We report the detection of recombinant GII.4 Sydney 2012 strains, possessing the ORF1 gene of the former pandemic variant New Orleans 2009.
November 2013: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
R Bellini, F Balestrino, A Medici, G Gentile, R Veronesi, M Carrieri
Mating competitiveness trials have been conducted in large net-screened enclosures (8 by 5 by 2.8 m) built in a natural shaded environment, in the summers of 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 in northern Italy. Aedes albopictus (Skuse) males were radio-sterilized by applying gamma radiations at doses in the range 30-60 Gy. Gamma radiation was administered to aged pupae at the rate of 2.3 Gy/min. Reared radiated males (originally collected in Rimini, Forli, Bologna, Matera, Pinerolo) and hybrid radiated males were tested against wild fertile males (originated from eggs collected in Rimini and Cesena) and reared fertile males, in multiple comparisons for mating competitiveness with reared or wild females...
January 2013: Journal of Medical Entomology
S DE Grazia, V Martella, M Chironna, F Bonura, F Tummolo, A Calderaro, P Moschidou, G M Giammanco, M C Medici
The study investigated the genetic diversity of human astroviruses (HAstVs) detected in children hospitalized with gastroenteritis in Italy in 2008-2009. A total of 1321 faecal samples were collected in Parma (northern Italy), Bari (southern Italy), and Palermo (Sicily) and screened for the presence of HAstVs. RT-PCR amplification of a portion at the 5'-end of ORF2 allowed the detection of HAstVs in 3·95% of the patients. Four different genotypes (HAstV-1, HAstV-2, HAstV-4, HAstV-5) were found to be circulating during the study period, with HAstV-1 being the predominant type...
March 2013: Epidemiology and Infection
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