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Peng Li, Chandan Karmakar, John Yearwood, Svetha Venkatesh, Marimuthu Palaniswami, Changchun Liu
Entropy measures that assess signals' complexity have drawn increasing attention recently in biomedical field, as they have shown the ability of capturing unique features that are intrinsic and physiologically meaningful. In this study, we applied entropy analysis to electroencephalogram (EEG) data to examine its performance in epilepsy detection based on short-term EEG, aiming at establishing a short-term analysis protocol with optimal seizure detection performance. Two classification problems were considered, i...
2018: PloS One
Jingxin Zhang, Eike Langbehn, Dennis Krupke, Nicholas Katzakis, Frank Steinicke
Telepresence systems have the potential to overcome limits and distance constraints of the real-world by enabling people to remotely visit and interact with each other. However, current telepresence systems usually lack natural ways of supporting interaction and exploration of remote environments (REs). In particular, single webcams for capturing the RE provide only a limited illusion of spatial presence, and movement control of mobile platforms in today's telepresence systems are often restricted to simple interaction devices...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Sarthak Ghosh, Lauren Winston, Nishant Panchal, Philippe Kimura-Thollander, Jeff Hotnog, Douglas Cheong, Gabriel Reyes, Gregory D Abowd
The proliferation of high resolution and affordable virtual reality (VR) headsets is quickly making room-scale VR experiences available in our homes. Most VR experiences strive to achieve complete immersion by creating a disconnect from the real world. However, due to the lack of a standardized notification management system and minimal context awareness in VR, an immersed user may face certain situations such as missing an important phone call (digital scenario), tripping over wandering pets (physical scenario), or losing track of time (temporal scenario)...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Michael E Paulaitis, Kitty Agarwal, Serge Patrick Nana-Sinkam
A model is proposed for characterizing exosome size distributions based on dynamic scaling of domain growth on the limiting membrane of multivesicular bodies in the established exosome biogenesis pathway. The scaling exponent in this model captures the asymmetry of exosome size distributions, which are notably right-skewed to larger vesicles independent of the minimum detectable vesicle size. Analyses of exosome size distributions obtained by cryo-TEM imaging and nanoparticle tracking (NTA) show, respectively, that the scaling exponent is sensitive to the state of the cell source for exosomes in cell culture supernatants, and can distinguish exosome size distributions in serum samples taken from cancer patients relative to those from healthy donors...
March 15, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Georges Hattab, Veit Wiesmann, Anke Becker, Tamara Munzner, Tim W Nattkemper
Time-lapse imaging of cell colonies in microfluidic chambers provides time series of bioimages, i.e., biomovies. They show the behavior of cells over time under controlled conditions. One of the main remaining bottlenecks in this area of research is the analysis of experimental data and the extraction of cell growth characteristics, such as lineage information. The extraction of the cell line by human observers is time-consuming and error-prone. Previously proposed methods often fail because of their reliance on the accurate detection of a single cell, which is not possible for high density, high diversity of cell shapes and numbers, and high-resolution images with high noise...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Cordell M Baker, Joshua D Burks, Robert G Briggs, Adam D Smitherman, Chad A Glenn, Andrew K Conner, Dee H Wu, Michael E Sughrue
Introduction: Supplementary motor area (SMA) syndrome is a constellation of temporary symptoms that may occur following tumors of the frontal lobe. Affected patients develop akinesia and mutism but often recover within weeks to months. With our own case examples and with correlations to fiber tracking validated by gross anatomical dissection as ground truth, we describe a white matter pathway through which recovery may occur. Methods: Diffusion spectrum imaging from the Human Connectome Project was used for tractography analysis...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Anne E Cox, Madeline A Roberts, Hailey L Cates, Amanda K McMahon
An aversion to the sensations of physical exertion can deter engagement in physical activity. This is due in part to an associative focus in which individuals are attending to uncomfortable interoceptive cues. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of mindfulness on affective valence, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), and enjoyment during treadmill walking. Participants ( N =23; M age =19.26, SD = 1.14) were only included in the study if they engaged in no more than moderate levels of physical activity and reported low levels of intrinsic motivation...
2018: International Journal of Exercise Science
Greg D Reynolds, Kelly C Roth
We present an integrative review of research and theory on major factors involved in the early development of attentional biases to faces. Research utilizing behavioral, eye-tracking, and neuroscience measures with infant participants as well as comparative research with animal subjects are reviewed. We begin with coverage of research demonstrating the presence of an attentional bias for faces shortly after birth, such as newborn infants' visual preference for face-like over non-face stimuli. The role of experience and the process of perceptual narrowing in face processing are examined as infants begin to demonstrate enhanced behavioral and neural responsiveness to mother over stranger, female over male, own- over other-race, and native over non-native faces...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Nicole M Cordina, Nima Sayyadi, Lindsay M Parker, Arun Everest-Dass, Louise J Brown, Nicolle H Packer
Bio-imaging is a key technique in tracking and monitoring important biological processes and fundamental biomolecular interactions, however the interference of background autofluorescence with targeted fluorophores is problematic for many bio-imaging applications. This study reports on two novel methods for reducing interference with cellular autofluorescence for bio-imaging. The first method uses fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs), containing nitrogen vacancy centers. FNDs emit at near-infrared wavelengths typically higher than most cellular autofluorescence; and when appropriately functionalized, can be used for background-free imaging of targeted biomolecules...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
James H Rimmer, Cassandra Herman, Brooks Wingo, Kevin Fontaine, Tapan Mehta
BACKGROUND: Hybrid research designs targeting adults with neurologic disability are critical for improving the efficiency of models that can identify, track and intervene on identified health issues. METHODS: Our Russian doll framework encompasses three study phases. Phase 1 involves prospectively following a cohort of participants with disability to examine the relationships between rates of health and functional deficits (e.g., pain, fatigue, deconditioning), functional measures (e...
March 14, 2018: BMC Medical Research Methodology
R W W Brouwer, M C G N van den Hout, C E M Kockx, E Brosens, B Eussen, A de Klein, F Sleutels, W F J van IJcken
Motivation: PCR-based DNA enrichment followed by massively parallel sequencing is a straightforward and cost effective method to sequence genes up to high depth. The full potential of amplicon based sequencing assays is currently not achieved as analysis methods do not take into account the source amplicons of the detected variants. Tracking the source amplicons has the potential to identify systematic biases, enhance variant calling and improve the designs of future assays. Results: We present Nimbus, a software suite for the analysis of amplicon based sequencing data...
March 10, 2018: Bioinformatics
Lei Kang, Dawei Jiang, Emily B Ehlerding, Todd E Barnhart, Dalong Ni, Jonathan W Engle, Rongfu Wang, Peng Huang, Xiaojie Xu, Weibo Cai
CD30 has been considered a unique diagnostic and therapeutic target for CD30-positive lymphomas and some lung diseases. Additionally, CD30 has shown high expression in clinical lung cancer samples. In this study,89 Zr-radiolabeled Brentuximab vedotin (BV) was developed for in vivo tracking of BV and imaging CD30 expression in lung cancer models via conjugation with desferrioxamine (Df). CD30 expression in three lung cancer cell lines (H460, H358, and A549) was quantified by Western blot. Flow cytometry and saturation binding assays were used to evaluate the binding capabilities of the tracer in vitro...
March 14, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Xiujun Li, Xudong Zhao, Wendian Shi, Yang Lu, Christopher M Conway
A current controversy in the area of implicit statistical learning (ISL) is whether this process consists of a single, central mechanism or multiple modality-specific ones. To provide insight into this question, the current study involved three ISL experiments to explore whether multimodal input sources are processed separately in each modality or are integrated together across modalities. In Experiment 1, visual and auditory ISL were measured under unimodal conditions, with the results providing a baseline level of learning for subsequent experiments...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Giuseppe Placidi, Luigi Cinque, Matteo Polsinelli, Matteo Spezialetti
Hand rehabilitation is fundamental after stroke or surgery. Traditional rehabilitation requires a therapist and implies high costs, stress for the patient, and subjective evaluation of the therapy effectiveness. Alternative approaches, based on mechanical and tracking-based gloves, can be really effective when used in virtual reality (VR) environments. Mechanical devices are often expensive, cumbersome, patient specific and hand specific, while tracking-based devices are not affected by these limitations but, especially if based on a single tracking sensor, could suffer from occlusions...
March 10, 2018: Sensors
Hui Wang, Bin Fang, Le Zhou, Di Li, Lin Kong, Kajsa Uvdal, Zhangjun Hu
A two-photon active probe for physiological copper (Cu2+ ) detection is expected to play an important role in monitoring biological metabolism. Herein, a novel Schiff base derivative (E)-2,2'-((4-((4-(diethylamino)-2-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)phenyl)azanediyl)bis(ethan-1-ol) (L) with remarkable two-photon activity was developed and synthetically investigated. L presents high selectivity and sensitivity for Cu2+ sensing in ethanol/HEPES buffer (v/v, 1 : 1), which is accompanied by the fluorescence switching "off" and subsequently "on" with the addition of EDTA...
March 13, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Vijaya Kancherla, Robert E Black
Neural tube defects (NTD) are major congenital malformations affecting births worldwide. NTD are associated with life-long disability, significant medical care costs, and child mortality. Their prevalence varies worldwide. We conducted a review of published literature and surveillance systems to examine challenges in estimating an overall global prevalence estimate for NTD. Our review showed that most low- and middle-income countries do not track NTD and indicate a high prevalence of these malformations where data are available...
February 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Satomi Shiraishi, Michael P Grams, Luis E Fong de Los Santos
PURPOSE: To demonstrate an objective quality control framework for the image review process. METHODS AND MATERIALS: 927 cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) registrations were retrospectively analyzed for 33 bilateral head and neck cancer patients who received definitive radiotherapy. Two registration tracking volumes (RTVs) - cervical spine (C-spine) and mandible - were defined, within which a similarity metric was calculated and used as a registration quality tracking metric over the course of treatment...
March 12, 2018: Medical Physics
Trafton Drew, Lauren H Williams, Booth Aldred, Marta E Heilbrun, Satoshi Minoshima
What are the costs and consequences of interruptions during diagnostic radiology? The cognitive psychology literature suggests that interruptions lead to an array of negative consequences that could hurt patient outcomes and lead to lower patient throughput. Meanwhile, observational studies have both noted a strikingly high rate of interruptions and rising number of interruptions faced by radiologists. There is some observational evidence that more interruptions could lead to worse patient outcomes: Balint et al...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
John Quan Minh Nguyen, Melanie McWade, Giju Thomas, Bryce T Beddard, Jennifer L Herington, Bibhash C Paria, Herbert S Schwartz, Jennifer L Halpern, Ginger E Holt, Anita Mahadevan-Jansen
Fluorescence imaging is a well-established optical modality that has been used to localize and track fluorophores in vivo and has demonstrated great potential for surgical guidance. Despite the variety of fluorophores currently being researched, many existing intraoperative fluorescence imaging systems are specifically designed for a limited number of applications. We present a modular wide-field fluorescence overlay tissue imaging system for intraoperative surgical guidance that is comprised of commercially available standardized components...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Joanna Hołówka, Damian Trojanowski, Mateusz Janczak, Dagmara Jakimowicz, Jolanta Zakrzewska-Czerwińska
The bacterial chromosome undergoes dynamic changes in response to ongoing cellular processes and adaptation to environmental conditions. Among the many proteins involved in maintaining this dynamism, the most abundant is the nucleoid-associated protein (NAP), HU. In mycobacteria, the HU homolog, HupB, possesses an additional C-terminal domain that resembles that of eukaryotic histones H1/H5. Recently, we demonstrated that the highly abundant HupB occupies the entirety of the M. smegmatis chromosome and exhibits a bias from the origin ( oriC ) to the terminus ( ter )...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
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