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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331474/clinical-databases-for-chest-physicians
#1
REVIEW
Andrew M Courtwright, Peter E Gabriel
A clinical database is a repository of patient medical and sociodemographic information focused on one or more specific health condition or exposure. Although clinical databases may be used for research purposes, their primary goal is to collect and track patient data for quality improvement, quality assurance, and/or actual clinical management. This article aims to provide an introduction and practical advice on the development of small-scale clinical databases for Chest physicians and practice groups. Through example projects we discuss the pros and cons of available technical platforms, including Microsoft Excel and Access, relational database management systems such as Oracle and PostgreSQL, and REDCap...
January 10, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329355/when-the-brain-changes-its-mind-oscillatory-dynamics-of-conflict-processing-and-response-switching-in-a-flanker-task-during-alcohol-challenge
#2
Lauren E Beaton, Sheeva Azma, Ksenija Marinkovic
Despite the subjective experience of being in full and deliberate control of our actions, our daily routines rely on a continuous and interactive engagement of sensory evaluation and response preparation streams. They unfold automatically and unconsciously and are seamlessly integrated with cognitive control which is mobilized by stimuli that evoke ambiguity or response conflict. Methods with high spatio-temporal sensitivity are needed to provide insight into the interplay between automatic and controlled processing...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329332/co-delivery-of-a-laminin-111-supplemented-hyaluronic-acid-based-hydrogel-with-minced-muscle-graft-in-the-treatment-of-volumetric-muscle-loss-injury
#3
Stephen M Goldman, Beth E P Henderson, Thomas J Walters, Benjamin T Corona
Minced muscle autografting mediates de novo myofiber regeneration and promotes partial recovery of neuromuscular strength after volumetric muscle loss injury (VML). A major limitation of this approach is the availability of sufficient donor tissue for the treatment of relatively large VMLs without inducing donor site morbidity. This study evaluated a laminin-111 supplemented hyaluronic acid based hydrogel (HA+LMN) as a putative myoconductive scaffolding to be co-delivered with minced muscle grafts. In a rat tibialis anterior muscle VML model, delivery of a reduced dose of minced muscle graft (50% of VML defect) within HA+LMN resulted in a 42% improvement of peak tetanic torque production over unrepaired VML affected limbs...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328001/gamma-knife-radiosurgery-of-saccular-aneurysms-in-a-rabbit-model
#4
Mark D Meadowcroft, Timothy K Cooper, Sebastian Rupprecht, Thaddeus C Wright, Elizabeth E Neely, Michele Ferenci, Weimin Kang, Qing X Yang, Robert E Harbaugh, James R Connor, James McInerney
OBJECTIVE Intracranial aneurysms are vascular abnormalities associated with neurological morbidity and mortality due to risk of rupture. In addition, many aneurysm treatments have associated risk profiles that can preclude the prophylactic treatment of asymptomatic lesions. Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is a standard treatment for trigeminal neuralgia, tumors, and arteriovenous malformations. Aneurysms associated with arteriovenous malformations have been noted to resolve after treatment of the malformation...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327460/nanocrystal-polymer-particles-extended-delivery-carriers-for-osteoarthritis-treatment
#5
Pierre Maudens, Christian Alexander Seemayer, Cédric Thauvin, Cem Gabay, Olivier Jordan, Eric Allémann
An efficient treatment for osteoarthritis (OA) can benefit from the local release of a high therapeutic dose over an extended period of time. Such a treatment will minimize systemic side effects and avoid the inconvenience of frequent injections. To this aim, nanocrystal-polymer particles (NPPs) are developed by combining the advantages of nanotechnology and microparticles. Nanocrystals are produced by wet milling kartogenin (KGN), which is known to promote chondrogenesis and to foster chondroprotection. A fluorescent biodegradable polymer is synthesized for intravital particle tracking...
January 12, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325592/magnesium-sulphate-for-fetal-neuroprotection-to-prevent-cerebral-palsy-mag-cp-implementation-of-a-national-guideline-in-canada
#6
Dane A De Silva, Anne R Synnes, Peter von Dadelszen, Tang Lee, Jeffrey N Bone, Laura A Magee
BACKGROUND: Evidence supports magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) for women at risk of imminent birth at < 32-34 weeks to reduce the likelihood of cerebral palsy in the child. MAGnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection to prevent Cerebral Palsy (MAG-CP) was a multifaceted knowledge translation (KT) strategy for this practice. METHODS: The KT strategy included national clinical practice guidelines, a national online e-learning module and, at MAG-CP sites, educational rounds, focus group discussions and surveys of barriers and facilitators...
January 11, 2018: Implementation Science: IS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324811/scale-up-of-kenya-s-national-hiv-viral-load-program-findings-and-lessons-learned
#7
Matilu Mwau, Catherine Akinyi Syeunda, Maureen Adhiambo, Priska Bwana, Lucy Kithinji, Joy Mwende, Laura Oyiengo, Martin Sirengo, Caroline E Boeke
OBJECTIVES: Kenya is one of the first African countries to scale up a national HIV viral load monitoring program. We sought to assess program scale up using the national database and identify areas for systems strengthening. METHODS: Data from January 2012 to March 2016 were extracted from Kenya's national viral load database. Characteristics of 1,108,356 tests were assessed over time, including reason for testing, turnaround times, test results, treatment regimens, and socio-demographic information...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323517/individual-differences-are-more-than-a-gene-%C3%A3-environment-interaction-the-role-of-learning
#8
Nicola C Byrom, Robin A Murphy
Individual differences in behavior are understood generally as arising from an interaction between genes and environment, omitting a crucial component. The literature on animal and human learning suggests the need to posit principles of learning to explain our differences. One of the challenges for the advancement of the field has been to establish how general principles of learning can explain the almost infinite variation in behavior. We present a case that: (a) individual differences in behavior emerge, in part, from principles of learning; (b) associations provide a descriptive mechanism for understanding the contribution of experience to behavior; and (c) learning theories explain dissociable aspects of behavior...
January 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Animal Learning and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322875/biomechanical-analysis-of-capsular-repair-versus-arthrex-tfcc-ulnar-tunnel-repair-for-triangular-fibrocartilage-complex-tears
#9
Jayson C Johnson, Ferris M Pfeiffer, Jill E Jouret, David M Brogan
BACKGROUND: This study compares the effectiveness of a peripheral capsular repair with a knotless arthroscopic transosseous ulnar tunnel repair (TR) in restoring distal radioulnar joint (DRUJ) stability and stiffness in the setting of a massive triangular fibrocartilage complex (TFCC) tear. METHODS: Eight matched pairs of fresh-frozen cadaveric forearms were tested. Each forearm was tested in supination and pronation using 3-dimensional (3D) optical tracking devices prior to any intervention...
January 1, 2018: Hand: Official Journal of the American Association for Hand Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322276/integrating-direct-observation-and-gps-tracking-to-monitor-animal-behavior-for-resource-management
#10
Chelsey Walden-Schreiner, Yu-Fai Leung, Tim Kuhn, Todd Newburger
Monitoring the behavior of pack animals in protected areas informs management about use patterns and the potential associated negative impacts. However, systematic assessments of behavior are uncommon due to methodological and logistical constraints. This study integrated behavior mapping with GPS tracking, and applied behavior change point analysis, as an approach to monitor the behaviors of pack animals during overnight periods. The integrated approach identified multiple grazing patterns (i.e., locally intense grazing, ambulatory grazing) not feasible through a single methodology alone...
January 10, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321853/tracking-plant-preference-for-higher-quality-mycorrhizal-symbionts-under-varying-co2-conditions-over-multiple-generations
#11
Gijsbert D A Werner, Yeling Zhou, Corné M J Pieterse, E Toby Kiers
The symbiosis between plants and root-colonizing arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi is one of the most ecologically important examples of interspecific cooperation in the world. AM fungi provide benefits to plants; in return plants allocate carbon resources to fungi, preferentially allocating more resources to higher-quality fungi. However, preferential allocations from plants to symbionts may vary with environmental context, particularly when resource availability affects the relative value of symbiotic services...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321615/functional-isolation-of-tumor-initiating-cells-using-microfluidic-based-migration-identifies-phosphatidylserine-decarboxylase-as-a-key-regulator
#12
Yu-Chih Chen, Brock Humphries, Riley Brien, Anne E Gibbons, Yu-Ting Chen, Tonela Qyli, Henry R Haley, Matthew E Pirone, Benjamin Chiang, Annie Xiao, Yu-Heng Cheng, Yi Luan, Zhixiong Zhang, Jason Cong, Kathryn E Luker, Gary D Luker, Euisik Yoon
Isolation of tumor-initiating cells currently relies on markers that do not reflect essential biologic functions of these cells. We proposed to overcome this limitation by isolating tumor-initiating cells based on enhanced migration, a function tightly linked to tumor-initiating potential through epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We developed a high-throughput microfluidic migration platform with automated cell tracking software and facile recovery of cells for downstream functional and genetic analyses...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321168/tools-allowing-independent-visualization-and-genetic-manipulation-of-drosophilamelanogaster-macrophages-and-surrounding-tissues
#13
Attila Gyoergy, Marko Roblek, Aparna Ratheesh, Katarina Valoskova, Vera Belyaeva, Stephanie Wachner, Yutaka Matsubayashi, Besaiz J Sánchez-Sánchez, Brian Stramer, Daria E Siekhaus
Drosophila melanogaster plasmatocytes, the phagocytic cells among hemocytes, are essential for immune responses, but also play key roles from early development to death through their interactions with other cell types. They regulate homeostasis and signaling during development, stem cell proliferation, metabolism, cancer, wound responses and aging, displaying intriguing molecular and functional conservation with vertebrate macrophages. Given the relative ease of genetics in Drosophila compared to vertebrates, tools permitting visualization and genetic manipulation of plasmatocytes and surrounding tissues independently at all stages would greatly aid in fully understanding these processes, but are lacking...
January 10, 2018: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29319246/dengue-outbreak-2012-geo-mapping-and-snapshot-of-clinical-course-from-a-tertiary-referral-center-in-south-india
#14
Ganesh Veerasekar, Krishnan Swaminathan
Background: Using technology to track endemic areas of communicable diseases is possible nowadays. Effectual use of such facilities, especially in developing countries, will increase earlier detection of cases as well as aid in the formulation of effective prevention strategies. Methods: A retrospective data analysis was carried out by collecting the details of patients presented with positive dengue serology, during the outbreak season in the second half of 2012, at Kovai Medical Center and Hospital, Coimbatore, India...
October 2017: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318172/clinical-factors-that-predict-a-second-acl-injury-after-acl-reconstruction-and-return-to-sport-preliminary-development-of-a-clinical-decision-algorithm
#15
Mark V Paterno, Bin Huang, Staci Thomas, Timothy E Hewett, Laura C Schmitt
Background: Biomechanical predictors of a second anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury after ACL reconstruction (ACLR) and return to sport (RTS) have been identified; however, these measures may not be feasible in a standard clinical environment. Purpose/Hypothesis: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether standard clinical measures predicted the risk of second ACL injuries. The hypothesis tested was that a combination of strength, function, and patient-reported measures at the time of RTS would predict the risk of second ACL injuries with high sensitivity and specificity...
December 2017: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317629/3d-single-molecule-super-resolution-microscopy-with-a-tilted-light-sheet
#16
Anna-Karin Gustavsson, Petar N Petrov, Maurice Y Lee, Yoav Shechtman, W E Moerner
Tilted light sheet microscopy with 3D point spread functions (TILT3D) combines a novel, tilted light sheet illumination strategy with long axial range point spread functions (PSFs) for low-background, 3D super-localization of single molecules as well as 3D super-resolution imaging in thick cells. Because the axial positions of the single emitters are encoded in the shape of each single-molecule image rather than in the position or thickness of the light sheet, the light sheet need not be extremely thin. TILT3D is built upon a standard inverted microscope and has minimal custom parts...
January 9, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316459/a-discrete-particle-model-reproducing-collective-dynamics-of-a-bee-swarm
#17
Sara Bernardi, Annachiara Colombi, Marco Scianna
In this article, we present a microscopic discrete mathematical model describing collective dynamics of a bee swarm. More specifically, each bee is set to move according to individual strategies and social interactions, the former involving the desire to reach a target destination, the latter accounting for repulsive/attractive stimuli and for alignment processes. The insects tend in fact to remain sufficiently close to the rest of the population, while avoiding collisions, and they are able to track and synchronize their movement to the flight of a given set of neighbors within their visual field...
January 2, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315860/nanoparticle-cell-interaction-a-cell-mechanics-perspective
#18
REVIEW
Dedy Septiadi, Federica Crippa, Thomas Lee Moore, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser, Alke Petri-Fink
Progress in the field of nanoparticles has enabled the rapid development of multiple products and technologies; however, some nanoparticles can pose both a threat to the environment and human health. To enable their safe implementation, a comprehensive knowledge of nanoparticles and their biological interactions is needed. In vitro and in vivo toxicity tests have been considered the gold standard to evaluate nanoparticle safety, but it is becoming necessary to understand the impact of nanosystems on cell mechanics...
January 9, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313213/effects-of-hyperaemia-on-left-ventricular-longitudinal-strain-in-patients-with-suspected-coronary-artery-disease-a%C3%A2-first-pass-stress-perfusion-cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#19
P Garg, R Aziz, T Al Musa, D P Ripley, P Haaf, J R J Foley, P P Swoboda, G J Fent, L E Dobson, J P Greenwood, S Plein
AIMS: Myocardial perfusion imaging during hyperaemic stress is commonly used to detect coronary artery disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between left ventricular global longitudinal strain (GLS), strain rate (GLSR), myocardial early (E') and late diastolic velocities (A') with adenosine stress first-pass perfusion cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. METHODS AND RESULTS: 44 patients met the inclusion criteria and underwent CMR imaging...
January 8, 2018: Netherlands Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312830/developmental-effects-of-environmental-light-on-male-nuptial-coloration-in-lake-victoria-cichlid-fish
#20
Daniel Shane Wright, Emma Rietveld, Martine E Maan
Background: Efficient communication requires that signals are well transmitted and perceived in a given environment. Natural selection therefore drives the evolution of different signals in different environments. In addition, environmental heterogeneity at small spatial or temporal scales may favour phenotypic plasticity in signaling traits, as plasticity may allow rapid adjustment of signal expression to optimize transmission. In this study, we explore signal plasticity in the nuptial coloration of Lake Victoria cichlids, Pundamilia pundamilia and Pundamilia nyererei...
2018: PeerJ
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