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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037794/ventricular-performance-is-associated-with-need-for-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-newborns-with-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#1
Gabriel Altit, Shazia Bhombal, Krisa Van Meurs, Theresa A Tacy
OBJECTIVE: To compare echocardiography (ECHO) findings of patients with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) who required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to non-ECMO treated patients. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed clinical and ECHO data of newborns with CDH born between 2009 and 2016. Exclusions included major anomalies, genetic syndromes, or no ECHO prior to ECMO. Pulmonary hypertension was assessed by ductal shunting and tricuspid regurgitant jet. Speckle tracking echocardiography (STE) assessed function by quantifying deformation...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030748/neuroimaging-of-cavernous-malformations
#2
REVIEW
Maxim Mokin, Siviero Agazzi, Lowell Dawson, Christopher T Primiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are common vascular abnormalities often discovered on imaging as an incidental finding. The most common clinical presentations of CCMs include seizure, headache, focal neurological deficits, and intracranial hemorrhage. This article discusses the most recent guidelines including imaging diagnostic criteria and radiographic standards of CCMs and reviews the utility of currently available imaging techniques. RECENT FINDINGS: Gradient echo T2*-weighted imaging and susceptibility-weighted imaging are the recommended imaging protocols for evaluation of suspected CCMs...
October 13, 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025406/impact-of-empagliflozin-on-subclinical-left-ventricular-dysfunctions-and-on-the-mechanisms-involved-in-myocardial-disease-progression-in-type-2-diabetes-rationale-and-design-of-the-empa-heart-trial
#3
Andrea Natali, Lorenzo Nesti, Iacopo Fabiani, Enrico Calogero, Vitantonio Di Bello
BACKGROUND: Asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction is highly prevalent in type 2 diabetes patients. Unlike the other hypoglycemic drugs, SGLT2 inhibitors have shown potential benefits for reducing cardiovascular death and risk factors, aside from lowering plasma glucose levels. With this study we aim at determining whether the treatment with empagliflozin is associated with an improvement in LV functions in diabetic patients with asymptomatic LV dysfunction against Sitagliptin, which is presumably neutral on myocardial function...
October 12, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990342/post-tavr-aortogram-transform-it-into-a-modern-tool-for-prognosis-and-efficiency
#4
EDITORIAL
Pradeep K Yadav, Ian C Gilchrist
Video densitometry after aortography can provide objective assessment of aortic regurgitation post-transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) Contrast density ratio between the left ventricular outflow track and proximal aorta (LVOT-AR) of >0.17 suggests greater than mild aortic insufficiency and correlates with echo findings LVOT-AR of >0.17 is associated with higher 30-day and 1-year mortality.
October 1, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981407/magnetic-resonance-rf-pulse-design-by-optimal-control-with-physical-constraints
#5
Armin Rund, Christoph Stefan Aigner, Karl Kunisch, Rudolf Stollberger
Optimal control approaches have proved useful in designing RF pulses for large tip-angle applications. A typical challenge for optimal control design is the inclusion of constraints resulting from physiological or technical limitations, that assure the realizability of the optimized pulses. In this work we show how to treat such inequality constraints, in particular, amplitude constraints on the B1 field, the slice-selective gradient and its slew rate, as well as constraints on the slice profile accuracy. For the latter a pointwise profile error and additional phase constraints are prescribed...
October 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980280/renin-angiotensin-system-inhibition-is-associated-with-reduced-risk-of-left-atrial-appendage-thrombosis-formation-in-patients-with-atrial-fibrillation
#6
Ya Suo, Yue Zhang, Yuanyuan Wang, Meng Yuan, Sayuri Kariyawasam, Gary Tse, Tong Liu, Huaying Fu, Guangping Li
BACKGROUND: Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin axis can reduce the likelihood of atrial fibrillation (AF). However, the effects of angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) on thrombogenicity in AF remain incompletely elucidated. Thisretrospective case-control study was conducted to evaluate whether the use of ACEI or ARB could reduce the incidence of left atrial appendage thrombus (LAAT) and spontaneous echocardiographic contrast (SEC) in patients with AF...
October 5, 2017: Cardiology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973851/echolocating-bats-rely-on-audiovocal-feedback-to-adapt-sonar-signal-design
#7
Jinhong Luo, Cynthia F Moss
Many species of bat emit acoustic signals and use information carried by echoes reflecting from nearby objects to navigate and forage. It is widely documented that echolocating bats adjust the features of sonar calls in response to echo feedback; however, it remains unknown whether audiovocal feedback contributes to sonar call design. Audiovocal feedback refers to the monitoring of one's own vocalizations during call production and has been intensively studied in nonecholocating animals. Audiovocal feedback not only is a necessary component of vocal learning but also guides the control of the spectro-temporal structure of vocalizations...
September 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969880/cerebral-microbleeds-remain-for-nine-years-a-prospective-study-with-yearly-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#8
Tsukasa Saito, Yuichiro Kawamura, Nobuyuki Sato, Eitaro Sugiyama, Motoi Okada, Toshiharu Takeuchi, Kazumi Akasaka, Naoyuki Hasebe
BACKGROUND: Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are refined neuroimaging findings detected on T2*-weighted gradient echo (GRE) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and are widely accepted as an important marker of the vulnerability of cerebral small vessels. It is necessary to further clarify the natural history of CMBs by a longitudinal study. This study aimed to reveal the natural history of CMBs and find a better way to track CMBs by a prospective long-term observation. METHODS: We performed yearly brain MRI assessments for 7 or more years in 8 nonvalvular atrial fibrillation Japanese outpatients with CMBs detected in the baseline MRI...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962901/whole-brain-g-ratio-mapping-using-myelin-water-imaging-mwi-and-neurite-orientation-dispersion-and-density-imaging-noddi
#9
REVIEW
Woojin Jung, Jingu Lee, Hyeong-Geol Shin, Yoonho Nam, Hui Zhang, Se-Hong Oh, Jongho Lee
MR g-ratio, which measures the ratio of the aggregate volume of axons to that of fibers in a voxel, is a potential biomarker for white matter microstructures. In this study, a new approach for acquiring an in-vivo whole human brain g-ratio map is proposed. To estimate the g-ratio, myelin volume fraction and axonal volume fraction are acquired using multi-echo gradient echo myelin water imaging (GRE-MWI) and neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI), respectively. In order to translate myelin water fraction measured in GRE-MWI into myelin volume fraction, a new scaling procedure is proposed and validated...
September 26, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961271/multiplanar-strain-quantification-for-assessment-of-right-ventricular-dysfunction-and-non-ischemic-fibrosis-among-patients-with-ischemic-mitral-regurgitation
#10
Antonino Di Franco, Jiwon Kim, Sara Rodriguez-Diego, Omar Khalique, Jonathan Y Siden, Samantha R Goldburg, Neil K Mehta, Aparna Srinivasan, Mark B Ratcliffe, Robert A Levine, Filippo Crea, Richard B Devereux, Jonathan W Weinsaft
BACKGROUND: Ischemic mitral regurgitation (iMR) predisposes to right ventricular (RV) pressure and volume overload, providing a nidus for RV dysfunction (RVDYS) and non-ischemic fibrosis (NIF). Echocardiography (echo) is widely used to assess iMR, but performance of different indices as markers of RVDYS and NIF is unknown. METHODS: iMR patients prospectively underwent echo and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) within 72 hours. Echo quantified iMR, assessed conventional RV indices (TAPSE, RV-S', fractional area change [FAC]), and strain via speckle tracking in apical 4-chamber (global longitudinal strain [RV-GLS]) and parasternal long axis orientation (transverse strain)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955291/assessing-metabolism-and-injury-in-acute-human-traumatic-brain-injury-with-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-current-and-future-applications
#11
REVIEW
Matthew G Stovell, Jiun-Lin Yan, Alison Sleigh, Marius O Mada, T Adrian Carpenter, Peter J A Hutchinson, Keri L H Carpenter
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) triggers a series of complex pathophysiological processes. These include abnormalities in brain energy metabolism; consequent to reduced tissue pO2 arising from ischemia or abnormal tissue oxygen diffusion, or due to a failure of mitochondrial function. In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) allows non-invasive interrogation of brain tissue metabolism in patients with acute brain injury. Nuclei with "spin," e.g., (1)H, (31)P, and (13)C, are detectable using MRS and are found in metabolites at various stages of energy metabolism, possessing unique signatures due to their chemical shift or spin-spin interactions (J-coupling)...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950060/rotational-echoes-rephasing-of-centrifugal-distortion-in-laser-induced-molecular-alignment
#12
Dina Rosenberg, Ran Damari, Shimshon Kallush, Sharly Fleischer
We study and demonstrate the rephasing property of the echo response in a multilevel rotational system of iodomethane via long time-resolved optical birefringence measurements. The strong centrifugal distortion of iodomethane is utilized as a dephasing mechanism imprinted on the echo signal and is shown to rephase throughout its evolution. The dependence of the echo signal amplitude on the driving pulses' intensities is theoretically and experimentally explored. The analogy to Hahn's spin echoes is discussed, and a quantum-mechanical version of Hahn's track runners is provided for the case of multilevel rotational system...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948501/multimodality-imaging-of-the-right-ventricle
#13
REVIEW
Christiane M Abouzeid, Tara Shah, Ansh Johri, Jonathan W Weinsaft, Jiwon Kim
Right ventricular (RV) structure and function is clinically important in a wide range of conditions. While conventional echocardiography (echo) methods are widely used, its limitations in RV assessment due its complex geometry are well recognized. New applications of traditional echo methods as well as emerging echo techniques including 3-dimensional (3D) echo and speckle tracking strain have the potential to overcome limitations of conventional echo, though widespread clinical use remains to be seen. Volumetric methods using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and computed tomography (CT) provide accurate assessment of RV function without geometric assumptions...
September 25, 2017: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948364/worsening-in-longitudinal-strain-and-strain-rate-anticipates-development-of-pediatric-transplant-coronary-artery-vasculopathy-as-soon-as-one%C3%A2-year-following-transplant
#14
Richard J Boruta, Shelley D Miyamoto, Adel K Younoszai, Sonali S Patel, Bruce F Landeck
Transplant coronary artery vasculopathy (TCAV) following orthotopic heart transplantation (OHT) continues to be the primary reason for late graft failure in children. The current gold standard of diagnosis of TCAV is coronary angiography with or without intravascular ultrasound. This study investigates the longitudinal use of speckle-tracking echocardiographic strain imaging as an early non-invasive marker to screen for development of TCAV. Echocardiograms from patients who underwent OHT between 2006 and 2010 at Children's Hospital Colorado (n = 50) were retrospectively assessed...
September 25, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935634/assessment-of-left-ventricular-function-and-peripheral-vascular-arterial-stiffness-in-patients-with-dipper-and-non-dipper-hypertension
#15
Yan Chen, Ju-Hua Liu, Zhe Zhen, Yuan Zuo, Qingshan Lin, Mingya Liu, Chunting Zhao, Min Wu, Gaozhen Cao, Run Wang, Hung-Fat Tse, Kai-Hang Yiu
A non-dipper pattern of high blood pressure is associated with increased risk of organ damage and cardiovascular disease in patients with hypertension. The aim of the study was to evaluate the left ventricular (LV) remodeling and function and arterial stiffness in a dipper/non-dipper pattern of high blood pressure in patients with hypertension. A total of 183 hypertensive patients with no history of adverse cardiovascular events were divided into two groups based on 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM): 66 patients with a dipper pattern and 117 patients with non-dipper pattern...
September 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Medicine: the Official Publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931401/a-novel-multiparametric-imaging-approach-to-acute-myocarditis-using-t2-mapping-and-cmr-feature-tracking
#16
Bettina Baeßler, Melanie Treutlein, Frank Schaarschmidt, Christian Stehning, Bernhard Schnackenburg, Guido Michels, David Maintz, Alexander C Bunck
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic potential of a novel cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) based multiparametric imaging approach in suspected myocarditis and to compare it to traditional Lake Louise criteria (LLC). METHODS: CMR data from 67 patients with suspected acute myocarditis were retrospectively analyzed. Seventeen age- and gender-matched healthy subjects served as control. T2-mapping data were acquired using a Gradient-Spin-Echo T2-mapping sequence in short-axis orientation...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926154/brain-functional-connectome-abnormalities-in-als-are-associated-with-disability-and-cortical-hyperexcitability
#17
Nimeshan Geevasinga, Mayuresh S Korgaonkar, Parvathi Menon, Mehdi Van den Bos, Lavier Gomes, Sheryl Foster, Matthew C Kiernan, Steve Vucic
OBJECTIVE: The present study utilized a multimodality approach encompassing connectome network combined with brain volume analysis, and assessment of cortical excitability to provide novel insights into amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. METHODS: Magnetic resonance images (MRI) were acquired using a 3.0 Tesla GE Signa HDx scanner, using an 8-channel head coil. MR images for the resting state scan were acquired using echo planar imaging MR sequence, acquiring 40 contiguous axial/oblique slices...
September 19, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899862/challenges-and-opportunity-in-the-era-of-quantitative-echocardiography
#18
EDITORIAL
Cheuk-Man Yu
The advancement of echocardiography in the past two decades is more than downsizing of the machines and improvement of image quality, but introduction of new imaging modalities leading to the ability of performing quantitative analysis. This function is greatly facilitated by the integration of echo machines with high performance computers, software programming and establishment of workstation for offline analysis. Today, echo examination is more than estimation of ejection fraction (EF) and patterns of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction...
September 12, 2017: Echo Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894765/active-phantoms-a-paradigm-for-ultrasound-calibration-using-phantom-feedback
#19
Alexis Cheng, Xiaoyu Guo, Haichong K Zhang, Hyun Jae Kang, Ralph Etienne-Cummings, Emad M Boctor
In ultrasound (US)-guided medical procedures, accurate tracking of interventional tools is crucial to patient safety and clinical outcome. This requires a calibration procedure to recover the relationship between the US image and the tracking coordinate system. In literature, calibration has been performed on passive phantoms, which depend on image quality and parameters, such as frequency, depth, and beam-thickness as well as in-plane assumptions. In this work, we introduce an active phantom for US calibration...
July 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875298/2d-longitudinal-lv-speckle-tracking-strain-pattern-in-breast-cancer-survivors-sports-activity-vs-exercise-as-prescription-model
#20
Giorgio Galanti, Gianni Pedrizzetti, Stefano Pedri, Laura Stefani
Prevention strategies are important to optimize and to manage heart care in breast cancer survivors. Regular physical activity at moderate intensity is normally proposed to maintain myocardial performance; however, no data is available about the different impact of different levels of physical exercise. 2D speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) is an accepted method for early detection of myocardial dysfunction. The study aims to monitor the cardiac performances in breast cancer survivors by 2DSTE analysis to manage sports activity vs physical activity...
September 5, 2017: Internal and Emergency Medicine
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