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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816752/reduced-intake-of-carbohydrate-prevents-the-development-of-obesity-and-impaired-glucose-metabolism-in-ghrelin-o-acyltransferase-knockout-mice
#1
Tetsuya Kouno, Nobuteru Akiyama, Kumiko Fujieda, Isamu Nanchi, Tomohiko Okuda, Takanori Iwasaki, Shogo Oka, Hideo Yukioka
A close relationship between acylated-ghrelin and sucrose intake has been reported. However, little has been examined about the physiological action of ghrelin on preference for different types of carbohydrate such as glucose, fructose, and starch. The current study was aimed to investigate the role of acylated-ghrelin in the determinants of the choice of carbohydrates, and pathogenesis of chronic disorders, including obesity and insulin resistance. In a two-bottle-drinking test, ghrelin O-acyltransferase (GOAT) knockout (KO) mice consumed a less amount of glucose and maltodextrin, and almost the same amount of fructose and saccharin solution compared to WT littermates...
December 2016: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780819/light-load-resistance-exercise-increases-muscle-protein-synthesis-and-hypertrophy-signaling-in-elderly-men
#2
Jakob Agergaard, Jacob Bulow, Jacob K Jensen, Søren Reitelseder, Micah J Drummond, Peter Schjerling, Thomas Scheike, Anja Serena, Lars Holm
INTRODUCTION: The present study investigated whether well-tolerated light-load resistance exercise (LL-RE) affects skeletal muscle fractional synthetic rate (FSR) and anabolic intracellular signaling as a way to counteract age-related loss of muscle mass. METHODS: Untrained healthy men (age: +65 yrs) were subjected to 13 hours supine rest. After 21/2 hours of rest, unilateral LL-RE was conducted consisting of leg extensions (10 sets, 36 repetitions) at 16% 1RM. Subsequently, the subjects were randomized to oral intake of PULSE (4g whey protein/hour; N=10), BOLUS (28g whey protein at 0 hours and 12g whey protein at 7 hours post-exercise; N=10) or placebo (4g maltodextrin/hour; N=10)...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27596397/effective-lactobacillus-plantarum-and-bifidobacterium-infantis-encapsulation-with-chia-seed-salvia-hispanica-l-and-flaxseed-linum-usitatissimum-l-mucilage-and-soluble-protein-by-spray-drying
#3
Mariela Bustamante, B Dave Oomah, Mónica Rubilar, Carolina Shene
Mucilage (M) and soluble protein (SP) extracted from chia seed and flaxseed were used as encapsulating material for two probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium infantis and Lactobacillus plantarum by spray drying. Probiotic survival and viability after spray drying and during storage were evaluated. B. infantis and L. plantarum displayed high survival (⩾98%) after encapsulation with mixtures of maltodextrin (MD) combined with M and SP from flaxseed (MD:FM:FSP - 7.5:0.2:7.5%, w/w/w) and chia seed (MD:CM:CSP - 7...
February 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27523919/effect-of-creatine-supplementation-and-drop-set-resistance-training-in-untrained-aging-adults
#4
Sarah Johannsmeyer, Darren G Candow, C Markus Brahms, Deborah Michel, Gordon A Zello
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of creatine supplementation and drop-set resistance training in untrained aging adults. Participants were randomized to one of two groups: Creatine (CR: n=14, 7 females, 7 males; 58.0±3.0yrs, 0.1g/kg/day of creatine+0.1g/kg/day of maltodextrin) or Placebo (PLA: n=17, 7 females, 10 males; age: 57.6±5.0yrs, 0.2g/kg/day of maltodextrin) during 12weeks of drop-set resistance training (3days/week; 2 sets of leg press, chest press, hack squat and lat pull-down exercises performed to muscle fatigue at 80% baseline 1-repetition maximum [1-RM] immediately followed by repetitions to muscle fatigue at 30% baseline 1-RM)...
October 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27512687/imaging-bacteria-with-radiolabelled-quinolones-cephalosporins-and-siderophores-for-imaging-infection-a-systematic-review
#5
S Auletta, F Galli, C Lauri, D Martinelli, I Santino, Alberto Signore
Bacterial infections are still one of the main causes of patient morbidity and mortality worldwide. Nowadays, many imaging techniques, like computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, are used to identify inflammatory processes, but, although they recognize anatomical modifications, they cannot easily distinguish bacterial infective foci from non bacterial infections. In nuclear medicine, many efforts have been made to develop specific radiopharmaceuticals to discriminate infection from sterile inflammation...
2016: Clinical and Translational Imaging: Reviews in Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466602/protein-supplementation-has-minimal-effects-on-muscle-adaptations-during-resistance-exercise-training-in-young-men-a-double-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Paul T Reidy, Michael S Borack, Melissa M Markofski, Jared M Dickinson, Rachel R Deer, Syed H Husaini, Dillon K Walker, Sherry Igbinigie, Shay M Robertson, Mark B Cope, Ratna Mukherjea, Janine M Hall-Porter, Kristofer Jennings, Elena Volpi, Blake B Rasmussen
BACKGROUND: To our knowledge the efficacy of soy-dairy protein blend (PB) supplementation with resistance exercise training (RET) has not been evaluated in a longitudinal study. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to determine the effect of PB supplementation during RET on muscle adaptation. METHODS: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, healthy young men [18-30 y; BMI (in kg/m(2)): 25 ± 0.5] participated in supervised whole-body RET at 60-80% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) for 3 d/wk for 12 wk with random assignment to daily receive 22 g PB (n = 23), whey protein (WP) isolate (n = 22), or an isocaloric maltodextrin (carbohydrate) placebo [(MDP) n = 23]...
September 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27456494/effect-of-prebiotic-intake-on-gut-microbiota-intestinal-permeability-and-glycemic-control-in-children-with-type-1-diabetes-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#7
Josephine Ho, Raylene A Reimer, Manpreet Doulla, Carol Huang
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is increasingly recognized as a contributor to disease states. Patients with type 1 diabetes (DM1) have distinct gut microbiota in comparison to non-diabetic individuals, and it has been linked to changes in intestinal permeability, inflammation and insulin resistance. Prebiotics are non-digestible carbohydrates that alter gut microbiota and could potentially improve glycemic control in children with DM1. This pilot study aims to determine the feasibility of a 12-week dietary intervention with prebiotics in children with DM1...
2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27408987/cordyceps-militaris-improves-tolerance-to-high-intensity-exercise-after-acute-and-chronic-supplementation
#8
Katie R Hirsch, Abbie E Smith-Ryan, Erica J Roelofs, Eric T Trexler, Meredith G Mock
To determine the effects of a mushroom blend containing Cordyceps militaris on high-intensity exercise after 1 and 3 weeks of supplementation. Twenty-eight individuals (Mean ± standard deviation [SD]; Age = 22.7 ± 4.1 yrs; Height = 175.4 ± 8.7 cm; Weight = 71.6 ± 12.0 kg) participated in this randomized, repeated measures, double-blind, placebo-controlled design. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), time to exhaustion (TTE), and ventilatory threshold (VT) were measured during a maximal graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer...
July 13, 2016: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27143108/fibersol-2-induces-apoptosis-of-apc-deficient-colorectal-cancer-sw480-cells-and-decreases-polyp-formation-in-apc-min-mice
#9
Sara Cuesta Sancho, Susan Losee Olson, Eui Young So, Kazuhiro Shimomura, Toru Ouchi, Fabian Preuss
The consumption of dietary fibers has been implicated with a lowered risk of human colorectal cancer. Proposed mechanisms involve alterations in the stool consistency, transit time, and formation of short-chain fatty acid by dietary fiber fermentation, and the reorganization of gut microbiota. Here we show that Fibersol-2, a digest-resistant maltodextrin, not only inhibits proliferation of colorectal SW480 cancer cell lines by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS), but decreases the numbers of the adenoma count in Multiple Intestinal Neoplasia (MIN) mice carrying a mutation in the Adenomatous Polyposis Coli gene by 84 d of age...
June 2, 2016: Cancer Biology & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27117853/effects-of-resistant-glucan-mixture-on-bowel-movement-in-female-volunteers
#10
Norihisa Hamaguchi, Hirokazu Hirai, Hiroyuki Bito, Koichi Ogawa
Resistant glucan (RG) is a water-soluble polysaccharide resistant to hydrolysis by digestive enzymes in the human gastrointestinal system. RG mixture (RGM) contains more than 75% RG as dietary fiber and other saccharides. The effects of ingestion of 3.3, 6.6, and 13.2 g/d of RGM (containing of 2.5, 5.0, and 10.0 g/d RG as dietary fiber) on the fecal properties and the frequency of defecation were investigated in 60 female volunteers with constipation. The study was designed as a randomized, single-blinded, and placebo-controlled parallel-group trial...
2016: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27100399/the-influence-of-prebiotic-arabinoxylan-oligosaccharides-on-microbiota-derived-uremic-retention-solutes-in-patients-with-chronic-kidney-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ruben Poesen, Pieter Evenepoel, Henriette de Loor, Jan A Delcour, Christophe M Courtin, Dirk Kuypers, Patrick Augustijns, Kristin Verbeke, Björn Meijers
UNLABELLED: The colonic microbial metabolism is a key contributor to uremic retention solutes accumulating in patients with CKD, relating to adverse outcomes and insulin resistance. Whether prebiotics can reduce intestinal generation of these microbial metabolites and improve insulin resistance in CKD patients not yet on dialysis remains unknown. We performed a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study in 40 patients with eGFR between 15 and 45 ml/min/1.73 m2. Patients were randomized to sequential treatment with prebiotic arabinoxylan oligosaccharides (AXOS) (10 g twice daily) and maltodextrin for 4 weeks, or vice versa, with a 4-week wash-out period between both intervention periods...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26987626/%C3%AE-2-1-fructan-supplementation-alters-host-immune-responses-in-a-manner-consistent-with-increased-exposure-to-microbial-components-results-from-a-double-blinded-randomised-cross-over-study-in-healthy-adults
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Sandra T Clarke, Julia M Green-Johnson, Stephen P J Brooks, D Dan Ramdath, Premysl Bercik, Christian Avila, G Douglas Inglis, Judy Green, L Jay Yanke, L Brent Selinger, Martin Kalmokoff
β2-1 Fructans are purported to improve health by stimulating growth of colonic bifidobacteria, increasing host resistance to pathogens and stimulating the immune system. However, in healthy adults, the benefits of supplementation remain undefined. Adults (thirteen men, seventeen women) participated in a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomised, cross-over study consisting of two 28-d treatments separated by a 14-d washout period. Subjects' regular diets were supplemented with β2-1 fructan or placebo (maltodextrin) at 3×5 g/d...
May 28, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26929930/effects-of-dietary-fiber-preparations-made-from-maize-starch-on-the-growth-and-activity-of-selected-bacteria-from-the-firmicutes-bacteroidetes-and-actinobacteria-phyla-in-fecal-samples-from-obese-children
#13
Renata Barczynska, Katarzyna Slizewska, Mieczyslaw Litwin, Mieczyslaw Szalecki, Janusz Kapusniak
Currently, there is a search for substances that would be very well tolerated by an organism and which could contribute to the activation of the growth of Bacteroidetes and Actinobacteria strains, with simultaneous inhibition of the growth of Firmicutes. High expectations in this regard are raised with the use of fiber preparations from starch - resistant corn dextrins, branched dextrins, resistant maltodextrins and soluble corn fiber. In this paper, the influence of fiber preparations made from corn starch was evaluated on growth and activity of Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria and Firmicutes strains isolated from obese children...
2016: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26923512/a-novel-fiber-composite-ingredient-incorporated-into-a-beverage-and-bar-blunts-postprandial-serum-glucose-and-insulin-responses-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Lauren E O'Connor, Wayne W Campbell
Previous research supports that consumption of resistant starch and guar gum independently influences insulin-mediated glucose responses to meals. This research assessed a novel co-processed fiber composite (FC) ingredient comprising whole-grain high-amylose maize flour and viscous guar gum on glucose and insulin responses to co-consumed and subsequent meals in humans. It was hypothesized that a smoothie-type beverage or a cold-pressed snack bar containing the FC would blunt and sustain serum glucose and insulin postprandial responses compared with maltodextrin (MD)...
March 2016: Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26877020/formation-of-type-4-resistant-starch-and-maltodextrins-from-amylose-and-amylopectin-upon-dry-heating-a-model-study
#15
Fernando M Nunes, Edgar S Lopes, Ana S P Moreira, Joana Simões, Manuel A Coimbra, Rosário M Domingues
Starch is one of the main components of human diet. During food processing, starch is submitted to high temperatures in the presence or absence of water. Thus, the main goal of this work was to identify structural modifications caused by dry heating in starch polysaccharides (amylose and amylopectin) and structurally related oligosaccharides, maltotetraose (M4) and glucosyl-maltotriose (GM3), simulating processing conditions. The structural modifications were evaluated by methylation analysis, electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) and anionic chromatography after in vitro enzymatic digestion...
May 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26858925/continuous-intake-of-resistant-maltodextrin-enhanced-intestinal-immune-response-through-changes-in-the-intestinal-environment-in-mice
#16
Shoko Miyazato, Yuka Kishimoto, Kyoko Takahashi, Shuichi Kaminogawa, Akira Hosono
We investigated the effect of resistant maltodextrin (RMD), a non-viscous soluble dietary fiber, on intestinal immune response and its mechanism in mice. Intestinal and fecal immunoglobulin A (IgA) were determined as indicators of intestinal immune response, and changes in the intestinal environment were focused to study the mechanism. BALB/c mice were fed one of three experimental diets, a control diet or a diet containing either 5% or 7.5% RMD, for two weeks. Continuous intake of RMD dose-dependently increased total IgA levels in the intestinal tract...
2016: Bioscience of Microbiota, Food and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26842665/eight-weeks-of-pre-and-postexercise-whey-protein-supplementation-increases-lean-body-mass-and-improves-performance-in-division-iii-collegiate-female-basketball-players
#17
Lemuel W Taylor, Colin Wilborn, Michael D Roberts, Andrew White, Kristen Dugan
We examined if 8 weeks of whey protein (WP) supplementation improved body composition and performance measures in NCAA Division III female basketball players. Subjects were assigned to consume 24 g WP (n = 8; age, 20 ± 2 years; height, 170 ± 6 cm; weight, 66.0 ± 3.1 kg) or 24 g of maltodextrin (MD) (n = 6; age, 21 ± 3 years; height, 169 ± 6 cm; weight, 68.2 ± 7.6 kg) immediately prior to and following training (4 days/week anaerobic and resistance training) for 8 weeks. Prior to (T1) and 8 weeks following supplementation (T2), subjects underwent dual X-ray absorptiometry body composition assessment as well as performance tests...
March 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26677350/the-effects-of-whey-protein-with-or-without-carbohydrates-on-resistance-training-adaptations
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Juha J Hulmi, Mia Laakso, Antti A Mero, Keijo Häkkinen, Juha P Ahtiainen, Heikki Peltonen
BACKGROUND: Nutrition intake in the context of a resistance training (RT) bout may affect body composition and muscle strength. However, the individual and combined effects of whey protein and carbohydrates on long-term resistance training adaptations are poorly understood. METHODS: A four-week preparatory RT period was conducted in previously untrained males to standardize the training background of the subjects. Thereafter, the subjects were randomized into three groups: 30 g of whey proteins (n = 22), isocaloric carbohydrates (maltodextrin, n = 21), or protein + carbohydrates (n = 25)...
2015: Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26562708/effect-of-preexercise-creatine-ingestion-on-muscle-performance-in-healthy-aging-males
#19
Taylor P Baker, Darren G Candow, Jonathan P Farthing
Baker, TP, Candow, DG, and Farthing, JP. Effect of preexercise creatine ingestion on muscle performance in healthy aging males. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1763-1766, 2016-Preexercise creatine supplementation may have a beneficial effect on aging muscle performance. Using a double-blind, repeated measures, crossover design, healthy males (N = 9, 54.8 ± 4.3 years; 92.9 ± 11.5 kg; 179.2 ± 11.1 cm) were randomized to consume creatine (20 g) and placebo (20 g corn starch maltodextrin), on 2 separate occasions (7 days apart), 3 hours before performing leg press and chest press repetitions to muscle fatigue (3 sets at 70% 1-repetition maximum; 1 minute rest between sets)...
June 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26475229/impact-of-starch-content-on-protein-adsorption-characteristics-in-amphiphilic-hybrid-graft-copolymers
#20
Arijit Sengupta, Allison R Linehan, Peter M Iovine
Amphiphilic hybrid graft copolymers were synthesized using a graft-to methodology and their protein adsorption profiles studied. Three different hydrophilic side chains were studied: hydroxypropylated high amylose starch, maltodextrin, and polyethylene glycol (PEG). In the high amylose starch compositions, there was a pronounced decrease in protein adsorption with increasing polysaccharide content. As the starch content in the graft copolymers increased from 10 wt% to 53 wt%, BSA protein adsorption decreased by 83% whereas fibrinogen adsorption was reduced by 40%...
January 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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