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Physical activity

Selasi Attipoe, Liam Delahanty, Mark Stephens, Patricia A Deuster
Introduction: The use of energy drinks (ED) or shots (ES) is becoming increasingly popular in U.S. beverage market. In addition, young, physically active males, such as active-duty enlistees represent a prime target for the advertising of ED/ES; however, the exact mechanisms and safety of these products have come under scrutiny. This cross-sectional, exploratory, web-based survey among U.S. service members describes the prevalence of ED/ES use as well as common side effects and safety of these products among self-reported users...
July 11, 2018: Military Medicine
Rachel Sayko Adams, Cindy Parks Thomas, Grant A Ritter, Sue Lee, Mayada Saadoun, Thomas V Williams, Mary Jo Larson
Introduction: Little is known about long-term prescription opioid utilization in the Military Health System. The objectives of this study were to examine predictors of any prescription opioid receipt, and predictors of long-term opioid utilization among active duty soldiers in the year following deployment. Materials and Methods: The analytic sample consisted of Army active duty soldiers returning from deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, or Operation New Dawn in fiscal years 2008-2014 (N = 540,738)...
July 11, 2018: Military Medicine
Ivana Šagud, Debora Zanolla, Beatrice Perissutti, Nadia Passerini, Irena Škorić
Praziquantel (PZQ) is an inexpensive, low toxicity BCS II class anthelmintic drug used for the treatment of neglected tropical diseases. In earlier papers a mechanochemical activation has been used to induce physical transformations on the drug which would ameliorate its solubility and hence its bioavailability and a systematic study of the effects of varying temperature, frequency and time of milling on drug melting enthalpy and drug recovery was given. In this communication, the focus is on the degradation products that are formed during this mechanical treatment of Praziquantel...
July 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Charalambos Hadjigeorgiou, Antonia Solea, Sara Estecha Querol, Anna Keski-Rahkonen, Nathalie Michels, Paola Russo, Barbara Franziska Thumann, Valeria Pala, Unna Danner
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate disordered eating behaviours (DEBs) in different age groups in a Cypriot non-clinical population sample. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative cross-sectional study. METHOD: A total of 1716 participants from the Cyprus component of the I.Family study completed the Eating Attitudes Test-26 (EAT-26). The EAT-26 score ≥20 was used to define participants at risk for DEBs. Participants were divided according to age: adolescence (12-18 years old), young adulthood (25-45 years old) and middle adulthood (46-60 years old)...
July 9, 2018: Public Health
Kevin W Jackman, Nik Veldhoen, Rachel C Miliano, Bonnie J Robert, Linda Li, Azadeh Khojasteh, Xiaoyu Zheng, Tristan S M Zaborniak, Graham van Aggelen, Mary Lesperance, Wayne J Parker, Eric R Hall, Gregory G Pyle, Caren C Helbing
Thyroid hormones (THs) regulate vertebrate growth, development, and metabolism. Despite their importance, there is a need for effective detection of TH-disruption by endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). The frog olfactory system substantially remodels during TH-dependent metamorphosis and the objective of the present study is to examine olfactory system gene expression for TH biomarkers that can evaluate the biological effects of complex mixtures such as municipal wastewater. We first examine classic TH-response gene transcripts using reverse transcription-quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in the olfactory epithelium (OE) and olfactory bulb (OB) of premetamorphic Rana (Lithobates) catesbeiana tadpoles after 48 h exposure to biologically-relevant concentrations of the THs, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3 ) and L-thyroxine (T4 ), or 17-beta estradiol (E2 ); a hormone that can crosstalk with THs...
June 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Lauren B Beach, Blair Turner, Dylan Felt, Rachel Marro, Gregory L Phillips
Low physical activity (PA), high sedentary behavior (SB), and overweight and obesity have been shown to associate with increased Type 2 diabetes risk among adolescents. We investigated PA, SB, and overweight and obesity among Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) respondents to determine if non-heterosexual youth may be at increased diabetes risk compared to heterosexual youth. Weighted city and state YRBS data were pooled across 44 jurisdictions biennially from 2009-2015, resulting in a sample size of 350,673 students...
July 13, 2018: Pediatric Diabetes
James L Nuzzo
Rates of participation in physical activity are often not the same between groups in a given demographic category. These differences have been termed 'inequities,' and major health organizations are advocating large-scale initiatives to create 'equity' in physical activity. The aim of this paper is to explain why equity in physical activity is a misguided goal. Equity is a misguided goal because it ignores absolute rates of physical activity (i.e., it is a metric of how one group compares with another), and because it is an automated goal that ignores sizes of 'gaps' between groups...
July 13, 2018: Sports Medicine
Jakob Tarp, Abbey Child, Tom White, Kate Westgate, Anna Bugge, Anders Grøntved, Niels Wedderkopp, Lars B Andersen, Greet Cardon, Rachel Davey, Kathleen F Janz, Susi Kriemler, Kate Northstone, Angie S Page, Jardena J Puder, John J Reilly, Luis B Sardinha, Esther M F van Sluijs, Ulf Ekelund, Katrien Wijndaele, Søren Brage
OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of physical activity intensity and bout-duration in modulating associations between physical activity and cardiometabolic risk markers. METHODS: A cross-sectional study using the International Children's Accelerometry Database (ICAD) including 38,306 observations (in 29,734 individuals aged 4-18 years). Accelerometry data was summarized as time accumulated in 16 combinations of intensity thresholds (≥500 to ≥3000 counts/min) and bout-durations (≥1 to ≥10 min)...
July 13, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Pavlina Tsoka, Hidetaka Matsumoto, Daniel E Maidana, Keiko Kataoka, Irene Naoumidi, Achille Gravanis, Demetrios G Vavvas, Miltiadis K Tsilimbaris
Retinal detachment (RD) leads to photoreceptor cell death secondary to the physical separation of the retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. Intensifying photoreceptor survival in the detached retina could be remarkably favorable for many retinopathies in which RD can be seen. BNN27, a blood-brain barrier (BBB)-permeable, C17-spiroepoxy derivative of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has shown promising neuroprotective activity through interaction with nerve growth factor receptors, TrkA and p75NTR ...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Pablo R Grassi, Natalia Zaretskaya, Andreas Bartels
Our visual system's ability to group visual elements into meaningful entities and to separate them from others is referred to as scene segmentation. Visual motion often provides a powerful cue for this process as parallax or coherence can inform the visual system about scene or object structure. Here we tested the hypothesis that scene segmentation by motion cues relies on a common neural substrate in the parietal cortex. We used fMRI and a set of three entirely distinct motion stimuli to examine scene segmentation in the human brain...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
María C Maldifassi, Carolina Martín-Sánchez, Gema Atienza, José L Cedillo, Francisco Arnalich, Anna Bordas, Francisco Zafra, Cecilio Giménez, María Extremera, Jaime Renart, Carmen Montiel
The α7 nicotinic receptor subunit and its partially duplicated human-specific dupα7 isoform are co-expressed in neuronal and non-neuronal cells. In these cells, α7 subunits form homopentameric α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) implicated in numerous pathologies. In immune cells, α7-nAChRs are essential for vagal control of inflammatory response in sepsis. Recent studies show that the dupα7 subunit is a dominant-negative regulator of α7-nAChR activity in Xenopus oocytes. However, its biological significance in mammalian cells, particularly immune cells, remains unexplored, as the duplicated form is indistinguishable from the original subunit in standard tests...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Jie-Eun Lee, Dong Hwa Lee, Tae Jung Oh, Kyoung Min Kim, Sung Hee Choi, Soo Lim, Young Joo Park, Do Joon Park, Hak Chul Jang, Jae Hoon Moon
BACKGROUND: Symptoms and signs of thyrotoxicosis are nonspecific and assessing its clinical status is difficult with conventional physical examinations and history taking. Increased heart rate (HR) is one of the easiest signs to quantify this, and current wearable devices can monitor HR. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the association between thyroid function and resting HR measured by a wearable activity tracker (WD-rHR) and evaluated the clinical feasibility of using this method in patients with thyrotoxicosis...
July 13, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Maja Bjelošević, Katarina Bolko Seljak, Uroš Trstenjak, Manca Logar, Boris Brus, Pegi Ahlin Grabnar
Freeze-drying is the method of choice to dry formulations with biopharmaceutical drugs, to enhance protein stability. This is usually done below the glass transition temperature of maximally freeze-concentrated solutions (Tg '), to avoid protein aggregation, preserve protein activity, and obtain pharmaceutically 'elegant' cakes. Unfortunately, this is a lengthy and energy-consuming process. However, it was recently shown that drying above Tg ' or even above the collapse temperature (Tc ) is not necessarily detrimental for stability of biopharmaceuticals, and hence provides an attractive option for freeze-drying cycle optimisation...
July 10, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Kenneth J Wilson, Jingbo Xiao, Catherine Z Chen, Zaohua Huang, Irina U Agoulnik, Marc Ferrer, Noel Southall, Xin Hu, Wei Zheng, Xin Xu, Amy Wang, Courtney Myhr, Elena Barnaeva, Emmett R George, Alexander I Agoulnik, Juan J Marugan
A dose responsive quantitative high throughput screen (qHTS) of >350,000 compounds against a human relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor (RXFP1) transfected HEK293 cell line identified 2-acetamido-N-phenylbenzamides 1 and 3 with modest agonist activity. An extensive structure-activity study has been undertaken to optimize the potency, efficacy, and physical properties of the series, resulting in the identification of compound 65 (ML-290), which has excellent in vivo PK properties with high levels of systemic exposure...
June 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Emerald G Heiland, Anna-Karin Welmer, Rui Wang, Giola Santoni, Laura Fratiglioni, Chengxuan Qiu
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to quantify the increased risk of disability associated with cardiovascular risk factors among older adults, and to verify whether this risk may vary by age and functional status. DESIGN: Longitudinal population-based cohort study. SETTING: Urban area of Stockholm, Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: Community-dwelling and institutionalized adults ≥60 years in the Swedish National study on Aging and Care in Kungsholmen free of cardiovascular diseases and disability (n = 1756) at baseline (2001-2004)...
July 10, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
Analía Simonazzi, Carolina Davies, Alicia G Cid, Elio Gonzo, Luis Parada, José M Bermúdez
Benznidazole, the first line drug for Chagas disease treatment, presents a low solubility, limiting the possibilities for its formulation. In this work, solid dispersions´ technology was exploited to increase benznidazole kinetic solubility and dissolution rate, seeking for an improvement in its bioperformance. A physical mixture (PM) and a solid dispersion (SD) using Poloxamer 407 as carrier were prepared and characterized. Dissolution tests were performed and data were analyzed with the lumped model, which allowed to calculate different parameters of pharmaceutical relevance...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hans-Joachim Galla
The main obstacle for the treatment of brain diseases is the restriction of the passage of pharmaceuticals across the blood-brain barrier. Endothelial cells line up the cerebral micro vessels and prevent the uncontrolled transfer of polar substances by intercellular tight junctions. In addition to this physical barrier, active transporters of the multi-drug-resistance prevent the passage of hydrophobic substances by refluxing them back to the blood stream. This paper reviews the development and selected applications of an in vitro porcine brain derived primary cell culture system established in the authors lab that closely resembles the BBB in vivo and could thus be used to study beyond other applications drug delivery to the brain...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Jane Maddock, Gina L Ambrosini, Julian L Griffin, James A West, Andrew Wong, Rebecca Hardy, Sumantra Ray
BACKGROUND: Diet may influence vascular function through elevated homocysteine (Hcy) concentrations. However the relationship between dietary patterns (DP), characterised by Hcy and its associated nutrients is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify a DP characterised by plasma Hcy, dietary folate and dietary vitamin B12, and examine its associations with two markers of vascular function: carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and pulse wave velocity (PWV). METHODS: 1562 participants of the MRC National Survey of Health and Development (NSHD), a British birth cohort, with dietary data measured at least once between 36 and 60-64 years, and cIMT or PWV measured at 60-64 years were included...
June 28, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Edurne Zabaleta-Del-Olmo, Haizea Pombo, Mariona Pons-Vigués, Marc Casajuana-Closas, Enriqueta Pujol-Ribera, Tomás López-Jiménez, Carmen Cabezas-Peña, Carme Martín-Borràs, Antoni Serrano-Blanco, Maria Rubio-Valera, Joan Llobera, Alfonso Leiva, Clara Vidal, Manuel Campiñez, Remedios Martín-Álvarez, José-Ángel Maderuelo, José-Ignacio Recio, Luis García-Ortiz, Emma Motrico, Juan-Ángel Bellón, Patricia Moreno-Peral, Carlos Martín-Cantera, Ana Clavería, Susana Aldecoa-Landesa, Rosa Magallón-Botaya, Bonaventura Bolíbar
BACKGROUND: Health promotion is a key process of current health systems. Primary Health Care (PHC) is the ideal setting for health promotion but multifaceted barriers make its integration difficult in the usual care. The majority of the adult population engages two or more risk behaviours, that is why a multiple intervention might be more effective and efficient. The primary objectives are to evaluate the effectiveness, the cost-effectiveness and an implementation strategy of a complex multiple risk intervention to promote healthy behaviours in people between 45 to 75 years attended in PHC...
July 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Jayaweera Arachchige Asela Sampath Jayaweera, Anpalaham Joseph
OBJECTIVES: Military personnel, because of the unique nature of their duties, are reluctant to face stressors. Living in hot and humid conditions they frequently suffer dehydration. Army soldiers living in dry zone of Sri Lanka, were screened for chronic kidney disease (CKD), common non-communicable diseases and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization. Albumin creatinine ratio > 30 mg/g urine taken as cut-off for detection of CKD. RESULTS: Screened 417 soldiers, all were men and body mass index were 21...
July 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
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