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Physical activity

Alicia Dixon-Ibarra, Simon Driver, Haley VanVolkenburg, Kathleen Humphries
Physical inactivity and high rates of chronic conditions is a public health concern for adults with intellectual disability. Few health promotion programs target the group home setting which is the pre-dominant form of residential accommodation for persons with intellectual disability. A process evaluation of a physical activity health promotion program, Menu-Choice, was conducted with five group home sites for adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. Menu-Choice assists group home staff in including physical activity goals within resident schedules...
October 5, 2016: Evaluation and Program Planning
Hyun-Sung An, Youngwon Kim, Jung-Min Lee
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to examine the accuracy of inclinometer functions of the ActiGraph GT3X+ (AG) (worn on the waist and wrist) and the activPAL (AP) in assessing time spent sitting, standing, and stepping. METHODS: A total of 62 adults (age: 18-40 yrs; male:37; female:25) wore three activity monitors (AG waist, and AG wrist, and AP) while completing 15 different types of activities. The 15 activities were classified into 3 different postures (sitting, standing, and stepping) based on the directly observed behaviors...
October 18, 2016: Gait & Posture
Monica Chahal-Kummen, Trond-Eirik Strand, Jan Ove Owe, Eigil Gulliksen, Anthony S Wagstaff
BACKGROUND: A candidate with paraplegia contacted the Institute of Aviation Medicine, Oslo, requesting a medical examination and medical certification for flying back seat on an F-16 Fighting Falcon. Thorough aeromedical examinations, including specialist evaluations, were initiated for the final decision to be made. CASE REPORT: Almost 13 yr earlier the candidate had acquired spinal cord damage at neurological level L1 after falling 4 m (13 ft) from out of a window...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Armen A Torchyan, Abdulaziz A BinSaeed, Yazeed S Aleid, Ahmed A Nagshbandi, Fahad Almousa, Satenik L Papikyan, Ibrahim M Gosadi
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the potential relationships among happiness, physical activity, and smoking initiation among undergraduate medical students in Saudi Arabia. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of randomly selected first- to fifth-year undergraduate medical students. Smoking initiation was defined as "ever trying smoking a cigarette, waterpipe, cigar/cigarillo, or other type of tobacco, even one or 2 puffs." The short scale Oxford Happiness Questionnaire was used to assess each student's happiness...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
Jessica L Thomson, Lisa M Tussing-Humphreys, Melissa H Goodman, Sarah E Olender
OBJECTIVES: Delta Healthy Sprouts was designed to test the comparative impact of 2 home visiting curricula on weight status, dietary intake, physical activity, and other health behaviors of rural, southern African-American women and their infants. Results pertaining to physical activity outcomes in the gestational period are reported. METHODS: Eighty-two women, early in their second trimester of pregnancy, were enrolled and randomly assigned to one of 2 treatment arms...
November 2016: American Journal of Health Behavior
James A Turner, Colin N E Ruscoe, Trevor R Perrior
This report provides an outline of a program for the discovery of new public health insecticides for malaria vector control. The status of malaria vector control is first reviewed in terms of the chemical, physical chemical, and biochemical properties of the current WHOPES-recommended and approved vector control agents. This review provides a basis for a discussion on the critical need for discovery and development of multiple new chemical malaria vector control agents with novel and diverse modes of action...
October 2016: Chimia
Jacynthe Lafrenière, Denis Prud'homme, Martin Brochu, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, Jean-Marc Lavoie, Éric Doucet
PURPOSE: The association between the energy density (ED) of foods and adiposity has been reported previously. However, whether the contribution of ED to adiposity remains significant when controlled for energy intake (EI) and physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) remains to be clearly established. We aimed to investigate the independent contribution of ED to variations in body composition in women during the menopausal transition. METHODS: Sixty-seven women from the MONET cohort study were analyzed...
October 25, 2016: Canadian Journal of Dietetic Practice and Research
Olga A Yakovina, Alexander S Lisitsyn
Metal clusters with sizes below 1 nm excite great scientific interest, but the main information on their properties still comes from quantum mechanics modeling and costly physical methods of limited availability. We have studied ultradispersed Pt/γ-Al2O3 samples with TPD and complementary adsorption/desorption techniques and observed a strong influence of H2-treatment conditions (PH2 ≤ 1 bar; 200 K ≤ T ≤ 470 K) on the H2-TPD profile of Pt/γ-Al2O3. The results corroborate recent theoretical and spectroscopic studies predicting alterations in the structure of Pt nanoclusters under H2 but reveal that the restructuring needs to overcome continuous activation barriers and leads both to an increase in surface coverage and strengthening of Pt-H bonds...
October 25, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Emmanuelle Chaléat-Valayer, Angélique Denis, Kariman Abelin-Genevois, Amélie Zelmar, Fabienne Siani-Trebern, Sandrine Touzet, Alain Bergeret, Cyrille Colin, Jean-Baptiste Fassier
OBJECTIVE: Low-back pain (LBP) is a common and recurrent condition, but the evidence is scarce about effective strategies to prevent recurrence and disability in the longer term. This study investigated the effect of a light exercise program, initiated in the workplace and continued at home, in reducing recurrence of LBP episodes among healthcare workers. METHODS: A total of 353 healthcare workers from ten hospitals were enrolled in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) and were randomized to the intervention or control groups, the latter of which received usual care...
October 3, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Mara A McAdams-DeMarco, Hao Ying, Israel Olorundare, Elizabeth A King, Christine Haugen, Brian Buta, Alden L Gross, Rita Kalyani, Niraj M Desai, Nabil N Dagher, Bonnie E Lonze, Robert A Montgomery, Karen Bandeen-Roche, Jeremy D Walston, Dorry L Segev
BACKGROUND: Frailty increases early hospital readmission and mortality risk among kidney transplant (KT) recipients. While frailty represents a high-risk state for this population, the correlates of frailty, the patterns of the 5 frailty components, and the risk associated with these patterns are unclear. METHODS: 663 KT recipients were enrolled in a cohort study of frailty in transplantation (12/2008-8/2015). Frailty, ADL/IADL disability, CESD depression, education, and HRQOL were measured...
October 25, 2016: Transplantation
Heather K Neilson, Megan S Farris, Chelsea R Stone, Marcus M Vaska, Darren R Brenner, Christine M Friedenreich
OBJECTIVE: Physical inactivity increases postmenopausal and possibly premenopausal breast cancer risk, although different biologic mechanisms are proposed. Our primary objective was to estimate breast cancer risk associated with high versus low levels of moderate-vigorous recreational activity, separately for premenopausal and postmenopausal women. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of literature published to July 2015. Included reports were cohort or case-control studies relating moderate-vigorous recreational physical activity (metabolic equivalent ≥3...
October 24, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
Cristina Jácome, Alda Marques
PURPOSE: Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is effective in patients with moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the effects of PR in patients with mild COPD have not yet been established. Thus, this study investigated the short- and long-term effects of PR in patients with mild COPD in comparison with patients with moderate to severe disease. METHODS: A total of 32 patients with mild (group 1) and 29 with moderate to severe (group 2) COPD completed the study...
November 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Dawn Witt, Gretchen Benson, Susan Campbell, Arthur Sillah, Kathy Berra
PURPOSE: Social support has been associated with beneficial effects on many disease states and overall health and well-being. However, there is limited research exploring the impact of peer-led support models among women living with coronary heart disease. This study describes the structure of peer-led support groups offered by WomenHeart (WH): The National Coalition for Women Living with Heart Disease, and assesses WH participants' quality of life and social, emotional, and physical health...
November 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Michelle Fortier, Eva Guérin, Michelle L Segar
Exercise is medicine (EIM) is grounded in strong evidence regarding the benefits of physical activity. Despite the contributions of EIM initiatives worldwide, rates of physical inactivity remain alarmingly high. We propose a reframe of EIM for the general population to improve motivation and foster sustainable behaviour change. We draw on a solid knowledge-base to explain the value of broadening the nomenclature to physical activity and of promoting a message of well-being via enjoyable physical activity.
September 20, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Liam F Fitzgerald, Anita D Christie, Jane A Kent
Despite intensive efforts to understand the extent to which skeletal muscle mitochondrial capacity changes in older humans, the answer to this important question remains unclear. To determine what the preponderance of evidence from in vivo studies suggests, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of age on muscle oxidative capacity as measured noninvasively by magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A secondary aim was to examine potential moderators contributing to differences in results across studies, including muscle group, physical activity status, and sex...
July 18, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
K Virecoulon Giudici, R M Fisberg, D M Lobo Marchioni, L Araújo Martini
BACKGROUND: Considering that lifestyle and diet are key factors responsible for the increases in adiposity in youth, it is important to understand how vitamin D, adipokines and markers of glucose metabolism are related to physical activity level (PAL) during growth. The present study aimed to investigate associations between physical activity level, adiponectin/leptin ratio, vitamin D status and dietary vitamin D intake among adolescents. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted with adolescents aged 14-18 years old who were living in São Paulo, Brazil...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
P Speetjens, F Thielen, M Ten Have, R de Graaf, F Smit
Child maltreatment occurs frequently. This has detrimental effects later in life on mental health and is linked to considerable costs due to health care use and sick leave. Self-mastery, however, is a factor that may well mitigated the effects of child maltreatment . <br/> AIM: To quantify the long-term costs of child abuse and to test the hypothesis that self-mastery can modify the after-effects of maltreatment .<br/> METHOD: Data were obtained from a psychiatric cohort study (n=5618). The risk factors were emotional neglect and mental, physical and sexual abuse before the age of 16...
2016: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Federica Agosta, Roberto Gatti, Elisabetta Sarasso, Maria Antonietta Volonté, Elisa Canu, Alessandro Meani, Lidia Sarro, Massimiliano Copetti, Erik Cattrysse, Eric Kerckhofs, Giancarlo Comi, Andrea Falini, Massimo Filippi
Gait disorders represent a therapeutic challenge in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study investigated the efficacy of 4-week action observation training (AOT) on disease severity, freezing of gait and motor abilities in PD, and evaluated treatment-related brain functional changes. 25 PD patients with freezing of gait were randomized into two groups: AOT (action observation combined with practicing the observed actions) and "Landscape" (same physical training combined with landscape-videos observation). At baseline and 4-week, patients underwent clinical evaluation and fMRI...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Fary Khan, Bhasker Amatya, Mary P Galea, Roman Gonzenbach, Jürg Kesselring
The prevalence of disability due to neurological conditions is escalating worldwide. Neurological disorders have significant disability-burden with long-term functional and psychosocial issues, requiring specialized rehabilitation services for comprehensive management, especially treatments tapping into brain recovery 'neuroplastic' processes. Neurorehabilitation is interdisciplinary and cross-sectorial, requiring coordinated effort of diverse sectors, professions, patients and community to manage complex condition-related disability...
October 24, 2016: Journal of Neurology
Chrystelle Neaime, Maria Amela-Cortes, Fabien Grasset, Yann Molard, Stéphane Cordier, Benjamin Dierre, Michel Mortier, Toshiaki Takei, Kohsei Takahashi, Hajime Haneda, Marc Verelst, Séverine Lechevallier
Bioimaging and cell labeling using red or near infrared phosphors emitting in the "therapeutic window" of biological tissues have recently become some of the most active research fields in modern medical diagnostics. However, because organic and inorganic autofluorophores are omnipresent in nature, very often the background signal from fluorochromes other than targeted probes has to be eliminated. This discrimination could be available using a time-gated luminescence microscopy (TGLM) technique associated with long lifetime phosphorescent nanocomposites...
October 25, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
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