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fine motor skills

Sang-Min Seo
[Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effect that fine motor skills have on handwriting legibility in children of preschool age. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 52 children of normal growth and development. In order to ascertain handwriting legibility, a Korean alphabet writing assessment was used; to measure fine motor skills, fine motor precision and manual dexterity, sub-items of BOT-2 were measured. Furthermore, in order to measure in-hand manipulation skills, a Functional Dexterity Test was conducted...
February 2018: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
Ayush Bhargava, Jeffrey W Bertrand, Anand K Gramopadhye, Kapil C Madathil, Sabarish V Babu
With costs of head-mounted displays (HMDs) and tracking technology decreasing rapidly, various virtual reality applications are being widely adopted for education and training. Hardware advancements have enabled replication of real-world interactions in virtual environments to a large extent, paving the way for commercial grade applications that provide a safe and risk-free training environment at a fraction of the cost. But this also mandates the need to develop more intrinsic interaction techniques and to empirically evaluate them in a more comprehensive manner...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Per F Nordmark, Christina Ljungberg, Roland S Johansson
Transection of the median nerve typically causes lifelong restriction of fine sensory and motor skills of the affected hand despite the best available surgical treatment. Inspired by recent findings on activity-dependent structural plasticity of the adult brain, we used voxel-based morphometry to analyze the brains of 16 right-handed adults who more than two years earlier had suffered injury to the left or right median nerve followed by microsurgical repair. Healthy individuals served as matched controls. Irrespective of side of injury, we observed gray matter reductions in left ventral and right dorsal premotor cortex, and white matter reductions in commissural pathways interconnecting those motor areas...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jonathan W Brandon, Justin K Solarczyk, Timur S Durrani
Lead toxicity is an important environmental disease and its effects on the human body can be devastating. Unique exposures to Special Operations Forces personnel may include use of firing ranges, use of automotive fuels, production of ammunition, and bodily retention of bullets. Toxicity may degrade physical and psychological fitness, and cause long-term negative health outcomes. Specific effects on fine motor movements, reaction times, and global function could negatively affect shooting skills and decision-making...
2018: Journal of Special Operations Medicine: a Peer Reviewed Journal for SOF Medical Professionals
Melissa R Mandarakas, Kristy J Rose, Oranee Sanmaneechai, Manoj P Menezes, Kathryn M Refshauge, Joshua Burns
A functional outcome measure for infants (aged 0-3 years) with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is needed for upcoming disease-modifying trials. A systematic review of outcome measures for infants with neuromuscular disorders was completed to determine if validated measures were available for the CMT infant population. We assessed 20,375 papers and identified seven functional outcome measures for infants with neuromuscular disorders. Six were developed and validated for Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). There were no CMT-specific outcome measures identified, however one (Motor Function Measure) assessed a range of neuromuscular disorders including 13 infants and children with CMT...
March 9, 2018: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
Diva Lugassy, Yafi Levanon, Raphael Pilo, Asaf Shelly, Gal Rosen, Avi Meirowitz, Tamar Brosh
Dentists must be skilled when using dental mirrors. Working with mirrors requires spatial perception, bimanual coordination, perceptual learning and fine motor skills. Many studies have attempted to determine the predictors of manual skills among pre-clinical students, but consensus has yet to be reached. We hypothesized that valid and reliable occupational therapy test performance regarding indirect vision would differ between dental students and junior dentists and would explain the variance in manual skill performance in pre-clinical courses...
2018: PloS One
Zohar Mor, Anat Amit Aharon, Rivka Sheffer, Haim Nehama
INTRODUCTION: Israel has absorbed >40,000 Eritrean undocumented migrants since 2007, while the majority live in the southern neighborhoods of Tel-Aviv. As non-citizens and citizens infants in Israel receive free preventive treatment at the mother and child health clinics (MCHC), this study aimed to compare development and growth achievements between children of Eritrean mothers (CE) to children of Israeli mothers (CI), and assess their compliance to routine follow-up and vaccination-timeliness...
2018: PloS One
Marisa Koini, Marco Duering, Benno G Gesierich, Serge A R B Rombouts, Stefan Ropele, Fabian Wagner, Christian Enzinger, Reinhold Schmidt
Loss of grey-matter volume with advancing age affects the entire cortex. It has been suggested that atrophy occurs in a network-dependent manner with advancing age rather than in independent brain areas. The relationship between networks of structural covariance (SCN) disintegration and cognitive functioning during normal aging is not fully explored. We, therefore, aimed to (1) identify networks that lose GM integrity with advancing age, (2) investigate if age-related impairment of integrity in GM networks associates with cognitive function and decreasing fine motor skills (FMS), and (3) examine if GM disintegration is a mediator between age and cognition and FMS...
March 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Norma Kabuba, J Anitha Menon, Donald R Franklin, Stian Lydersen, Robert K Heaton, Knut A Hestad
OBJECTIVE: Older age and lower education levels are known to be associated with worse neurocognitive (NC) performance in healthy adults, and individuals with HIV infection may experience accelerated brain/cognition aging. However, higher education may possibly protect against HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). The aim of the current cross-sectional study was to assess the effect of age and education in an HIV-1 clade C infected adult population in urban Zambia. METHOD: Demographically corrected Zambian norms on a neuropsychological (NP) test battery were used to correct for normal age and education effects...
March 5, 2018: Neuropsychology
Tzu-Ying Yu, Willy Chou, Julie Chi Chow, Chien-Ho Lin, Li-Chen Tung, Kuan-Lin Chen
Purpose: We investigated 1) the impact of differences in intelligence quotient discrepancy (IQD) on motor skills of preschool-aged children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); 2) the relationships between IQD and motor skills in preschool-aged children with ASD. Methods: A total of 127 ASD preschool-aged children were divided into three groups according to the size of the IQD: IQD within 1 standard deviation (1SD; EVENIQ; n=81), discrepantly higher verbal intelligence quotient (VIQ; n=22; VIQ>performance intelligence quotient [PIQ] above 1SD [≥15 points]), and discrepantly higher PIQ (n=24; PIQ>VIQ above 1SD [≥15 points])...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
Ruben Posada-Gómez, Roberto A Montaño-Murillo, Albino Martínez-Sibaja, Giner Alor-Hernández, Alberto A Aguilar-Lasserre, Miriam C Reyes-Fernández
PURPOSE: One of the most important aspects in neuromotor rehabilitation is the need of feedback for patients. The rehabilitation system's efficiency relies on the therapist's judgment; the therapist tells the patient whether he/she is performing the exercises correctly. This process may be quite subjective, because it depends on the therapist's personal opinion. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that vibrotactile biofeedback can improve the effectiveness of interaction as it is a very helpful tool in the physiological process of neuromotor rehabilitation...
March 2018: Rehabilitation Nursing: the Official Journal of the Association of Rehabilitation Nurses
Joaquín Sánchez-Molina, José J Robles-Pérez, Vicente J Clemente-Suárez
Soldiers´ training and experience can influence the outcome of the missions, as well as their own physical integrity. The objective of this research was to analyze the psycho-physiological response and specific motor skills in an urban combat simulation with two units of infantry with different training and experience. MATERIAL AND METHODS: psychophysiological parameters -Heart Rate, blood oxygen saturation, glucose and blood lactate, cortical activation, anxiety and heart rate variability-, as well as fine motor skills were analyzed in 31 male soldiers of the Spanish Army, 19 belonging to the Light Infantry Brigade, and 12 to the Heavy Forces Infantry Brigade, before and after an urban combat simulation...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
Ryan L Truby, Michael Wehner, Abigail K Grosskopf, Daniel M Vogt, Sebastien G M Uzel, Robert J Wood, Jennifer A Lewis
Humans possess manual dexterity, motor skills, and other physical abilities that rely on feedback provided by the somatosensory system. Herein, a method is reported for creating soft somatosensitive actuators (SSAs) via embedded 3D printing, which are innervated with multiple conductive features that simultaneously enable haptic, proprioceptive, and thermoceptive sensing. This novel manufacturing approach enables the seamless integration of multiple ionically conductive and fluidic features within elastomeric matrices to produce SSAs with the desired bioinspired sensing and actuation capabilities...
February 27, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ann L Webber
Amblyopia is the most common disorder managed in paediatric ophthalmic practice in industrialised countries. Reports on the impact of amblyopia on tasks relevant to the activities of children, or on skills pertinent to their education and quality of life, is leading to greater understanding of the functional disabilities associated with the condition. This review considers the extent to which amblyopia affects the ability to carry out everyday tasks, with particular attention to studies of motor skills and reading proficiency in children...
February 26, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Optometry: Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association
Marja Cantell, Suzanne Houwen, Marina Schoemaker
BACKGROUND: Early recognition of children at risk of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is important, but variability in motor development in preschool children affects the validity of instruments to reliably detect children at risk of DCD. AIMS: To investigate the age-related validity and reliability of the Dutch version of the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (LDCDQ-NL). METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Two hundred and sixty 3- to 5-year old children were recruited in the Netherlands...
February 21, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Bruno Corrado, Nadia Sommella, Gianluca Ciardi, Enza Raiano, Iris Scala, Pietro Strisciuglio, Clemente Servodio Iammarrone
BACKGROUND: The development of both gross and fine motor skills in a child with Down syndrome is generally delayed. The most seriously affected stage is the achievement of independent walking ability, which influences the onset of all following motor and cognityive skills. The study objectives were (a) to assess the time taken to achieve independent walking ability in a cohort of children with Down syndrome, (b) to examine differences in walking onset by patient characteristics, (c) to verify the effect of early physical therapy (Neurodevelopmental Treatment on the basis of Bobath Concept practised within the first months of life) in the achievement of that skill...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Garry Kuan, Tony Morris, Yee Cheng Kueh, Peter C Terry
Music that is carefully selected to match the requirements of activities and the characteristics of individuals has been shown to produce significant impacts on performance enhancement (Priest et al., 2004). There is also evidence that music can enhance imagery (Grocke and Wigram, 2007), although few studies have investigated the effects of music on imagery in the context of sport skills. In the present study, the effects of relaxing and arousing music during imagery on dart-throwing performance, physiological arousal indices, and competitive state anxiety, were investigated among 63 novice dart throwers...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Jenny Bolk, Nelly Padilla, Lea Forsman, Lina Broström, Kerstin Hellgren, Ulrika Åden
OBJECTIVES: This exploratory study aimed to investigate associations between neonatal brain volumes and visual-motor integration (VMI) and fine motor skills in children born extremely preterm (EPT) when they reached 6½ years of age. SETTING: Prospective population-based cohort study in Stockholm, Sweden, during 3 years. PARTICIPANTS: All children born before gestational age, 27 weeks, during 2004-2007 in Stockholm, without major morbidities and impairments, and who underwent MRI at term-equivalent age...
February 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Erez James Cohen, Riccardo Bravi, Diego Minciacchi
Fidgeting, defined as the generation of small movements through nervousness or impatience, is one of cardinal characteristic of ADHD. While fidgeting is, by definition, a motor experience still nothing is known about the effects of fidgeting on motor control. Some forms of fidgeting involve also the manipulation of external objects which, through repetition, may become automatic and second nature. Both repetition and practice are important for the acquisition of motor skills and, therefore, it is plausible that the repetitive manipulation of objects may influence motor control and performance...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jo Wray, Katherine L Brown, Deborah Ridout, Monica Lakhanpaul, Liz Smith, Angie Scarisbrick, Sara O'Curry, Aparna Hoskote
Introduction Neurodevelopmental abnormalities are common in children with CHD and are the highest-priority concerns for parents and professionals following cardiac surgery in childhood. There is no additional routine monitoring of development for children with CHD in the United Kingdom; hence, neurodevelopmental concerns may be detected late, precluding early referral and intervention. METHODS: An early recognition tool - the "Brief Developmental Assessment" - was developed using quality improvement methodology involving several iterations and rounds of pilot testing...
February 13, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
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