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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730641/basal-ganglia-and-autism-a-translational-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Krishna Subramanian, Cheryl Brandenburg, Fernanda Orsati, Jean-Jacques Soghomonian, John P Hussman, Gene J Blatt
The basal ganglia are a collection of nuclei below the cortical surface that are involved in both motor and non-motor functions, including higher order cognition, social interactions, speech, and repetitive behaviors. Motor development milestones that are delayed in autism such as gross motor, fine motor and walking can aid in early diagnosis of autism. Neuropathology and neuroimaging findings in autism cases revealed volumetric changes and altered cell density in select basal ganglia nuclei. Interestingly, in autism, both the basal ganglia and the cerebellum are impacted both in their motor and non-motor domains and recently, found to be connected via the pons through a short disynaptic pathway...
July 21, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724337/handedness-effects-of-imagined-fine-motor-movements
#2
Christopher M Donoff, Christopher R Madan, Anthony Singhal
Previous studies of movement imagery have found inter-individual differences in the ability to imagine whole-body movements. The majority of these studies have used subjective scales to measure imagery ability, which may be confounded by other factors related to effort. Madan and Singhal [2013. Introducing TAMI: An objective test of ability in movement imagery. Journal of Motor Behavior, 45(2), 153-166. doi: 10.1080/00222895.2013.763764 ] developed the Test of Ability in Movement Imagery (TAMI) to address these confounds by using a multiple-choice format with objectively correct responses...
July 19, 2017: Laterality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722685/neural-control-of-finger-movement-via-intracortical-brain-machine-interface
#3
Zachary T Irwin, Karen E Schroeder, Philip P Vu, Autumn J Bullard, Derek M Tat, Chrono S Nu, Alex Vaskov, Samuel R Nason, David E Thompson, Nicole Bentley, Parag G Patil, Cynthia A Chestek
OBJECTIVE: Intracortical brain-machine interfaces (BMIs) are a promising source of prosthesis control signals for individuals with severe motor disabilities. Previous BMI studies have primarily focused on predicting and controlling whole-arm movements; precise control of hand kinematics, however, has not been fully demonstrated. Here, we investigate the continuous decoding of precise finger movements in rhesus macaques. APPROACH: In order to elicit precise and repeatable finger movements, we have developed a novel behavioral task paradigm which requires the subject to acquire virtual fingertip position targets...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719548/forearm-pronation-osteotomy-for-supination-contracture-secondary-to-obstetrical-brachial-plexus-palsy-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#4
Aharon Z Gladstein, Brant Sachleben, Emily S Ho, Alison Anthony, Howard M Clarke, Sevan Hopyan
BACKGROUND: Obstetrical brachial plexus palsy can lead to fixed forearm supination contracture. Fixed supination may lead to functional deficits as the affected hand cannot be positioned optimally for activities on a desk such as writing and typing, or for using tools including utensils, which require a neutral or pronated forearm. Forearm pronation osteotomy has been used to address this problem, although the functional benefit over nonoperative management has not been clearly defined...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692591/development-and-validation-of-a-modular-endoscopic-ear-surgery-skills-trainer
#5
Matthew M Dedmon, Brendan P O'Connell, Elliott D Kozin, Aaron K Remenschneider, Samuel R Barber, Daniel J Lee, Robert F Labadie, Alejandro Rivas
OBJECTIVE: Endoscopic ear surgery (EES) is an emerging technique requiring single-handed dissection with limited depth perception. Current options for EES simulation and training are limited. Herein, we introduce a versatile, low-cost surgical skills trainer that aims to improve the fine motor control necessary for EES. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective validation study. SETTING: Surgical simulation laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: Seven subjects ranging in experience from medical students ("Novices") to experienced ear surgeons ("Experts") participated in the validation study...
July 7, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688787/retrospective-analysis-of-predictors-of-proficient-power-mobility-in-young-children-with-severe-motor-impairments
#6
Shelley R H Mockler, Irene R McEwen, Maria A Jones
OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to determine if (a) child characteristics, (b) maternal education, (c) intervention parameters, (d) type of wheelchair control mechanism, or a combination of these variables, were associated with proficient power mobility skills in children with severe motor impairments aged 14 to 30 months. The secondary purpose was to determine if performance on the Wheelchair Skills Checklist (WSC) was associated with performance on the Powered Mobility Program (PMP)...
July 5, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685955/language-and-motor-skills-in-siblings-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-meta-analytic-review
#7
REVIEW
Dunia Garrido, Dafina Petrova, Linda R Watson, Rocio Garcia-Retamero, Gloria Carballo
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show significant linguistic and motor impairments compared to children with typical development (TD). Findings from studies of siblings of children with ASD show similarities to conclusions from studies of children with ASD. The current meta-analysis reviewed studies reporting linguistic and/or motor skills in siblings of children with ASD compared to siblings of children with TD. Thirty-four studies published between 1994 and 2016 met all inclusion criteria. We compared three different age groups (12 months or younger, 13 to 24 months, and 25 to 36 months)...
July 7, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647804/estimating-the-long-term-functional-burden-of-osteoporosis-related-fractures
#8
S Fischer, K A Kapinos, A Mulcahy, L Pinto, O Hayden, R Barron
Although fractures are associated with short-term reductions in functional status, there is limited information on longer-term burden of fracture. This study documents evidence of an association between fractures and significant declines and functional health and activities that persist but attenuate beyond two years. INTRODUCTION: Although fractures are associated with short-term reductions in functional status and may have other short-term effects on healthcare utilization (hospitalization and follow-up care), there is limited information on long-term burden of fracture beyond 12 to 24 months post-fracture...
June 24, 2017: Osteoporosis International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646563/cohesive-network-reconfiguration-accompanies-extended-training
#9
Qawi K Telesford, Arian Ashourvan, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Jean M Vettel, Danielle S Bassett
Human behavior is supported by flexible neurophysiological processes that enable the fine-scale manipulation of information across distributed neural circuits. Yet, approaches for understanding the dynamics of these circuit interactions have been limited. One promising avenue for quantifying and describing these dynamics lies in multilayer network models. Here, networks are composed of nodes (which represent brain regions) and time-dependent edges (which represent statistical similarities in activity time series)...
June 24, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619605/the-prognostic-value-of-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-term-newborns-treated-with-therapeutic-hypothermia-following-asphyxia
#10
Paul E Sijens, Katharina Wischniowsky, Hendrik J Ter Horst
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to correlate brain metabolism assessed shortly after therapeutic hyperthermia by (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), with neurodevelopmental outcome. METHODS: At the age of 6.0±1.8days, brain metabolites of 35 term asphyxiated newborns, treated with therapeutic hypothermia, were quantified by multivoxel proton MRS of a volume cranial to the corpus callosum, containing both gray and white matter. At the age of 30months the Bayley Scale of Infant Development-III was performed...
June 12, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619292/psychophysiological-response-in-parachute-jumps-the-effect-of-experience-and-type-of-jump
#11
Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Jesús Fernández-Lucas
We aimed to analyse the effect of experience and type of parachute jump on the psychophysiological responses of jumpers. We analysed blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, lactate and creatinkinase, leg strength, isometric hand strength, cortical arousal, specific fine motor skills, self-confidence and cognition, and somatic and state anxiety, before and after four different parachute jumps: a sport parachute jump, a manual tactical parachute jump, tandem pilots, and tandem passengers. Independently of the parachute jump, the psychophysiological responses of experienced paratroopers were not affected by the jumps, except for an increase in anaerobic metabolism...
June 13, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616424/evaluation-of-1-year-old-children-development-in-isfahan-city-and-its-effective-factors-using-ages-and-stages-questionnaire-in-2014
#12
Mehri Rejali, Soheila Pahlavni, Akbar Hassanzadeh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Attention to the development of children as the future generation that leads to the upbringing of productive human resources is an important subject. Development has dimensions that a child should acquire the skills related to them in proper age. Otherwise, he may be affected by developmental delays. There are different factors influencing children's developmental delays and this study is carried out to evaluate the developmental conditions of 1-year-old children in the Isfahan and its effective factors...
2017: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28608521/cultural-entrainment-of-motor-skill-development-learning-to-write-hiragana-in-japanese-primary-school
#13
Tetsushi Nonaka
The aim of the present study was to examine how the social norms shared in a classroom environment influence the development of movement dynamics of handwriting of children who participate in the environment. To look into this issue, the following aspects of the entire period of classroom learning of hiragana letters in Japanese 1st graders who had just entered primary school were studied: First, the structure of classroom events and the specific types of interaction and learning within such environment were described...
June 13, 2017: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602489/prenatal-naled-and-chlorpyrifos-exposure-is-associated-with-deficits-in-infant-motor-function-in-a-cohort-of-chinese-infants
#14
Monica K Silver, Jie Shao, Binquan Zhu, Minjian Chen, Yankai Xia, Niko Kaciroti, Betsy Lozoff, John D Meeker
BACKGROUND: Organophosphate insecticides (OPs) are used worldwide, yet despite nearly ubiquitous exposure in the general population, few have been studied outside the laboratory. Fetal brains undergo rapid growth and development, leaving them susceptible to long-term effects of neurotoxic OPs. The objective here was to investigate the extent to which prenatal exposure to OPs affects infant motor development. METHODS: 30 OPs were measured in umbilical cord blood using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in a cohort of Chinese infants...
June 6, 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600111/do-active-video-games-benefit-the-motor-skill-development-of-non-typically-developing-children-and-adolescents-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Zoey E Page, Stephanie Barrington, Jacqueline Edwards, Lisa M Barnett
OBJECTIVES: The use of interactive video gaming, known as 'exergames' or 'active video games (AVG)' may provide an opportunity for motor skill development. Youth with non-typical patterns of development may have deficits in gross motor skill capacities and are therefore an intervention target. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of AVG use on motor skill development in non-typically developing children and adolescents. DESIGN: Review article. METHODS: The PRISMA protocol was used to conduct a systematic review of EBSCOhost, Embase, Gale Cengage, Informit, Ovid, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28582693/analysis-of-the-pen-pressure-and-grip-force-signal-during-basic-drawing-tasks-the-timing-and-speed-changes-impact-drawing-characteristics
#16
Arthur Gatouillat, Antoine Dumortier, Subashan Perera, Youakim Badr, Claudine Gehin, Ervin Sejdić
Writing is a complex fine and trained motor skill, involving complex biomechanical and cognitive processes. In this paper, we propose the study of writing kinetics using three angles: the pen-tip normal force, the total grip force signal and eventually writing quality assessment. In order to collect writing kinetics data, we designed a sensor collecting these characteristics simultaneously. Ten healthy right-handed adults were recruited and were asked to perform four tasks: first, they were instructed to draw circles at a speed they considered comfortable; they then were instructed to draw circles at a speed they regarded as fast; afterwards, they repeated the comfortable task compelled to follow the rhythm of a metronome; and eventually they performed the fast task under the same timing constraints...
May 22, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578819/home-based-training-for-dexterity-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Tim Vanbellingen, Thomas Nyffeler, Julia Nigg, Jorina Janssens, Johanna Hoppe, Tobias Nef, René M Müri, Erwin E H van Wegen, Gert Kwakkel, Stephan Bohlhalter
BACKGROUND: Patients with Parkinson's disease exhibit disturbed manual dexterity. This impairment leads to difficulties in activities of daily living, such as buttoning a shirt or hand-writing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of a home-based dexterity program on fine motor skills in a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial, in patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: One hundred and three patients with Parkinson's disease (aged between 48 and 80 years, Hoehn & Yahr stage I-IV) were randomized to either a home-based dexterity program (HOMEDEXT) or Thera-band program...
May 25, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526673/the-effectiveness-of-a-computer-game-based-rehabilitation-platform-for-children-with-cerebral-palsy-protocol-for-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
Anuprita Kanitkar, Tony Szturm, Sanjay Parmar, Dorcas Bc Gandhi, Gina Ruth Rempel, Gayle Restall, Monika Sharma, Amitesh Narayan, Jeyaraj Pandian, Nilashri Naik, Ravi R Savadatti, Mahesh Appasaheb Kamate
BACKGROUND: It is difficult to engage young children with cerebral palsy (CP) in repetitive, tedious therapy. As such, there is a need for innovative approaches and tools to motivate these children. We developed the low-cost, computer game-based rehabilitation platform CGR that combines fine manipulation and gross movement exercises with attention and planning game activities appropriate for young children with CP. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to provide evidence of the therapeutic value of CGR to improve upper extremity (UE) motor function for children with CP...
May 18, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516192/the-value-of-gesell-score-in-predicting-the-outcome-of-cochlear-implantation-in-children
#19
Yang Yang, Liu Haihong, Zheng Jun, Chen Min, Li Ying, Hao Jinsheng, Liu Wei, Zhang Jie, Ni Xin
The purpose is to determine the value of preoperative evaluation on developmental levels using Gesell score in predicting the postoperative outcome in pediatric cochlear implantation (CI) recipients. 78 children who underwent CI were included in our study. Age at the time of CI ranged from 6 to 67 months. The Gesell score including adaptability, fine motor, gross motor, language, and social skill was used for evaluating the patients' developmental levels before the CI, and a developmental quotient (DQ) was calculated by the following formula: (developmental age/actual age) × 100...
May 17, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515161/suboptimal-maternal-iodine-intake-is-associated-with-impaired-child-neurodevelopment-at-3-years-of-age-in-the-norwegian-mother-and-child-cohort-study
#20
Marianne H Abel, Ida H Caspersen, Helle Margrete Meltzer, Margaretha Haugen, Ragnhild E Brandlistuen, Heidi Aase, Jan Alexander, Liv E Torheim, Anne-Lise Brantsæter
Background: Severe iodine deficiency in pregnancy has major effects on child neurodevelopment, but less is known about the potential consequences of mild-to-moderate deficiency and iodine supplement use.Objective: We explored the associations between maternal iodine intake and child neurodevelopment at 3 y of age and the potential impact of maternal intake of iodine from supplements on the same outcomes.Methods: This population-based prospective observational study included 48,297 mother-child pairs recruited during pregnancy from 2002 to 2008...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
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