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Yingyue Zhang, Jie Feng, Simon A McManus, Hoang D Lu, Kurt D Ristroph, Eugene J Cho, Ellen L Dobrijevic, Hak-Kim Chan, Robert K Prud'homme
Clofazimine, a lipophilic (log P = 7.66) riminophenazine antibiotic approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) with a good safety record, was recently identified as a lead hit for cryptosporidiosis through a high-throughput phenotypic screen. Cryptosporidiosis requires fast-acting treatment as it leads to severe symptoms which, if untreated, result in morbidity for infants and small children. Consequently, a fast-releasing oral formulation of clofazimine in a water-dispersible form for pediatric administration is highly desirable...
September 20, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Jing Miao, Kunhua Wei, Xia Li, Chengcheng Zhao, Xuetao Chen, Xinhui Mao, Hanhan Huang, Wenyuan Gao
Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of fresh and boiled Chaenomeles speciosa (CS) slices dried by different drying methods were determined. Data were analyzed by principle component analysis and cluster analysis. All dried boiled CS from dried fresh CS slices form main cluster. The results also demonstrated that both drying methods, freeze drying and hot air drying at 60 °C had good potential in the industrial drying of fresh and boiled CS. Fresh CS dried by hot air drying at 60 °C was more suitable for the industrial production...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Elske Hoornenborg, Maria Prins, Roel C A Achterbergh, Lycke R Woittiez, Marion Cornelissen, Suzanne Jurriaans, Neeltje A Kootstra, Peter L Anderson, Peter Reiss, Henry J C de Vries, Jan M Prins, Godelieve J de Bree
BACKGROUND: Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is highly effective against acquisition of HIV infection, and only two cases of infection with a multidrug-resistant virus have been reported under adequate long-term adherence, as evidenced by tenofovir diphosphate concentrations in dried blood spots. We report a case of wild-type HIV-1 infection despite consistent use of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. METHODS: The patient participated in the Amsterdam PrEP project, a demonstration project of daily and event-driven PrEP...
September 14, 2017: Lancet HIV
R I Ortiz-Basurto, M E Rubio-Ibarra, J A Ragazzo-Sanchez, C I Beristain, M Jiménez-Fernández
The objective of this work was to microencapsulate pitanga (Eugenia uniflora L.) juice by spray drying, using High Performance Agave Fructans (HPAF) and High Degree of Polymerisation Agave Fructans (HDPAF) and maltodextrin (MD), respectively, as the wall materials. The physicochemical and antioxidant properties of the capsules during storage at various temperatures were evaluated. The microparticles developed using fructans HPAF and HDPAF, exhibited similar physicochemical and flow properties to those presented by the microparticles prepared with MD...
November 1, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Saeed Ghanbarzadeh, Hadi Valizadeh, Shadi Yaqoubi, Arash Asdagh, Hamed Hamishehkar
Background Tablets and capsules are the most accepted and widely used solid dosage forms in the medical therapy. Flow property of the powders is playing a key role in the various pharmaceutical fields especially in the fomulation of tablets and capsules. The high hygroscopic crystalline structure of anhydrous Divalproex sodium (DVX) makes it to be appear as waxy white flakes with almost no powder flowability which cause serious problems during the tabletting and capsule filling procedures. Purpose The main objective of this study was to improve the flowability of DVX powder...
September 12, 2017: Drug Research
P V V Satish, K Sunita
BACKGROUND: The objective of the current study was to assess the in vitro antiplasmodial activities of leaf, bark, flower, and the root of Pongamia pinnata against chloroquine-sensitive Plasmodium falciparum (3D7 strain), cytotoxicity against Brine shrimp larvae and THP-1 cell line. For in vivo study, the plant extract which has shown potent in vitro antimalarial activity was tested against Plasmodium berghei (ANKA strain). METHODS: The plant Pongamia pinnata was collected from the herbal garden of Acharya Nagarjuna University of Guntur district, Andhra Pradesh, India...
September 11, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Feifei Zhou, Xianzhu Zhang, Dandan Cai, Jun Li, Qin Mu, Wei Zhang, Shouan Zhu, Yangzi Jiang, Weiliang Shen, Shufang Zhang, Hong Wei Ouyang
The demand of favorable scaffolds has increased for the emerging cartilage tissue engineering. Chondroitin sulfate (CS) and silk fibroin have been investigated and reported with safety and excellent biocompatibility as tissue engineering scaffolds. However, the rapid degradation rate of pure CS scaffolds presents a challenge to effectively recreate neo-tissue similar to natural articular cartilage. Meanwhile the silk fibroin is well used as a structural constituent material because its remarkable mechanical properties, long-lasting in vivo stability and hypoimmunity...
September 7, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
Laurens De Meyer, Joris Lammens, Séverine Thérèse F C Mortier, Brecht Vanbillemont, Pieter Jan Van Bockstal, Jos Corver, Ingmar Nopens, Chris Vervaet, Thomas De Beer
In the pharmaceutical industry, traditional freeze-drying of unit doses is a batch-wise process associated with many disadvantages. To overcome these disadvantages and to guarantee a uniform product quality and high process efficiency, a continuous freeze-drying process is developed and evaluated. The main differences between the proposed continuous freeze-drying process and traditional freeze-drying can be found firstly in the freezing step during which the vials are rotated around their longitudinal axis (spin freezing), and secondly in the drying step during which the energy for sublimation and desorption is provided through the vial wall by conduction via an electrical heating pad...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Helmy Yusuf, Ahlam A Ali, Natalie Orr, Helen O McCarthy, Vicky L Kett
There is a pressing need for effective needle-free vaccines that are stable enough for use in the developing world and stockpiling. The inclusion of the cationic lipid DDA and the PEG-containing moiety TPGS into liposomes has the potential to improve mucosal delivery. The aim of this study was to develop stable lyophilized cationic liposomes based on these materials suitable for nasal antigen delivery. Liposomes containing DDA and TPGS were developed. Size and zeta potential measurements, ex vivo, CLSM cell penetration study and cell viability investigations were made...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Qian Zhang, Li Cui, Ping Wang, Chao Deng, Qiang Wang, Xuerong Fan
Silk sericin has excellent features of anti-oxidant ability and good cytocompatibility, however, high water solubility and poor mechanical properties have restricted its application in biomedical fields. In this study, aimed at improving the mechanical properties of a regenerated silk sericin, the primary hydroxy groups in silk sericin were enzymatically oxidized by using laccase and 2,2',6,6'-tetramethylpiperidine-N-oxyl (TEMPO), and the generated reactive groups then reacted further with the amino groups in the sericin chains...
September 7, 2017: Biotechnology and Applied Biochemistry
Nafiseh Baheiraei, Mohamma Reza Nourani, Sm Javad Mortazavi, Mansoureh Movahedin, Hossein Eyni, Fatemeh Baghery, Mohammad Hadi Norahan
We developed collagen (COL) and collagen/beta tricalcium phosphate (COL/β-TCP) scaffolds with a β-TCP/collagen weight ratio of 4 by freeze-drying. Mouse bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) were cultured on these scaffolds for 14 days. Samples were characterized by physicochemical analyses and their biological properties such as cell viability and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was,also, examined. Additionally, the vascularization potential of the prepared scaffolds was tested subcutaneously in Wistar rats...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Wen-Harn Pan, Ying-Ho Lai, Wen-Ting Yeh, Jiunn-Rong Chen, Jiann-Shing Jeng, Chyi-Huey Bai, Ruey-Tay Lin, Tsong-Hai Lee, Ku-Chou Chang, Huey-Juan Lin, Chin-Fu Hsiao, Chang-Ming Chern, Li-Ming Lien, Chung-Hsiang Liu, Wei-Hung Chen, Anna Chang
Background: Stroke is one of the leading causes of mortality and neurologic deficits. Management measures to improve neurologic outcomes are in great need. Our previous intervention trial in elderly subjects successfully used salt as a carrier for potassium, demonstrating a 41% reduction in cardiovascular mortality by switching to potassium-enriched salt. Dietary magnesium has been associated with lowered diabetes and/or stroke risk in humans and with neuroprotection in animals.Objective: Because a large proportion of Taiwanese individuals are in marginal deficiency states for potassium and for magnesium and salt is a good carrier for minerals, it is justifiable to study whether further enriching salt with magnesium at an amount near the Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) amount may provide additional benefit for stroke recovery...
September 6, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
V Kishor Kumar, K G Lalitha
BACKGROUND: Helleborus niger L (Ranunculaceae) is used Ayurvedic and Unani systems and other herbal medicine systems. The roots of H. niger have a good medicinal value. AIMS: To conduct a pharmacognostical and phytochemical study of H. niger. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The pharmacognostical studies on roots including parameters such as taxonomical, macroscopic, microscopic characters, physico-chemical, ultra-violet analysis and phytochemical studies are established...
January 2017: Ancient Science of Life
Haixia Xie, Xiuli Chen, Xianrong Shen, Ying He, Wei Chen, Qun Luo, Weihong Ge, Weihong Yuan, Xue Tang, Dengyong Hou, Dingwen Jiang, Qingrong Wang, Yuming Liu, Qiong Liu, Kexian Li
The present study aimed to prepare a composite dressing composed of collagen, chitosan, and alginate, which may promote wound healing and prevent from seawater immersion. Chitosan-collagen-alginate (CCA) cushion was prepared by paintcoat and freeze-drying, and it was attached to a polyurethane to compose CCA composite dressing. The swelling, porosity, degradation, and mechanical properties of CCA cushion were evaluated. The effects on wound healing and seawater prevention of CCA composite dressing were tested by rat wound model...
August 30, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Elham Moein, Homa Hajimehdipoor, Tayebeh Toliyat, Rasool Choopani, Maryam Hamzeloo-Moghadam
BACKGROUND: Currently, people are more interested to traditional medicine. The traditional formulations should be converted to modern drug delivery systems to be more acceptable for the patients. In the present investigation, a poly herbal medicine "Ayarij-e-Faiqra" (AF) based on Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) has been formulated and its quality control parameters have been developed. METHODS: The main ingredients of AF including barks of Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume and Cinnamomum cassia J...
August 29, 2017: Daru: Journal of Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences
Zhihui Zeng, Mingji Chen, Yongmao Pei, Seyed Ismail Seyed Shahabadi, Boyang Che, Peiyu Wang, Xuehong Lu
Flexible waterborne polyurethane (WPU)/silver nanowire (AgNW) nanocomposites with unidirectionally aligned micrometer-sized pores are fabricated using a facile freeze-drying process, and their dimensions, densities, and AgNW contents are easily controllable. The high-aspect-ratio AgNWs are well-dispersed in the nanocomposite cell walls, giving the nanocomposites good compression strength and excellent electrical conductivity even at very low densities. The large conductivity mismatch between the AgNWs and WPU also induces substantial interfacial polarization that benefits the absorption of electromagnetic (EM) waves, whereas the aligned cell walls promote multireflections of the waves in the porous architectures, further facilitating the absorption...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shaohua Jiang, Bianca Uch, Seema Agarwal, Andreas Greiner
Tunable density, thermally and mechanically stable, elastic, and thermally insulating sponges are required for demanding applications. Hierarchically structured sponges with bimodal interconnected pores, porosity more than 99%, and tunable densities (between 7.6 and 10.1 mg/cm(3)) are reported using polyimide (PI) as high temperature stable polymer. The sponges are made by freeze-drying a dispersion of short PI fibers and precursor polymer, poly(amic acid) (PAA). The concept of "self-gluing" the fibrous network skeleton of PI during sponge formation was applied to achieve mechanical stability without sacrificing the thermal properties...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hong-Mei Shang, Hai-Zhu Zhou, Ran Li, Meng-Ying Duan, Hong-Xin Wu, Yu-Jie Lou
Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to investigate the extraction condition of polysaccharide from cup plant (Silphium perfoliatum L.) (named CPP). Water to raw material ratio (10-30 mL/g), extraction time (40-80 min) and extraction temperature (60-100°C) were set as the 3 independent variables, and their effects on the extraction yield of CPP were measured. In addition, the effects of drying methods including hot air drying (HD), vacuum drying (VD) and freeze drying (FD) on the antioxidant activities of CPP were evaluated...
2017: PloS One
Zhenxin Liu, Depeng Wu, Xuehui Guo, Shaoming Fang, Lizhen Wang, Yu Xing, Steven L Suib
The construction of macroscopic 3D sponges is of great technological importance for various applications. An outstanding challenge is the facile fabrication of sponges with the desirable combination of good stability, high electrical conductivity, and absorption ability. Here free-standing 3D OMS-2 sponges are demonstrated, with various densities, which possess a combination of desirable physical properties including high porosity, robustness, permeability, recyclability, high electrical conductivity, and selective water absorption in preference to oil...
August 19, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
Holly D Cox, Daniel Eichner
The dried blood spot (DBS) matrix has significant utility for applications in the field where venous blood collection and timely shipment of labile blood samples is difficult. Unfortunately, protein measurement in DBS is hindered by high abundance proteins and matrix interference that increases with hematocrit. We developed a DBS method to enrich for membrane proteins and remove soluble proteins and matrix interference. Following a wash in a series of buffers, the membrane proteins are digested with trypsin and quantitated by parallel reaction monitoring mass spectrometry methods...
August 31, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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