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Harmanpreet Singh, Chateshwar Kumar, Narpinder Singh, Surinder Paul, Subheet Kumar Jain
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a vital structural component of neuronal tissue, which is critically required during pre- and post-natal brain development. Its liquid nature, fishy odor, poor bioavailability and oxidative stability are the major challenges in the development of a pharmaceutically elegant and stable formulation. In the present study, nanocapsules of DHA from microalgae oil were prepared using different combinations of wall materials (carbohydrates, polymers, gum and proteins). The encapsulation using spray drying was done to prepare a pharmaceutically stable DHA formulation...
March 16, 2018: Food & Function
Kathryn E Drzewiecki, Juilee N Malavade, Ijaz Ahmed, Christopher J Lowe, David I Shreiber
As a biomaterial, collagen has been used throughout tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Collagen is native to the body, is highly biocompatible, and naturally promotes cell adhesion and regeneration. However, collagen fibers and the inherent weak mechanical properties of collagen hydrogels interfere with further development of collagen as a bio-ink. Herein, we demonstrate the use of a modified type-I collagen, collagen methacrylamide (CMA), as a fibril-forming bio-ink for free-form fabrication of scaffolds...
December 2017: Technology
Gudrun A Fridgeirsdottir, Rob Harris, Ian Dryden, Peter M Fischer, Clive J Roberts
Solid dispersions can be a successful way to enhance the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Here 60 solid dispersion formulations were produced using ten chemically diverse, neutral, poorly soluble drugs, three commonly used polymers, and two manufacturing techniques, spray drying and melt extrusion. Each formulation underwent a six-month stability study at accelerated conditions, 40 °C and 75% relative humidity (RH). Significant differences in times to crystallisation (onset of crystallisation) were observed between both the different polymers and the two processing methods...
March 13, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Ziyu Zhao, Zhengwei Huang, Xuejuan Zhang, Ying Huang, Yingtong Cui, Cheng Ma, Guanlin Wang, Tim Freeman, Xiang-Yun Lu, Xin Pan, Chuanbin Wu
BACKGROUND: The hygroscopicity of raffinose carrier for dry powder inhaler (DPI) was the main obstacle for its further application. Hygroscopicity-induced agglomeration would cause deterioration of aerosolization performance of raffinose, undermining the delivery efficiency. METHODS: Cyclodextrin-raffinose binary carriers (CRBCs) were produced by spray-drying so as to surmount the above issue. Physicochemical attributes and formation mechanism of CRBCs were explored in detail...
March 13, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
Anders Helander, Katarina Stojanovic, Tomas Villén, Olof Beck
In recent time, structural variants of fentanyl ("designer fentanyls") have appeared on the recreational drug market for new psychoactive substances (NPS). These potent opioids have caused harmful intoxications and increased opioid related mortality in many countries. This work evaluated three commercial immunoassays for fentanyl screening in urine, and investigated whether they are useful also for screening of designer fentanyls. The assays examined were the Thermo DRI® Fentanyl Enzyme Immunoassay, the ARK™ Fentanyl Assay homogeneous enzyme immunoassay, and the Immunalysis® Fentanyl Urine SEFRIA™ Drug Screening Kit...
March 12, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
Jinjie Wang, Liubing Dong, Chengjun Xu, Danyang Ren, Xinpei Ma, Feiyu Kang
Polymorphous supercapacitors were constructed from flexible three-dimensional (3D) carbon network/polyaniline (PANI)/MnO2 composite textile electrodes. The flexible textile electrodes were fabricated through a layer-by-layer construction strategy: PANI, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and MnO2 were deposited on activated carbon fiber cloth (ACFC) in turn through electro-polymerization process, "dipping and drying" method and in situ chemical reaction, respectively. In the fabricated ACFC/PANI/CNTs/MnO2 textile electrodes, ACFC-CNT hybrid framework serves as porous and electrically conductive 3D network for rapid transmission of electrons and electrolyte ions, while ACFC, PANI and MnO2 are high-performance supercapacitor electrode materials...
March 12, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Andrea Arsiccio, Roberto Pisano
Biopharmaceuticals are frequently stored in the frozen state to avoid rapid degradation. Moreover, therapeutic proteins are frequently made into a dried form to provide long-term storage. However, both freezing and drying stresses can result in protein unfolding and aggregation. Thus, a proper formulation, containing suitable excipients, must be used to avoid loss of activity. Here, the conformational stability of a model protein, human growth hormone, is studied during freezing, and in the dried state as well, using molecular dynamics...
March 12, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zhaoyang Xu, Huan Zhou, Sicong Tan, Xiangdong Jiang, Weibing Wu, Jiangtao Shi, Peng Chen
With the worsening of the oil-product pollution problem, oil-water separation has attracted increased attention in recent years. In this study, a porous three-dimensional (3D) carbon aerogel based on cellulose nanofibers (CNFs), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized by a facile and green approach. The resulting CNF/PVA/GO aerogels were synthesized through an environmentally friendly freeze-drying process and then carbonized to yield CNF/PVA/GO carbon aerogels with low density (18...
2018: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Regina Elizondo-González, Eduardo Quiroz-Guzmán, Cristina Escobedo-Fregoso, Paola Magallón-Servín, Alberto Peña-Rodríguez
Two experimental feeding trials were conducted during four weeks to evaluate the use of Ulva lactuca in shrimp culture: (1) for wastewater bioremediation, and (2) using different inclusion levels of U. lactuca meal in shrimp feed. In feeding trial 1, shrimp reared under seaweed U. lactuca water exchange in a re-circulation system (SWE) resulted in similar growth and feed utilization as shrimp reared with clean water exchange (CWE). Shrimp under no water exchange (NWE) resulted in significant lower growth and higher feed conversion rate (FCR) compared to the other treatments ( p  < 0...
2018: PeerJ
Xue Li, Jun Cao, Xinpeng Bai, Zefang Jiang, Xuanri Shen
Human milk fat substitutes (HMFS) are rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids which upon microencapsulation, can be used as a source of high quality lipids in infant formula. The response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the microencapsulation condition of HMFS as a functional product. The microencapsulation efficiency (MEE) of microencapsulated HMFS was investigated with respect to four variables including concentration of soy lecithin (A), ratio of demineralized whey powder to malt dextrin (B), HFMS concentration (C), and homogenizing pressure (D)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Oleo Science
Pierre Maudens, Christian Alexander Seemayer, François Pfefferlé, Olivier Jordan, Eric Allémann
This study aimed to formulate nanocrystal-polymer particles containing the potent p38α/β MAPK inhibitor PH-797804 (PH-NPPs) and to test their extended-release properties over months in comparison to those of conventional PH microparticles for the intra-articular treatment of inflammatory and mechanistic murine models mirroring aspects of human osteoarthritis (OA). The steps of the study were (i) to formulate PH nanocrystals (wet milling), (ii) to encapsulate a high payload of PH nanocrystals in fluorescent particles (spray drying), (iii) to assess in vitro drug release, (iv) to evaluate PH-NPP toxicity to human OA synoviocytes (MTT test), (v) to investigate the in vivo bioactivity of the particles in mice in an inflammatory antigen-induced arthritis (AIA) model (using histology and RT-qPCR) and (vi) to investigate the in vivo bioactivity of the particles in the OA model obtained by mechanistic surgical destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) (using histology, micro-CT, and multiplex ELISA)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Jacqueline Horn, Julia Schanda, Wolfgang Friess
PURPOSE: Mannitol/sucrose formulations are employed to generate lyophilizates for biopharmaceuticals with an elegant cake appearance. The aim of this study was to dry protein/mannitol/sucrose formulations as fast as possible without loss of cake appearance and protein stability. Glycerol was included as potential additional protein stabilizer. Three proteins (lysozyme and two monoclonal antibodies) at low and high concentration were analyzed comparing fast with conservative freeze-drying...
March 6, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Charlotte Jones, Gareth J Dunseath, Jessica Lemon, Stephen D Luzio
BACKGROUND: Microsampling techniques are alternative methods to venous sampling for obtaining blood for measurement of circulating biomarkers, offering the convenience of reduced sample volume and elimination of the need for phlebotomists. Dried blood spot (DBS) microsampling methods have been used for many years while more recently a volumetric absorptive microsampling device (VAMS™) has been introduced. In diabetes mellitus, circulating C-peptide is commonly used as an indicator of endogenous insulin secretion and clinical measurement can aid in diagnosis as well as informing on therapy...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Yanqing Liu, Hongwu Wang, Su Yao, Peijie Zhu
A fast and sensitive method involving ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was introduced to detect citrinin in dried orange peel. A series of extraction, purification, and chromatographic conditions was also systematically examined. With the proposed method, the obtained calibration graph was linear, with an R of 0.9996 within a concentration range of 0.5-10 ng/mL. The estimated limits of detection and quantification were 0.05 and 0.17 ng/mL, respectively. Under the selected conditions, the relative recoveries in different citrus products spiked with 1-10 ng/mL citrinin were 89...
March 8, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Luana Fernandes, José A Pereira, Jorge A Saraiva, Susana Casal, Elsa Ramalhosa
BACKGROUND: Borage is an edible flower with a very limited shelf-life (approx. 1 day). After harvest, flowers dry and shrink rapidly and become darker. Extending the shelf life of borage will make it more appealing for commercialization and it will enable borage growers to expand their market. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the effect of three post-harvest technologies. METHODS: Freeze-drying, hot air convective drying and alginate edible coating were applied to borage petals, and the visual appearance, water activity (aw) and weight loss was evaluated...
January 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Xiaoliang Cheng, Kunhong Liu, Yong Liu, Maoyi Wang, Ying Ma
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantification of caspofungin in dried blood spots (DBS) was developed and validated. The DBS samples, which were prepared by spotting whole blood onto Whatman 903 filter paper and drying at room temperature, were extracted with 50% methanol and further cleaned by protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Roxithromycin was selected as internal standard, and the separation of the analytes with endogenous ingredients was accomplished on a Hypersil GOLD aQ column with mobile phase composed of 0...
March 5, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Chirom Aarti, Ameer Khusro, Rakesh Varghese, Mariadhas Valan Arasu, Paul Agastian, Naïf Abdullah Al-Dhabi, Soundharrajan Ilavenil, Ki Choon Choi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the probiotic characteristics, anti-Candida activity, and antibiofilm attributes of Hentak derived Lactobacillus pentosus strain LAP1. DESIGN: The probiotic properties of strain LAP1 was depicted by adapting standard protocols. The anti-Candida and antibiofilm properties of isolate were determined using agar well diffusion assay and ELISA reader test, respectively. The time-kill assay was performed using viable colony count assay. Further, the co-aggregation property of strain LAP1 was determined based on standard methodology...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Oral Biology
Salvatore Petralia, Emanuele Luigi Sciuto, Maria Francesca Santangelo, Sebania Libertino, Maria Anna Messina, Sabrina Conoci
The monitoring of water-soluble pollutants is receiving a growing interest from the scientific community. In this context, sulfide anion species S2- and HS- are particularly relevant since they can cause acute and chronic toxicity including neurological effects and at high concentrations, even death. In this study, a new strategy for fast and sensitive optical detection of sulfide species in water samples is described. The method uses an integrated silicon photomultiplier (SiPM) device coupled with the appropriate analytical strategy applied in a plastic microchip with dried reagents on board...
February 28, 2018: Sensors
Yanli Zhou, Qi Wang, Xiaotao Zhu, Fuyi Jiang
The three-dimensional (3D) SnS decorated carbon nano-networks (SnS@C) were synthesized via a facile two-step method of freeze-drying combined with post-heat treatment. The lithium and sodium storage performances of above composites acting as anode materials were investigated. As anode materials for lithium ion batteries, a high reversible capacity of 780 mAh·g-1 for SnS@C composites can be obtained at 100 mA·g-1 after 100 cycles. Even cycled at a high current density of 2 A·g-1 , the reversible capacity of this composite can be maintained at 610 mAh·g-1 after 1000 cycles...
February 28, 2018: Nanomaterials
Marina Cano-Lamadrid, Krzysztof Lech, Ángel Calín-Sánchez, Ema Carina Rosas-Burgos, Adam Figiel, Aneta Wojdyło, Malwina Wasilewska, Ángel A Carbonell-Barrachina
During the industrial manufacturing of pomegranate juice, large amounts of pomace are produced. The aim of this work was to find the effective method to dry pomegranate pomace to open new commercial applications for this co-product. The effects of three drying methods: (i) convective drying (CD) at 50, 60, and 70 °C; (ii) vacuum microwave drying (VMD) at 240, 360, and 480 W, and (iii) a combined method (CPD-VMFD); convective pre-drying (60 °C) followed by vacuum microwave finish drying (360 W), on drying kinetics and quality of PomP (pomegranate pomace obtained after preparing pomegranate juice by squeezing only arils) were evaluated...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
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