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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639052/gentamicin-loaded-polysaccharide-membranes-for-prevention-and-treatment-of-post-operative-wound-infections-in-the-skeletal-system
#1
Urszula Cibor, Małgorzata Krok-Borkowicz, Monika Brzychczy-Włoch, Łucja Rumian, Krzysztof Pietryga, Dominika Kulig, Wojciech Chrzanowski, Elżbieta Pamuła
PURPOSE: To develop polysaccharide-based membranes that allow controlled and localized delivery of gentamicin for the treatment of post-operative bone infections. METHODS: Membranes made of gellan gum (GUM), sodium alginate (ALG), GUM and ALG crosslinked with calcium ions (GUM + Ca and ALG + Ca, respectively) as well as reference collagen (COL) were produced by freeze-drying. Mechanical properties, drug release, antimicrobial activity and cytocompatibility of the membranes were assessed...
June 21, 2017: Pharmaceutical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622370/evaluation-of-the-performance-of-abbott-m2000-and-roche-cobas-ampliprep-cobas-taqman-assays-for-hiv-1-viral-load-determination-using-dried-blood-spots-and-dried-plasma-spots-in-kenya
#2
Clement Zeh, Kenneth Ndiege, Seth Inzaule, Rebecca Achieng, John Williamson, Joy Chih-Wei Chang, Dennis Ellenberger, John Nkengasong
BACKGROUND: Routine HIV viral load testing is not widely accessible in most resource-limited settings, including Kenya. To increase access to viral load testing, alternative sample types like dried blood spots (DBS), which overcome the logistic barriers associated with plasma separation and cold chain shipment need to be considered and evaluated. The current study evaluated matched dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS) against plasma using the Abbott M 2000 (Abbott) and Roche Cobas Ampliprep/Cobas TaqMan (CAP/CTM) quantitative viral load assays in western Kenya...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610378/type-designations-and-taxonomic-remarks-for-nearctic-sap-beetles-in-the-subfamily-carpophilinae-erichson-coleoptera-nitidulidae
#3
Gareth S Powell, Andrew R Cline
The subfamily Carpophilinae, in particular the genus Carpophilus Stephens, represents one of the most speciose lineages within Nitidulidae. The subfamily is comprised of more than 250 described species that are found worldwide in every habitable region, and have been transported by man in stored products to remote islands and archipelagos (Ewing & Cline 2005; Parsons 1943). The ubiquitous Carpophilus dimidiatus (L.) is an example of a cosmopolitan species that has been reported from every continent except Antarctica, but likely has been transported there as well...
May 16, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609193/dna-methylome-profiling-on-the-infinium-humanmethylation450-array-from-limiting-quantities-of-genomic-dna-from-a-single-small-archived-bloodspot
#4
Kripa Asrani, Gary M Shaw, Jasper Rine, Nicholas J Marini
AIMS: Archived newborn bloodspots are valuable sample collections for genetic and epigenetic disease research. However, they have often been stored for long periods of time, under less than ideal circumstances, and nucleic acid yields can be low, particularly when samples become limiting. We wished to determine whether the quantity and quality of genomic DNA (gDNA) isolated from a single, surgical bloodspot punch (2 mm dia.) were adequate for accurate and reliable DNA methylome profiling on the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array...
June 13, 2017: Genetic Testing and Molecular Biomarkers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598504/microencapsulation-of-corn-wastewater-nejayote-phytochemicals-by-spray-drying-and-their-release-under-simulated-gastrointestinal-digestion
#5
Javier Villela-Castrejón, Beatriz A Acosta-Estrada, Janet A Gutiérrez-Uribe
Corn lime cooking generates a large amount of wastewater known as nejayote that is composed of suspended solids and solubilized phytochemicals. Spray drying can be an alternative to recover bioactive molecules, such as ferulic acid, from nejayote. Besides the yield, the physicochemical properties (solubility, water activity, pH, moisture, hygroscopicity, total phenolic content, and distribution of free and bound hydroxycinnamic acids) of spray-dried nejayote powders were analyzed. The powders were obtained at 200 °C/100 °C or 150 °C/75 °C (inlet/outlet) air temperatures with the addition of maltodextrin (MD) or 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HBCD) as encapsulating agents...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28589227/laccase-mediated-synthesis-of-lignin-core-hyperbranched-copolymers
#6
Mark D Cannatelli, Arthur J Ragauskas
Lignin, one of the major chemical constituents of woody biomass, is the second most abundant biopolymer found in nature. The pulp and paper industry has long produced lignin on the scale of millions of tons annually as a by-product of the pulping process, and the dawn of cellulosic ethanol production has further contributed to this amount. Historically, lignin has been perceived as a waste material and burned as a fuel for the pulping process. However, recent research has been geared toward developing cost-effective technologies to convert lignin into valuable commodities...
June 6, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586700/injection-into-the-jugular-vein-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-the-united-kingdom-prevalence-associated-factors-and-harms
#7
Vivian D Hope, Jenny Iversen, Katelyn J Cullen, John V Parry, Lisa Maher, Fortune Nucbe
BACKGROUND: While people who inject drugs (PWID) typically use peripheral veins, some inject into their central veins, including the femoral and jugular veins. Injection into the jugular vein can have serious adverse health consequences, including jugular vein thrombosis, deep neck infections, pneumothorax, endocarditis and sepsis. This study examined the prevalence of, and factors associated with, jugular vein injection among a large sample of PWID in the United Kingdom. METHOD: Unlinked anonymous surveys (2011-14) recruited PWID from agencies providing services to this population...
June 3, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578273/biomimetic-mineralized-hierarchical-hybrid-scaffolds-based-on-in-situ-synthesis-of-nano-hydroxyapatite-chitosan-chondroitin-sulfate-hyaluronic-acid-for-bone-tissue-engineering
#8
Yimin Hu, Jingdi Chen, Tiantang Fan, Yujue Zhang, Yao Zhao, Xuetao Shi, Qiqing Zhang
Biomimetic mineralized hybrid scaffolds are widely used as natural bone substitute materials in tissue engineering by mimicking vital characters of extracellular matrix (ECM). However, the fabrication of hybrid scaffolds with suitable mechanical properties and good biocompatibility remains a challenge. To solve the problems mentioned above, biomimetic calcium phosphate mineralized organic-inorganic hybrid scaffold composed of nano hydroxyapatite (nHAP), Chitosan (CS), Chondroitin sulfate (CSA) and hyaluronic acid (HA) with hierarchical micro/nano structures was successfully developed...
May 25, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573853/carbon-nanoparticle-hybrid-aerogels-3d-double-interconnected-network-porous-microstructure-thermoelectric-and-solvent-removal-functions
#9
Dongxing Tan, Jian Zhao, Caiyan Gao, Hanfu Wang, Guangming Chen, Donglu Shi
We report reduced graphene oxide (rGO)/single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) hybrid aerogels with excellent thermoelectric (TE) performance and removal of organic solvents, by designing 3D double-interconnected network porous microstructure. A convenient, cost-effective and scalable preparation procedure is proposed compared with conventional high-temperature pyrolysis and supercritical drying techniques. The obtained hybrid aerogels are systematically characterized by apparent density, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and porosity...
June 2, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572949/consumer-knowledge-preference-and-perceived-quality-of-dried-tomato-products-in-ghana
#10
Mavis Owureku-Asare, R P Kingsly Ambrose, Ibok Oduro, Charles Tortoe, Firibu K Saalia
Postharvest losses (PHL) are incurred in the tomato value chain in Ghana and solar drying of tomato is a promising technology for reducing the loss. However, there are concerns on the usage, functionality and sensory appeal of the dried products to consumers, compounded with the lack of information and research on dried tomato processing in Ghana. A survey was carried out by administering semistructured questionnaires to 395 randomly selected and willing respondents in the Accra Metropolis. Information was obtained on the socioeconomic profile, consumption pattern, knowledge, and acceptance of tomato processing technologies and assessment of quality attributes important to consumers...
May 2017: Food Science & Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572689/a-field-deployable-method-for-a-rapid-screening-analysis-of-inorganic-arsenic-in-seaweed
#11
Edi Bralatei, Karolina Nekrosiute, Jenny Ronan, Andrea Raab, Evin McGovern, Dagmar B Stengel, Eva M Krupp, Joerg Feldmann
Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in 13 store-bought edible seaweed samples and 34 dried kelp (Laminaria digitata) samples was determined by a newly developed, field-deployable method (FDM) with the aid of a field test kit for arsenic in water. Results from the FDM were compared to results from speciation analysis achieved by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The FDM consisted of a simple extraction method using diluted HNO3 to quantitatively extract iAs without decomposing the organoarsenicals to iAs followed by the selective volatilisation of iAs as arsine (AsH3) and subsequent chemo-trapping on a filter paper soaked in mercury bromide (HgBr2) solution...
2017: Mikrochimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562774/physiological-cellular-and-molecular-aspects-of-the-desiccation-tolerance-in-anadenanthera-colubrina-seeds-during-germination
#12
L E Castro, C C Guimarães, J M R Faria
During germination, orthodox seeds become gradually intolerant to desiccation, and for this reason, they are a good model for recalcitrance studies. In the present work, physiological, biochemical, and ultrastructural aspects of the desiccation tolerance were characterized during the germination process of Anadenanthera colubrina seeds. The seeds were imbibed during zero (control), 2, 8, 12 (no germinated seeds), and 18 hours (germinated seeds with 1 mm protruded radicle); then they were dried for 72 hours, rehydrated and evaluated for survivorship...
May 25, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Biology, Revista Brasleira de Biologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562188/nitrogen-and-phosphorus-removed-from-a-subsurface-flow-multi-stage-filtration-system-purifying-agricultural-runoff
#13
Yaqi Zhao, Lei Huang, Yucheng Chen
Agricultural nonpoint source pollution has been increasingly serious in China since the 1990s. The main causes were excessive inputs of nitrogen fertilizer and pesticides. A multi-stage filtration system was built to test the purification efficiencies and removal characteristics of nitrogen and phosphorus when treating agricultural runoff. Simulated runoff pollution was prepared by using river water as source water based on the monitoring of local agricultural runoff. Experimental study had been performed from September to November 2013, adopting 12 h for flooding and 12 h for drying...
June 14, 2017: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28558330/spray-dried-adjunct-cultures-of-autochthonous-non-starter-lactic-acid-bacteria
#14
Guillermo H Peralta, Carina V Bergamini, Gabriela Audero, Roxana Páez, I Verónica Wolf, M Cristina Perotti, Erica R Hynes
Spray-drying of lactic cultures provides direct-to-vat starters, which facilitate their commercialization and use. However, this process may alter the metabolic activity and deteriorate technological features. In this work, we assessed the influence of spray-drying on the survival and aroma production of two strains of mesophilic lactobacilli: Lactobacillus paracasei 90 and Lactobacillus plantarum 91, which have already been characterized as good adjunct cultures. The spray-drying was carried out using a laboratory scale spray and the dried cultures were monitored during the storage for the survival rate...
May 22, 2017: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557187/automated-high-throughput-analysis-of-antiretroviral-drugs-in-dried-blood-spots
#15
U Duthaler, B Berger, S Erb, M Battegay, E Letang, S Gaugler, S Krähenbühl, M Haschke
For therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) in remote settings, dried blood spots (DBS) are particularly advantageous, as blood sample collection and handling is uncomplicated. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an automated extraction method for the analysis of nevirapine, efavirenz, and lopinavir in DBS samples. Automated extraction was performed with methanol:water (70:30 v/v), using a DBS-MS 500 autosampler coupled to a LC-MS/MS system. The autosampler used digital images of each DBS to position the extraction head, sprayed 10 μL internal standard (IS) onto each DBS and extracted a 4 mm disk (Ø) from the centre of each spot by unilateral flow using 25 μl extraction solvent...
May 29, 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552059/the-role-of-saffron-in-attenuating-age-related-oxidative-damage-in-rat-hippocampus
#16
Saeed Samarghandian, Mohsen Azimi Nezhad, Fariborz Samini, Tahereh Farkhondeh
BACKGROUND: Using antioxidant diets may be a good strategy for the inhibition of oxidative stress connected to age-related disease. Saffron is a dried stigmas of with antioxidant properties. This investigation was done to study the effects of saffron administration on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in hippocampus of male aged rats. The rats were treated with the ethanolic extract of saffron for 4 weeks. At the end of our investigation, the hippocampi of rats were removed. The homogenate was used for evaluation of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxides (GPx), catalase (CAT) and glutathione (GSH)...
May 28, 2017: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551130/reagent-less-amperometric-glucose-biosensor-based-on-a-graphite-rod-electrode-layer-by-layer-modified-with-1-10-phenanthroline-5-6-dione-and-glucose-oxidase
#17
Asta Kausaite-Minkstimiene, Ruta Simanaityte, Almira Ramanaviciene, Laura Glumbokaite, Arunas Ramanavicius
A reagent-less amperometric glucose biosensor operating in not-stirred sample solution was developed. A working electrode of the designed biosensor was based on a graphite rod (GR) electrode, which was modified with 1,10-phenanthroline-5,6-dione (PD) and glucose oxidase (GOx). The PD and the GOx were layer-by-layer adsorbed on the GR electrode surface with subsequent drying followed by chemical cross-linking of the adsorbed GOx with glutaraldehyde (GA). Optimal preparation conditions of the working electrode (GR/PD/GOx) were achieved with 12...
August 15, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539727/bioassay-guided-isolation-and-identification-of-antioxidant-flavonoids-from-cyclotrichium-origanifolium-labill-manden-and-scheng
#18
Abdussamat Guzel, Huseyin Aksit, Mahfuz Elmastas, Ramazan Erenler
BACKGROUND: Medicinal and aromatic plants play a significant role in drug discovery and development process. Flavonoids, revealing a wide spectrum of biological activities, extensively found in plants are important secondary metabolites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aerial parts of Cyclotrichium origanifolium were collected, dried, and boiled in water then extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol. Total phenolic content, DPPH(•) scavenging activity, reducing power (FRAP) activity, and ABTS(•+) scavenging activity assays were applied for all extracts...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536795/exploration-of-alginates-as-potential-stabilizers-of-nanosuspension
#19
Jian Guan, Yeli Zhang, Qiaoyu Liu, Xin Zhang, Rina Chokshi, Shirui Mao
The objective of this study was to explore the feasibility of using alginate as a potential stabilizer of nanosuspension and elaborate the corresponding stabilization mechanism. Using lovastatin as a Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) II drug model, alginate-stabilized nanosuspension was fabricated by the high-pressure homogenization method. The particle size, zeta potential, short-term stability, and dissolution behavior of the nanosuspension were characterized. Thereafter, the surface morphology, crystallinity, redispersability, and stability of the spray-dried nanosuspension were investigated...
May 23, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532070/ribose-mediated-crosslinking-of-collagen-hydroxyapatite-hybrid-scaffolds-for-bone-tissue-regeneration-using-biomimetic-strategies
#20
Gopal Shankar Krishnakumar, Natalia Gostynska, Elisabetta Campodoni, Massimiliano Dapporto, Monica Montesi, Silvia Panseri, Anna Tampieri, Elizaveta Kon, Maurilio Marcacci, Simone Sprio, Monica Sandri
This study explores for the first time the application of ribose as a highly biocompatible agent for the crosslinking of hybrid mineralized constructs, obtained by bio-inspired mineralization of self-assembling Type I collagen matrix with magnesium-doped-hydroxyapatite nanophase, towards a biomimetic mineralized 3D scaffolds (MgHA/Coll) with excellent compositional and structural mimicry of bone tissue. To this aim, two different crosslinking mechanisms in terms of pre-ribose glycation (before freeze drying) and post-ribose glycation (after freeze drying) were investigated...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
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