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R Esteban, P Verborgh, P Gauffier, D Alarcón, J M Salazar-Sierra, J Giménez, A D Foote, R de Stephanis
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) in the Mediterranean Sea are currently restricted to the Strait of Gibraltar and surrounding waters. Thirty-nine individuals were present in 2011, with a well-differentiated social structure, organized into five pods. Killer whale occurrence in the Strait is apparently related to the migration of their main prey, Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus). In spring, whale distribution was restricted to shallow waters off the western coast of the Strait where all pods were observed actively hunting tuna...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
G Notarbartolo di Sciara
Despite being a small part of the world's oceans, the Mediterranean Sea hosts a diverse marine mammal fauna, with a total of 28 different species known to occur, or to have occurred, in the region. Species currently recognised as regular in the Mediterranean-the Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) and 11 cetaceans (fin whale, Balaenoptera physalus; sperm whale, Physeter macrocephalus; Cuvier's beaked whale, Ziphius cavirostris; short-beaked common dolphin, Delphinus delphis; long-finned pilot whale, Globicephala melas; Risso's dolphin, Grampus griseus; killer whale, Orcinus orca; striped dolphin, Stenella coeruleoalba; rough-toothed dolphin, Steno bredanensis; common bottlenose dolphin, Tursiops truncatus; harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena relicta) have adapted well to the region's environmental conditions, but their coexistence with humans is problematic...
2016: Advances in Marine Biology
Florian J Gisdon, Martin Culka, G Matthias Ullmann
Conjugate peak refinement (CPR) is a powerful and robust method to search transition states on a molecular potential energy surface. Nevertheless, the method was to the best of our knowledge so far only implemented in CHARMM. In this paper, we present PyCPR, a new Python-based implementation of the CPR algorithm within the pDynamo framework. We provide a detailed description of the theory underlying our implementation and discuss the different parts of the implementation. The method is applied to two different problems...
October 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
J K O'Brien, K J Steinman, G A Fetter, T R Robeck
Circulating concentrations of testosterone and its precursor androstenedione, as well as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and the adrenal hormones cortisol and corticosterone were measured at monthly intervals in 14 male killer whales (Orcinus orca) aged 0.8-38 years. Analyses were performed for examination of the relationships of age, sexual maturation status (STATUS), season, and environmental temperature (monthly air ambient temperature, A-TEMP) with hormone production using a mixed effects linear regression model with animal ID as the random variable...
September 16, 2016: Andrology
Cathryn Clarke Murray, Megan E Mach, Rebecca G Martone, Gerald G Singh, Miriam O, Kai M A Chan
The multi-scalar complexity of social-ecological systems makes it challenging to quantify impacts from human activities on ecosystems, inspiring risk-based approaches to assessments of potential effects of human activities on valued ecosystem components. Risk assessments do not commonly include the risk from indirect effects as mediated via habitat and prey. In this case study from British Columbia, Canada, we illustrate how such "indirect risks" can be incorporated into risk assessments for seventeen ecosystem components...
2016: PloS One
Lisa M Nigro, Andrew S Hyde, Barbara J MacGregor, Andreas Teske
Deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins and other hypersaline environments contain abundant and diverse microbial life that has adapted to these extreme conditions. The bacterial Candidate Division KB1 represents one of several uncultured groups that have been consistently observed in hypersaline microbial diversity studies. Here we report the phylogeography of KB1, its phylogenetic relationships to Candidate Division OP1 Bacteria, and its potential metabolic and osmotic stress adaptations based on a partial single cell amplified genome of KB1 from Orca Basin, the largest hypersaline seafloor brine basin in the Gulf of Mexico...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Robert Anderson, Robyn Waayers, Andrew Knight
Based on neuroanatomical indices such as brain size and encephalization quotient, orcas are among the most intelligent animals on Earth. They display a range of complex behaviors indicative of social intelligence, but these are difficult to study in the open ocean where protective laws may apply, or in captivity, where access is constrained for commercial and safety reasons. From 1979 to 1980, however, we were able to interact with juvenile orcas in an unstructured way at San Diego's SeaWorld facility. We observed in the animals what appeared to be pranks, tests of trust, limited use of tactical deception, emotional self-control, and empathetic behaviors...
2016: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Melissa P Galicia, Gregory W Thiemann, Markus G Dyck, Steven H Ferguson, Jeff W Higdon
Polar bear (Ursus maritimus) subpopulations in several areas with seasonal sea ice regimes have shown declines in body condition, reproductive rates, or abundance as a result of declining sea ice habitat. In the Foxe Basin region of Nunavut, Canada, the size of the polar bear subpopulation has remained largely stable over the past 20 years, despite concurrent declines in sea ice habitat. We used fatty acid analysis to examine polar bear feeding habits in Foxe Basin and thus potentially identify ecological factors contributing to population stability...
August 2016: Ecology and Evolution
Masoume Vakili Azghandi, Mohammadreza Nasiri, Ali Shamsa, Mohsen Jalali, Mohammad Mahdi Shariati
BACKGROUND: The SRY gene (SRY) provides instructions for making a transcription factor called the sex-determining region Y protein. The sex-determining region Y protein causes a fetus to develop as a male. In this study, SRY of 15 spices included of human, chimpanzee, dog, pig, rat, cattle, buffalo, goat, sheep, horse, zebra, frog, urial, dolphin and killer whale were used for determine of bioinformatic differences. METHODS: Nucleotide sequences of SRY were retrieved from the NCBI databank...
April 2016: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Noreen F Rizvi, Jessica D Weaver, Erin J Cram, Carolyn W T Lee-Parsons
The Catharanthus roseus plant is the source of many valuable terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIAs), including the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Transcription factors (TFs) are promising metabolic engineering targets due to their ability to regulate multiple biosynthetic pathway genes. To increase TIA biosynthesis, we elicited the TIA transcriptional activators (ORCAs and other unidentified TFs) with the plant hormone, methyl jasmonate (MJ), while simultaneously silencing the expression of the transcriptional repressor ZCT1...
2016: PloS One
Todd R Robeck, Karen J Steinman, Justine K O'Brien
The secretory patterns of progestagens and estrogens were characterized throughout 28 normal pregnancies until two month post-partum in eleven killer whales. HPLC analysis of serum from different reproductive stages (luteal phase, EARLY, MID, and LATE pregnancy) identified three major immunoreactive progestagen peaks; progesterone (P4), 5α-pregnane-3,20-dione (5α-DHP) and pregnanediol, with 5α-DHP approximately half of that for P4 in the luteal phase, and EARLY, but approximately 2/3 of P4 during MID and LATE pregnancy...
September 15, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Daniele Sanna, Giuseppe Sciortino, Valeria Ugone, Giovanni Micera, Eugenio Garribba
Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the (51)V hyperfine coupling (HFC) tensor A have been completed for 20 "bare" V(IV) complexes with different donor sets, electric charges, and coordination geometries. Calculations were performed with ORCA and Gaussian software, using functionals BP86, TPSS0, B1LYP, PBE0, B3LYP, B3P, B3PW, O3LYP, BHandHLYP, BHandH, and B2PLYP. Among the basis sets, 6-311g(d,p), 6-311++g(d,p), VTZ, cc-pVTZ, def2-TZVPP, and the "core properties" CP(PPP) were tested. The experimental Aiso and Ai (where i = x or z, depending on the geometry and electronic structure of V(IV) complex) were compared with the values calculated by DFT methods...
August 1, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Marjoleine M H Roos, Gi-Mick Wu, Patrick J O Miller
Respiration rate has been used as an indicator of metabolic rate and associated cost of transport (COT) of free-ranging cetaceans, discounting potential respiration-by-respiration variation in O2 uptake. To investigate the influence of respiration timing on O2 uptake, we developed a dynamic model of O2 exchange and storage. Individual respiration events were revealed from kinematic data from 10 adult Norwegian herring-feeding killer whales (Orcinus orca) recorded with high-resolution tags (DTAGs). We compared fixed O2 uptake per respiration models with O2 uptake per respiration estimated through a simple 'broken-stick' O2-uptake function, in which O2 uptake was assumed to be the maximum possible O2 uptake when stores are depleted or maximum total body O2 store minus existing O2 store when stores are close to saturated...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Leonie J van der Geest, Martin J Siemerink, Marco Mura, Maarten P Mourits, Ruth Lapid-Gortzak
PURPOSE: To evaluate the refractive accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation after phacovitrectomy. SETTING: Eye Hospital Zonnestraal and Department of Ophthalmology Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. DESIGN: Retrospective comparative case series. METHODS: Refraction results 1 month after phacovitrectomy or phacoemulsification were compared with predicted refractions calculated using the IOLMaster 500 and the Haigis formula...
June 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Eileen R Hoskin, Analia Veitz Keenan
Data sourcesElectronic Databases searched in PubMed, Embase and Scopus. Unpublished literature was traced through OpenSIGLE, annals of IADR/AADR (International and American Associations for Dental Research) and ORCA (European Organisation for Caries Research) from 2003-2014. Studies were limited to English.Study selectionStudies involving visual inspection for detection of primary coronal caries lesions in primary or permanent human teeth were considered. All papers needed to include a clearly defined reference standard and the reporting of absolute numbers of true positives, false positives, true negatives and false negatives or a presentation of sufficient data to calculate these figures...
June 2016: Evidence-based Dentistry
Katlyn K Meier, Melanie S Rogers, Elena G Kovaleva, John D Lipscomb, Emile L Bominaar, Eckard Münck
The extradiol, aromatic ring-cleaving enzyme homoprotocatechuate 2,3-dioxygenase (HPCD) catalyzes a complex chain of reactions that involve second sphere residues of the active site. The importance of the second-sphere residue His200 was demonstrated in studies of HPCD variants, such as His200Cys (H200C), which revealed significant retardations of certain steps in the catalytic process as a result of the substitution, allowing novel reaction cycle intermediates to be trapped for spectroscopic characterization...
June 20, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Tatjana Sitt, Lizabeth Bowen, Chia-Shan Lee, Myra T Blanchard, James McBain, Christopher Dold, Jeffrey L Stott
Early identification of illness and/or presence of environmental and/or social stressors in free-ranging and domestic cetaceans is a priority for marine mammal health care professionals. Incorporation of leukocyte gene transcript analysis into the diagnostic tool kit has the potential to augment classical diagnostics based upon ease of sample storage and shipment, inducible nature and well-defined roles of transcription and associated downstream actions. Development of biomarkers that could serve to identify "insults" and potentially differentiate disease etiology would be of great diagnostic value...
July 2016: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
Yokrat Ton, Modi Naftali, Ruth Lapid Gortzak, Ehud I Assia
UNLABELLED: We describe the use of the capsular anchor (AssiAnchor) to manage a subluxated intraocular lens (IOL) in the capsular bag. The anchor comprises 2 prongs that hold the anterior lens capsule and a central rod that is sutured to the scleral wall, enabling centration of the IOL-capsular bag complex. Six pseudophakic patients presenting with subluxated posterior chamber IOLs in the capsular bag were operated on using the device. The anchor was used successfully in all cases, although in 2 cases only 1 prong was placed under the capsulorhexis edge...
May 2016: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Alexander M von Benda-Beckmann, Paul J Wensveen, Filipa I P Samarra, S Peter Beerens, Patrick J O Miller
Sound-recording acoustic tags attached to marine animals are commonly used in behavioural studies. Measuring ambient noise is of interest to efforts to understand responses of marine mammals to anthropogenic underwater sound, or to assess their communication space. Noise of water flowing around the tag reflects the speed of the animal, but hinders ambient noise measurement. Here, we describe a correlation-based method for stereo acoustic tags to separate the relative contributions of flow and ambient noise...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
(no author information available yet)
Part of a series of free medical apps by Orca Health, Knee Decide provides health professionals with a useful aid in communicating basic knee anatomy to patients.
May 25, 2016: Nursing Standard
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