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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390732/comments-on-killer-whale-orcinus-orca-behavioral-audiograms-j-acoust-soc-am-141-2387-2398-2017
#1
Henry E Heffner, Rickye S Heffner
Branstetter and his colleagues present the audiograms of eight killer whales and provide a comprehensive review of previous killer whale audiograms. In their paper, they say that the present authors have reported a relationship between size and high-frequency hearing but that echolocating cetaceans might be a special case. The purpose of these comments is to clarify that the relationship of a species' high-frequency hearing is not to its size (mass) but to its "functional interaural distance" (a measure of the availability of sound-localization cues)...
January 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386364/imitation-of-novel-conspecific-and-human-speech-sounds-in-the-killer-whale-orcinus-orca
#2
José Z Abramson, Mª Victoria Hernández-Lloreda, Lino García, Fernando Colmenares, Francisco Aboitiz, Josep Call
Vocal imitation is a hallmark of human spoken language, which, along with other advanced cognitive skills, has fuelled the evolution of human culture. Comparative evidence has revealed that although the ability to copy sounds from conspecifics is mostly uniquely human among primates, a few distantly related taxa of birds and mammals have also independently evolved this capacity. Remarkably, field observations of killer whales have documented the existence of group-differentiated vocal dialects that are often referred to as traditions or cultures and are hypothesized to be acquired non-genetically...
January 31, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360292/the-brussels-statement-on-the-future-needs-for-caries-epidemiology-and-surveillance-in-europe
#3
N B Pitts, N L Carter, G Tsakos
Following debate and discussion prompted by a focussed, day long pre-ORCA Symposium in July 2015, the Alliance for a Cavity-Free Future Pan-European Chapter, the Platform for Better Oral Health in Europe, and the European Association of Dental Public Health have agreed this statement on the future needs for caries epidemiology and surveillance in Europe. Each organisation agreed to support the planned publication of the Statement, and will make it available on their Organisation's websites and strive to implement its recommendations...
November 28, 2017: Community Dental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331879/structural-and-quantum-mechanical-computations-to-elucidate-the-altered-binding-mechanism-of-metal-and-drug-with-pyrazinamidase-from-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-due-to-mutagenicity
#4
Nouman Rasool, Saima Iftikhar, Anam Amir, Waqar Hussain
Pyrazinamide is known to be the most effective treatment against tuberculosis disease and is known to have bacteriostatic action. By targeting the bacterial spores, this drug reduces the chances for the progression of the infection in organisms. In recent years, increased instances of the drug resistance of bacterial strains are reported. Pyrazinamidase, activator for pyrazinamide, leads to resistance against the drug due to mutagenicity across the world. The present study aimed at the quantum mechanistic analysis of mutations in pyrazinamidase to gain insights into the mechanism of this enzyme...
December 24, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224004/orca-priorities-and-state-of-play-in-2017
#5
Joana Carvalho
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 9, 2017: Caries Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196046/prehospital-antibiotics-in-the-ambulance-for-sepsis-a-multicentre-open-label-randomised-trial
#6
Nadia Alam, Erick Oskam, Patricia M Stassen, Pieternel van Exter, Peter M van de Ven, Harm R Haak, Frits Holleman, Arthur van Zanten, Hien van Leeuwen-Nguyen, Victor Bon, Bart A M Duineveld, Rishi S Nannan Panday, Mark H H Kramer, Prabath W B Nanayakkara
BACKGROUND: Emergency medical services (EMS) personnel have already made substantial contributions to improving care for patients with time-dependent illnesses, such as trauma and myocardial infarction. Patients with sepsis could also benefit from timely prehospital care. METHODS: After training EMS personnel in recognising sepsis, we did a randomised controlled open-label trial in ten large regional ambulance services serving 34 secondary and tertiary care hospitals in the Netherlands...
November 28, 2017: Lancet Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178468/dft-calculations-of-the-defect-structures-electronic-structures-and-epr-parameters-for-three-rh2-centers-in-agcl
#7
Li-Na Wu, Shao-Yi Wu, Si-Ying Zhong, Li-Juan Zhang, Qin-Qin Tan
The local structures for various Rh2+ centers in AgCl are theoretically studied using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with periodic CP2K program. Through geometry optimizing, the stable ground states with minimal energies and electronic structures are obtained for the tetragonal elongated (TE ), orthorhombic elongated (OE ) and tetragonal compressed (TC ) centers, and the corresponding g and hyperfine coupling tensors are calculated in ORCA level. The calculations reveal obvious Jahn-Teller elongation distortions of about 0...
November 25, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry: MRC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158502/competing-tradeoffs-between-increasing-marine-mammal-predation-and-fisheries-harvest-of-chinook-salmon
#8
Brandon E Chasco, Isaac C Kaplan, Austen C Thomas, Alejandro Acevedo-Gutiérrez, Dawn P Noren, Michael J Ford, M Bradley Hanson, Jonathan J Scordino, Steven J Jeffries, Kristin N Marshall, Andrew O Shelton, Craig Matkin, Brian J Burke, Eric J Ward
Many marine mammal predators, particularly pinnipeds, have increased in abundance in recent decades, generating new challenges for balancing human uses with recovery goals via ecosystem-based management. We used a spatio-temporal bioenergetics model of the Northeast Pacific Ocean to quantify how predation by three species of pinnipeds and killer whales (Orcinus orca) on Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) has changed since the 1970s along the west coast of North America, and compare these estimates to salmon fisheries...
November 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148044/the-incidence-of-bent-dorsal-fins-in-free-ranging-cetaceans
#9
F Alves, J R Towers, R W Baird, G Bearzi, S Bonizzoni, R Ferreira, Z Halicka, A Alessandrini, A H Kopelman, C Yzoard, M H Rasmussen, C G Bertulli, E Jourdain, A Gullan, D Rocha, K Hupman, M-T Mrusczok, F I P Samarra, S Magalhães, C R Weir, J K B Ford, A Dinis
Laterally bent dorsal fins are rarely observed in free-ranging populations of cetaceans, contrary to captivity, where most killer whale Orcinus orca adult males have laterally collapsed fins. This topic has been poorly explored, and data/information on its occurrence and possible causes are limited. The present study: (i) undertakes a review of the available information on bent dorsal fins in free-ranging cetaceans, and updates it with new records, (ii) reports on the proportion of bent fins in different study populations, and (iii) discusses possible causes...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127421/captive-bottlenose-dolphins-and-killer-whales-harbor-a-species-specific-skin-microbiota-that-varies-among-individuals
#10
M Chiarello, S Villéger, C Bouvier, J C Auguet, T Bouvier
Marine animals surfaces host diverse microbial communities, which play major roles for host's health. Most inventories of marine animal surface microbiota have focused on corals and fishes, while cetaceans remain overlooked. The few studies focused on wild cetaceans, making difficult to distinguish intrinsic inter- and/or intraspecific variability in skin microbiota from environmental effects. We used high-throughput sequencing to assess the skin microbiota from 4 body zones of 8 bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and killer whales (Orcinus orca), housed in captivity (Marineland park, France)...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070720/mortality-risk-and-social-network-position-in-resident-killer-whales-sex-differences-and-the-importance-of-resource-abundance
#11
S Ellis, D W Franks, S Nattrass, M A Cant, M N Weiss, D Giles, K C Balcomb, D P Croft
An individual's ecological environment affects their mortality risk, which in turn has fundamental consequences for life-history evolution. In many species, social relationships are likely to be an important component of an individual's environment, and therefore their mortality risk. Here, we examine the relationship between social position and mortality risk in resident killer whales (Orcinus orca) using over three decades of social and demographic data. We find that the social position of male, but not female, killer whales in their social unit predicts their mortality risk...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992601/tooth-damage-in-captive-orcas-orcinus-orca
#12
John Jett, Ingrid N Visser, Jeffrey Ventre, Jordan Waltz, Carolina Loch
OBJECTIVES: Tooth damage as a result of oral stereotypies is evident in captive orca, yet little research on the topic exists. This study examines the associations between dental pathology, sex, facility, duration of captivity and other factors in captive orca. DESIGN: We evaluated mandibular and maxillary teeth from dental images of 29 captive orca owned by a US-based theme park. Each tooth was scored for coronal wear, wear at or below gum line and bore holes. Fractured and missing teeth were also noted...
September 29, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970809/the-role-of-spatial-frequency-information-in-face-classification-by-race
#13
Guoping Zhang, Zeyao Wang, Jie Wu, Lun Zhao
It was found that face classification by race is more quickly for other-race than own-race faces (other-race classification advantage, ORCA). Controlling the spatial frequencies of face images, the current study investigated the perceptual processing differences based on spatial frequencies between own-race and other-race faces that might account for the ORCA. Regardless of the races of the observers, the own-race faces were classified faster and more accurately for broad-band faces than for both lower and higher spatial frequency (SF) faces, whereas, although other-race faces were classified less accurately for higher SF than for either broad-band or lower SF faces, there was no difference between broad-band and lower SF conditions of other-race faces...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883537/spontaneous-approaches-of-divers-by-free-ranging-orcas-orcinus-orca-age-and-sex-differences-in-exploratory-behaviours-and-visual-laterality
#14
Stéphanie Chanvallon, Catherine Blois-Heulin, Pierre Robert de Latour, Alban Lemasson
Running comparative studies of laterality in mammals is a way to deepen our understanding of the evolution of the brain hemisphere functions. Studies on vision highlighted a possible task-sharing between hemispheres depending on the characteristics of the observers, the nature of the observed stimulus and the context of the observation, a phenomenon that could go beyond the monitoring of conspecifics. Cetaceans are predators that adapted to an aquatic habitat and display a clear crossing of fibers to the side of the brain opposite the eye of origin...
September 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876915/effects-of-polar-bear-and-killer-whale-derived-contaminant-cocktails-on-marine-mammal-immunity
#15
Jean-Pierre Desforges, Milton Levin, Lindsay Jasperse, Sylvain De Guise, Igor Eulaers, Robert J Letcher, Mario Acquarone, Erling Nordøy, Lars P Folkow, Trine Hammer Jensen, Carsten Grøndahl, Mads F Bertelsen, Judy St Leger, Javier Almunia, Christian Sonne, Rune Dietz
Most controlled toxicity studies use single chemical exposures that do not represent the real world situation of complex mixtures of known and unknown natural and anthropogenic substances. In the present study, complex contaminant cocktails derived from the blubber of polar bears (PB; Ursus maritimus) and killer whales (KW; Orcinus orca) were used for in vitro concentration-response experiments with PB, cetacean and seal spp. immune cells to evaluate the effect of realistic contaminant mixtures on various immune functions...
September 25, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776023/nitroxide-based-macromolecular-contrast-agents-with-unprecedented-transverse-relaxivity-and-stability-for-magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-tumors
#16
Hung V-T Nguyen, Qixian Chen, Joseph T Paletta, Peter Harvey, Yivan Jiang, Hui Zhang, Michael D Boska, M Francesca Ottaviani, Alan Jasanoff, Andrzej Rajca, Jeremiah A Johnson
Metal-free magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) agents could overcome the established toxicity associated with metal-based agents in some patient populations and enable new modes of functional MRI in vivo. Herein, we report nitroxide-functionalized brush-arm star polymer organic radical contrast agents (BASP-ORCAs) that overcome the low contrast and poor in vivo stability associated with nitroxide-based MRI contrast agents. As a consequence of their unique nanoarchitectures, BASP-ORCAs possess per-nitroxide transverse relaxivities up to ∼44-fold greater than common nitroxides, exceptional stability in highly reducing environments, and low toxicity...
July 26, 2017: ACS Central Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28767655/beluga-whale-summer-habitat-associations-in-the-nelson-river-estuary-western-hudson-bay-canada
#17
Alexander J Smith, Jeff W Higdon, Pierre Richard, Jack Orr, Warren Bernhardt, Steven H Ferguson
To understand beluga whale (Delphinapterus leucas) estuarine use in the Nelson River estuary, southwest Hudson Bay, we recorded and examined beluga movements and habitat associations for the July through August period in 2002-2005. We compared locations of belugas fitted with satellite transmitters ("tags") (2002-2005) and aerial-surveyed (2003 and 2005) belugas for years of differing freshwater flow from the Nelson River which is influenced by hydroelectric activity. Using the beluga telemetry location data, we estimated an early August behavioral shift in beluga distribution patterns from local estuarine use to a progressively more migratory behavior away from the estuary...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695252/oil-spills-and-marine-mammals-in-british-columbia-canada-development-and-application-of-a-risk-based-conceptual-framework
#18
Adrianne L Jarvela Rosenberger, Misty MacDuffee, Andrew G J Rosenberger, Peter S Ross
Marine mammals are inherently vulnerable to oil spills. We developed a conceptual framework to evaluate the impacts of potential oil exposure on marine mammals and applied it to 21 species inhabiting coastal British Columbia (BC), Canada. Oil spill vulnerability was determined by examining both the likelihood of species-specific (individual) oil exposure and the consequent likelihood of population-level effects. Oil exposure pathways, ecology, and physiological characteristics were first used to assign species-specific vulnerability rankings...
July 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691111/density-functional-calculations-for-prediction-of-57-fe-m%C3%A3-ssbauer-isomer-shifts-and-quadrupole-splittings-in-%C3%AE-diketiminate-complexes
#19
Sean F McWilliams, Emma Brennan-Wydra, K Cory MacLeod, Patrick L Holland
The relative ease of Mössbauer spectroscopy and of density functional theory (DFT) calculations encourages the use of Mössbauer parameters as a validation method for calculations, and the use of calculations as a double check on crystallographic structures. A number of studies have proposed correlations between the computationally determined electron density at the iron nucleus and the observed isomer shift, but deviations from these correlations in low-valent iron β-diketiminate complexes encouraged us to determine a new correlation for these compounds...
June 30, 2017: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666015/first-longitudinal-study-of-seal-feeding-killer-whales-orcinus-orca-in-norwegian-coastal-waters
#20
Eve Jourdain, Dag Vongraven, Anna Bisther, Richard Karoliussen
Killer whales (Orcinus orca) have been documented preying on either fish or marine mammals in several regions, suggesting that this odontocete species has the ability to specialize on different types of prey. Off Norway, killer whales have been shown to rely on the Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) as a main prey resource. Infrequent observations have revealed seals as an additional component of their diet, yet the extent of predation on marine mammals has remained largely unknown. Here, we present the findings of 29 years of photographic and observational data on seal-feeding killer whale groups identified in Norwegian coastal waters...
2017: PloS One
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