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Cardiac stunning

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154687/pyruvate-enhancement-of-cardiac-performance-cellular-mechanisms-and-clinical-application
#1
Robert T Mallet, Albert H Olivencia-Yurvati, Rolf Bünger
Cardiac contractile function is adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP)-intensive, and the myocardium's high demand for oxygen and energy substrates leaves it acutely vulnerable to interruptions in its blood supply. The myriad cardioprotective properties of the natural intermediary metabolite pyruvate make it a potentially powerful intervention against the complex injury cascade ignited by myocardial ischemia-reperfusion. A readily oxidized metabolic substrate, pyruvate augments myocardial free energy of ATP hydrolysis to a greater extent than the physiological fuels glucose, lactate and fatty acids, particularly when it is provided at supra-physiological plasma concentrations...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018519/limitations-and-challenges-in-mapping-ventricular-tachycardia-new-technologies-and-future-directions
#2
Adam J Graham, Michele Orini, Pier D Lambiase
Recurrent episodes of ventricular tachycardia in patients with structural heart disease are associated with increased mortality and morbidity, despite the life-saving benefits of implantable cardiac defibrillators. Reducing implantable cardiac defibrillator therapies is important, as recurrent shocks can cause increased myocardial damage and stunning, despite the conversion of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. Catheter ablation has emerged as a potential therapeutic option either for primary or secondary prevention of these arrhythmias, particularly in post-myocardial infarction cases where the substrate is well defined...
August 2017: Arrhythmia & Electrophysiology Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979949/brief-myocardial-ischemia-produces-cardiac-troponin-i-release-and-focal-myocyte-apoptosis-in-the-absence-of-pathological-infarction-in-swine
#3
Brian R Weil, Rebeccah F Young, Xiaomeng Shen, Gen Suzuki, Jun Qu, Saurabh Malhotra, John M Canty
In a porcine model of brief ischemia leading to reversible stunning in the absence of tissue necrosis, we demonstrated delayed release of cTnI that exceeded the 99(th) percentile for normals 60-minutes after reperfusion and rose to readily detectable levels 24-hours later. While tissue analysis at 60-minutes showed no evidence of infarction, TUNEL staining demonstrated isolated myocytes undergoing apoptosis, which was absent after 24-hours. These results demonstrate that cTnI elevations occur after ischemia of a duration that is insufficient to produce myocyte necrosis and reflect myocyte injury associated with delayed apoptosis in the absence of pathological evidence of infarction...
April 2017: JACC. Basic to Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28962813/acute-cardiac-complications-in-critical-brain-disease
#4
REVIEW
Juan G Ripoll, Joseph L Blackshear, José L Díaz-Gómez
Acute cardiac complications in critical brain disease should be understood as a clinical condition representing an intense brain-heart crosstalk and might mimic ischemic heart disease. Two main entities (neurogenic stunned myocardium [NSM] and stress cardiomyopathy) have been better characterized in the neurocritically ill patients and they portend worse clinical outcomes in these cases. The pathophysiology of NSM remains elusive. However, significant progress has been made on the early identification of neurocardiac compromise following acute critical brain disease...
November 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917560/outcomes-of-rescue-cardiopulmonary-support-for-periprocedural-acute-hemodynamic-decompensation-in-patients-undergoing-catheter-ablation-of-electrical-storm
#5
Andres Enriquez, Jackson Liang, Javier Gentile, Robert D Schaller, Gregory E Supple, David S Frankel, Fermin C Garcia, Joyce Wald, Edo Y Birati, J Eduardo Rame, Christian Bermudez, David J Callans, Francis E Marchlinski, Pasquale Santangeli
BACKGROUND: In patients with ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) electrical storm (ES) undergoing catheter ablation (CA), hypotension due to refractory VT/VF, use of anesthesia, and cardiac stunning due to repeated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks might precipitate acute hemodynamic decompensation (AHD). OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the outcomes of emergent cardiopulmonary support with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) to rescue AHD in patients undergoing CA of ES...
September 14, 2017: Heart Rhythm: the Official Journal of the Heart Rhythm Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875040/a-review-of-neurogenic-stunned-myocardium
#6
REVIEW
Sylvia Biso, Supakanya Wongrakpanich, Akanksha Agrawal, Sujani Yadlapati, Marina Kishlyansky, Vincent Figueredo
Neurologic stunned myocardium (NSM) is a phenomenon where neurologic events give rise to cardiac abnormalities. Neurologic events like stroke and seizures cause sympathetic storm and autonomic dysregulation that result in myocardial injury. The clinical presentation can involve troponin elevation, left ventricular dysfunction, and ECG changes. These findings are similar to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute coronary syndrome. It is difficult to distinguish NSM from acute coronary syndrome based on clinical presentation alone...
2017: Cardiovascular Psychiatry and Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854742/impact-of-alternative-electrical-stunning-parameters-on-the-ability-of-broilers-to-recover-consciousness-and-meat-quality
#7
D V Bourassa, B C Bowker, H Zhuang, K M Wilson, C E Harris, R J Buhr
Broilers in the United States are typically electrically stunned using low voltage-high frequency (12-38 V, ≥400 Hz) DC or AC water bath stunners. In the European Union, however, broilers are required to be electrocuted using high voltage-low frequency (50-150 V, 50-350 Hz) AC. Low voltage stunned broilers regain consciousness in the absence of bleeding. In contrast, high voltage stunned broilers die due to induction of cardiac fibrillation. For birds stunned with low voltage systems, concerns have been raised regarding animal welfare during bleeding...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814251/the-role-of-radiopharmaceuticals-in-amiodarone-induced-thyroid-pathology
#8
Doina Piciu, Alexandru Irimie
Amiodarone is a di-iodinated benzofuran derivative and is classified as a class III antiarrhythmic agent. It is one of the most powerful and effective antiarrhythmics, being a first-line agent due to its ability to treat ventricular and supraventricular dysrhythmias; since 1960 the drug has become one of the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmics, despite its potentially serious, side effects. By far, one of the most challenging condition is the thyroid pathology induced by this drug. Each 200 mg tablet of amiodarone contains approximately 75 mg of iodine, 3-10% from each tablet being released as free iodine...
August 16, 2017: Current Radiopharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811222/antitussive-antispasmodic-bronchodilating-and-cardiac-inotropic-effects-of-the-essential-oil-from-blepharocalyx-salicifolius-leaves
#9
Jehison Jiménez Hernández, María Inés Ragone, Patricia Bonazzola, Arnaldo L Bandoni, Alicia E Consolini
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY RELEVANCE: Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg (Myrtaceae) is a tree native to Argentina and Uruguay that grows and is cultivated along the riverside of the Rio de la Plata. The leaves of this plant species, locally known as "anacahuita" are used in South America to prepare infusions for the empiric treatment of cough and bronchospasm, as well as diarrhoea and other intestinal disorders. Although previous phytochemical studies have been performed with the essential oil extracted from Blepharocalyx salicifolius, pharmacological evidence supporting its traditional use is still lacking...
August 12, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660778/cardio-oncology-cardiovascular-complications-of-cancer-therapy
#10
Robert J Henning, Raymond D Harbison
This paper focuses on three classes of commonly used anticancer drugs, which can cause cardiotoxicity: anthracyclines, monoclonal antibodies exemplified by trastuzumab and tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Anthracyclines can induce cardiomyocyte necrosis and fibrosis. Trastuzumab can cause cardiac stunning. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors can increase systemic arterial pressure and impair myocyte contractility. In addition, radiation therapy to the mediastinum or left chest can exacerbate the cardiotoxicity of these anticancer drugs and can also cause accelerated atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, heart failure and arrhythmias...
July 2017: Future Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633090/pulmonary-and-cardiac-pathology-in-sudden-unexpected-death-in-epilepsy-sudep
#11
REVIEW
Fábio A Nascimento, Zian H Tseng, Cristian Palmiere, Joseph J Maleszewski, Takayuki Shiomi, Aileen McCrillis, Orrin Devinsky
OBJECTIVE: To review studies on structural pulmonary and cardiac changes in SUDEP cases as well as studies showing pulmonary or cardiac structural changes in living epilepsy patients. METHODS: We conducted electronic literature searches using the PubMed database for articles published in English, regardless of publication year, that included data on cardiac and/or pulmonary structural abnormalities in SUDEP cases or in living epilepsy patients during the postictal period...
August 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551786/mitochondrial-bioenergetics-during-ischemia-and-reperfusion
#12
REVIEW
Alicia E Consolini, María I Ragone, Patricia Bonazzola, Germán A Colareda
During ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) mitochondria suffer a deficiency to supply the cardiomyocyte with chemical energy, but also contribute to the cytosolic ionic alterations especially of Ca(2+). Their free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) mainly depends on mitochondrial entrance through the uniporter (UCam) and extrusion in exchange with Na(+) (mNCX) driven by the electrochemical gradient (ΔΨm). Cardiac energetic is frequently estimated by the oxygen consumption, which determines metabolism coupled to ATP production and to the maintaining of ΔΨm...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499220/effects-of-preadmission-beta-blockers-on-neurogenic-stunned-myocardium-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-a-meta-analysis
#13
Hai Luo, Wei-Xin Song, Jin-Wen Jiang, Jian-Lan Zhao, Wei-Lin Rong, Mei-Hua Li
OBJECTIVE: Spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage is mostly caused by the rupture of an aneurysm. Neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM) is one of the most frequent complications caused by aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). The possible pathogenesis of NSM may be that the catecholamine peak resulting from aSAH leads to subendocardial ischemia or coronary artery spasm. We designed this meta-analysis to find out whether beta-blockers (BB) can significantly reduce the incidence of NSM and improve the outcomes of aSAH...
July 2017: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439851/exploring-the-pathophysiology-of-takotsubo-cardiomyopathy
#14
REVIEW
Wengen Chen, Vasken Dilsizian
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to explore the pathophysiology of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy by appraising the interplay between myocardial perfusion, function, metabolism, and, particularly, sympathetic innervation. RECENT FINDINGS: A number of hypotheses have been proposed to explain the pathogenesis of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, which include (1) catecholamine cardiac toxicity, (2) myocardial sympathetic innervation disruption, (3) coronary vasospasm, (4) myocardial microvascular dysfunction, and (5) aborted myocardial infarction...
June 2017: Current Cardiology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409033/aborted-sudden-cardiac-death-in-a-female-patient-presenting-with-takotsubo-like-cardiomyopathy-due-to-epicardial-coronary-vasospasm
#15
Sorin Giusca, Tom Eisele, Peter Nunninger, Benedikt Münz, Grigorios Korosoglou
Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is characterized by apical ballooning of the left ventricle (LV) in the absence of relevant coronary artery stenosis, which typically occurs in elderly women after emotional stress. Catecholamine cardiotoxicity, metabolic disturbance, and coronary microvascular impairment have previously been proposed as underlying pathophysiologic mechanisms of takotsubo cardiomyopathy, whereas myocardial stunning resulting from epicardial coronary artery vasospasm is not generally accepted as a cause of takotsubo cardiomyopathy...
2017: Case Reports in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376710/electrocardiographic-changes-mimicking-acute-coronary-syndrome-in-a-large-intracranial-tumour-a-diagnostic-dilemma
#16
Nilukshana Yogendranathan, H M M T B Herath, S P Pahalagamage, Aruna Kulatunga
BACKGROUND: ST elevation Myocardial infarction is a medical emergency. A variety of noncardiac conditions had been known to mimic the ECG changes that are seen in acute coronary syndrome. Although the common ECG changes that are documented with raised intracranial pressure are T inversions, prolongation of QT interval and sinus bradycardia, ST elevation or depression, arrhythmias and prominent U waves have also been recognized. However, ST elevations in association with primary intracranial tumours are rarely reported...
April 4, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269446/current-distribution-in-tissues-with-conducted-electrical-weapons-operated-in-drive-stun-mode
#17
Dorin Panescu, Mark W Kroll, Michael Brave
INTRODUCTION: The TASER® conducted electrical weapon (CEW) is best known for delivering electrical pulses that can temporarily incapacitate subjects by overriding normal motor control. The alternative drive-stun mode is less understood and the goal of this paper is to analyze the distribution of currents in tissues when the CEW is operated in this mode. METHODS AND RESULTS: Finite element modeling (FEM) was used to approximate current density in tissues with boundary electrical sources placed 40 mm apart...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227692/current-distribution-in-tissues-with-conducted-electrical-weapons-operated-in-drive-stun-mode
#18
Dorin Panescu, Mark W Kroll, Michael Brave, Dorin Panescu, Mark W Kroll, Michael Brave, Dorin Panescu, Mark W Kroll, Michael Brave
INTRODUCTION: The TASER® conducted electrical weapon (CEW) is best known for delivering electrical pulses that can temporarily incapacitate subjects by overriding normal motor control. The alternative drive-stun mode is less understood and the goal of this paper is to analyze the distribution of currents in tissues when the CEW is operated in this mode. METHODS AND RESULTS: Finite element modeling (FEM) was used to approximate current density in tissues with boundary electrical sources placed 40 mm apart...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216496/-clinical-value-of-the-evolution-of-left-ventricular-global-strain-in-anterior-myocardial-infarction-patients-treated-with-emergency-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#19
Zurong Yang, Qichang Zhou, Zhenfei Fang, Danming Cao, Jiawei Zhou, Xiankui Tan
To investigate the evolution of left ventricular global strain in anterior myocardial infarction patients treated with emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
 Methods: A total of 54 patients with PCI were enrolled as a PCI group. Forty healthy subjects were enrolled as a control group. Dynamic cardiac images were collected. All of these images were analyzed off-line by velocity vector imaging (VVI) software. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) was measured with an electrochemiluminescence immunoassay through the Elecsys 1010/2010 system...
January 28, 2017: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187814/neurocardiology
#20
REVIEW
N D Osteraas, V H Lee
Neurocardiology refers to the interplay between the nervous system and the cardiovascular system. Stress-related cardiomyopathy exemplifies the brain-heart connection and occurs in several conditions with acute brain injury that share oversympathetic activation. The brain's influences on the heart can include elevated cardiac markers, arrhythmias, repolarization abnormalities on electrocardiogram, myocardial necrosis, and autonomic dysfunction. The neurogenic stunned myocardium in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage represents one end of the spectrum, and is associated with an explosive rise in intracranial pressure that results in excess catecholamine state and possibly CBN...
2017: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
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