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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528495/dairy-farm-demographics-and-management-factors-that-played-a-role-in-the-re-emergence-of-brucellosis-on-dairy-cattle-farms-in-fiji
#1
Andrew Tukana, B Gummow
Little is published on risk factors associated with bovine brucellosis in Pacific island communities. The 2009 re-emergence of bovine brucellosis in Fiji enabled us to do an interview-based questionnaire survey of 81 farms in the Wainivesi locality of the Tailevu province on the main island of Fiji to investigate what risk factors could have played a role in the re-emergence of the disease. The survey was conducted on 68 farms that had no positive cases of bovine brucellosis and on 13 farms in the same area where cattle had returned a positive result to the Brucella Rose Bengal test...
May 20, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527709/boosting-inflammation-resolution-in-atherosclerosis-the-next-frontier-for-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Gabrielle Fredman, Ira Tabas
Defective inflammation resolution is the underlying cause of prevalent chronic inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis, asthma, cancer, and neurodegenerative and cardiovascular diseases. Inflammation resolution is governed by several endogenous factors, including fatty acid-derived specialized proresolving mediators and proteins, such as annexin A1. Specifically, specialized proresolving mediators comprise a family of mediators that include arachidonic acid-derived lipoxins, omega-3 fatty acid eicosapentaenoic acid-derived resolvins, docosahexaenoic acid-derived resolvins, protectins, and maresins...
June 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527179/making-time-conservation-of-biological-clocks-from-fungi-to-animals
#3
Jay C Dunlap, Jennifer J Loros
The capacity for biological timekeeping arose at least three times through evolution, in prokaryotic cyanobacteria, in cells that evolved into higher plants, and within the group of organisms that eventually became the fungi and the animals. Neurospora is a tractable model system for understanding the molecular bases of circadian rhythms in the last of these groups, and is perhaps the most intensively studied circadian cell type. Rhythmic processes described in fungi include growth rate, stress responses, developmental capacity, and sporulation, as well as much of metabolism; fungi use clocks to anticipate daily environmental changes...
May 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526936/fingerprint-of-long-non-coding-rna-regulated-by-cyclic-mechanical-stretch-in-human-aortic-smooth-muscle-cells-implications-for-hypertension
#4
Laura-Eve Mantella, Krishna K Singh, Paul Sandhu, Crystal Kantores, Azza Ramadan, Nadiya Khyzha, Adrian Quan, Mohammed Al-Omran, Jason E Fish, Robert P Jankov, Subodh Verma
Emerging evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) represent a cellular hub coordinating various cellular processes that are critical in health and disease. Mechanical stress triggers changes in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that in turn contribute to pathophysiological changes within the vasculature. We sought to evaluate the role that lncRNAs play in mechanical stretch-induced alterations of human aortic smooth muscle cells (HASMCs). RNA (lncRNA and mRNA) samples isolated from HASMCs that had been subjected to 10 or 20% elongation (1 Hz) for 24 h were profiled with the Arraystar Human LncRNA Microarray V3...
May 19, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526591/macrophage-based-therapeutic-strategies-in-regenerative-medicine
#5
Kara L Spiller, Timothy J Koh
Mounting evidence suggests that therapeutic cell and drug delivery strategies designed to actively harness the regenerative potential of the inflammatory response have great potential in regenerative medicine. In particular, macrophages have emerged as a primary target because of their critical roles in regulating multiple phases of tissue repair through their unique ability to rapidly shift phenotypes. Herein, we review macrophage-based therapies, focusing on the translational potential for cell delivery of ex vivo-activated macrophages and delivery of molecules and biomaterials to modulate accumulation and phenotype of endogenous macrophages...
May 16, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525610/searching-for-clues-for-eighteen-years-deciphering-the-ecological-determinants-of-cryptococcus-gattii-on-vancouver-island-british-columbia
#6
Emily Sohanna Acheson, Eleni Galanis, Karen Bartlett, Sunny Mak, Brian Klinkenberg
Cryptococcus gattii emerged on Vancouver Island in 1999 for unknown reasons, causing human and animal fatalities and illness. The apparent emergence of this fungus in another temperate area, this time in the Pacific Northwest, suggests the fungus may have expanded its ecological niche. Yet studies that directly examine the potential roles of climatic and land use changes on C. gattii are still lacking. We aim to summarize the existing global literature on the ecology of C. gattii, with particular focus on the gap in knowledge surrounding the potential effects of climatic and land use changes...
May 19, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522987/stroke-incidence-in-victoria-australia-emerging-improvements
#7
Benjamin B Clissold, Vijaya Sundararajan, Peter Cameron, John McNeil
BACKGROUND: Evidence of a decline in the incidence of stroke has emerged from population-based studies. These have included retrospective and prospective cohorts. However, in Australia and other countries, government bodies and stroke foundations predict a rise in the prevalence of stroke that is anticipated to increase the burden of stroke across the entire domain of care. This increase in prevalence must be viewed as different from the decline in incidence being observed, a measure of new stroke cases...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521420/long-non-coding-rna-gas5-inhibits-cell-proliferation-induces-g0-g1-arrest-and-apoptosis-and-functions-as-a-prognostic-marker-in-colorectal-cancer
#8
Yang Yang, Zhanlong Shen, Yichao Yan, Bo Wang, Jizhun Zhang, Chao Shen, Tao Li, Chunxiang Ye, Zhidong Gao, Guo Peng, Yingjiang Ye, Kewei Jiang, Shan Wang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer worldwide and its treatment remains a challenge. Effective control of cell survival and proliferation is critical in the prevention of oncogenesis and successful treatment of cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as primary regulators of carcinogenesis. Growth arrest specific 5 (GAS5), a lncRNA, is known to be aberrantly expressed in several types of cancer, however, the role of GAS5 in CRC remains unclear. In the present study, GAS5 mRNA expression was measured in CRC and adjacent normal mucosa tissue samples from 53 patients using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, in addition to seven CRC cell lines...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520964/proviral-latency-persistent-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection-and-the-development-of-latency-reversing-agents
#9
David M Margolis, Nancie M Archin
Quiescent proviral genomes that persist during human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART) can fuel rebound viremia after ART interruption and is a central obstacle to the cure of HIV infection. The induction of quiescent provirus is the goal of a new class of potential therapeutics, latency reversing agents (LRAs). The discovery, development, and testing of HIV LRAs is a key part of current efforts to develop latency reversal and viral clearance strategies to eradicate established HIV infection...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520590/role-of-tyrosine-kinase-inhibitors-in-the-treatment-of-pituitary-tumours-from-bench-to-bedside
#10
Anat Ben-Shlomo, Odelia Cooper
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Treatment of aggressive pituitary tumours often yields suboptimal control of the tumour and confers significant morbidity. Lactotroph and corticotroph-derived tumours express ErbB receptors and ligands, and mutations in ubiquitin-specific protease 8 (USP8), which alters epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) degradation, have been implicated in Cushing disease pathogenesis. EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy has emerged as a potential new therapeutic approach for patients with aggressive prolactinomas and Cushing disease...
May 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516346/site-sector-scope-mapping-the-epistemological-landscape-of-health-humanities
#11
Andrea Charise
This essay presents a critical appraisal of the current state of baccalaureate Health Humanities, with a special focus on the contextual differences currently influencing the implementation of this field in Canada and, to a lesser extent, the United States and United Kingdom. I argue that the epistemological bedrock of Health Humanities goes beyond that generated by its written texts to include three external factors that are especially pertinent to undergraduate education: site (the setting of Health Humanities education), sector (the disciplinary eligibility for funding) and scope (the critical engagement with a program's local context alongside an emergent "core" of Health Humanities knowledge, learning, and practice)...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516259/-poisoning-caused-by-marine-biotoxins
#12
REVIEW
Philipp Hess
This paper presents a short summary of the knowledge on marine biotoxins. As toxins are known for their acute effects, they have been classified here according to the effects they cause in acute human poisoning incidents. Toxins may thus be distinguished into those that affect the nervous system (paralytic and other neurotoxins), memory (amnesic poisons), and the digestive system (diarrhetic toxins). Furthermore, newly emerging toxins, such as ciguatoxins or shark toxins, and factors that lead to the introduction of toxins in new areas, are presented...
May 17, 2017: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515479/acquisition-of-virulence-factors-in-livestock-associated-mrsa-lysogenic-conversion-of-cc398-strains-by-virulence-gene-containing-phages
#13
Britta Kraushaar, Jens Andre Hammerl, Marina Kienöl, Marie Luise Heinig, Nina Sperling, Mai Dinh Thanh, Jochen Reetz, Claudia Jäckel, Alexandra Fetsch, Stefan Hertwig
Staphylococcus aureus MRSA strains belonging to the clonal complex 398 (CC398) are highly prevalent in livestock and companion animals but may also cause serious infections in humans. CC398 strains in livestock usually do not possess well-known virulence factors that can be frequently found in other MRSA sequence types (ST). Since many staphylococcal virulence genes are residing on the genomes of temperate phages, the question arises why livestock-associated (LA-) CC398 strains are only rarely infected by those phages...
May 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515302/transposon-mutagenesis-of-the-zika-virus-genome-highlights-regions-essential-for-rna-replication-and-restricted-for-immune-evasion
#14
Benjamin O Fulton, David Sachs, Megan C Schwarz, Peter Palese, Matthew J Evans
The molecular constraints affecting Zika virus (ZIKV) evolution are not well understood. To investigate ZIKV genetic flexibility, we used transposon mutagenesis to add 15-nucleotide insertions throughout the MR766 ZIKV genome and subsequently deep sequenced the viable mutants. Few ZIKV insertion mutants replicated, which likely reflects a high degree of functional constraints on the genome. The NS1 gene exhibited distinct mutational tolerances at different stages of the screen. This result may define regions of the NS1 protein that are required for the different stages of the viral life cycle...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514713/pattern-recognition-receptors-and-coordinated-cellular-pathways-involved-in-tuberculosis-immunopathogenesis-emerging-concepts-and-perspectives
#15
REVIEW
Abhishek Mishra, Shamim Akhtar, Chinnaswamy Jagannath, Arshad Khan
Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs) play a central role in the recognition of numerous pathogens, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, resulting in activation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Besides Toll Like Receptors, C-type Lectin Receptors and Nod Like Receptors are now being recognized for their involvement in inducing immune response against M. tuberculosis infection. Although, a functional redundancy of the PRRs has also been reported in many studies, emerging evidences support the notion that a cooperative and coordinated response generated by these receptors is critical to sustain the full immune control of M...
May 14, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513546/edible-plants-and-their-influence-on-the-gut-microbiome-and-acne
#16
REVIEW
Ashley K Clark, Kelly N Haas, Raja K Sivamani
Acne vulgaris affects most people at some point in their lives. Due to unclear etiology, likely with multiple factors, targeted and low-risk treatments have yet to be developed. In this review, we explore the multiple causes of acne and how plant-based foods and supplements can control these. The proposed causative factors include insulin resistance, sex hormone imbalances, inflammation and microbial dysbiosis. There is an emerging body of work on the human gut microbiome and how it mediates feedback between the foods we eat and our bodies...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511646/emergence-of-microbial-diversity-due-to-cross-feeding-interactions-in-a-spatial-model-of-gut-microbial-metabolism
#17
Milan J A van Hoek, Roeland M H Merks
BACKGROUND: The human gut contains approximately 10(14) bacteria, belonging to hundreds of different species. Together, these microbial species form a complex food web that can break down nutrient sources that our own digestive enzymes cannot handle, including complex polysaccharides, producing short chain fatty acids and additional metabolites, e.g., vitamin K. Microbial diversity is important for colonic health: Changes in the composition of the microbiota have been associated with inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes, obesity and Crohn's disease, and make the microbiota more vulnerable to infestation by harmful species, e...
May 16, 2017: BMC Systems Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509842/molecular-epidemiology-of-methicillin-resistant-and-methicillin-susceptible-staphylococcus-aureus-in-the-ovine-dairy-chain-and-in-farm-related-humans
#18
Guerrino Macori, Giuseppina Giacinti, Alberto Bellio, Silvia Gallina, Daniela Manila Bianchi, Daniele Sagrafoli, Nicla Marri, Gilberto Giangolini, Simonetta Amatiste, Lucia Decastelli
Staphylococcus aureus is a major cause of clinical infections in humans and its enterotoxins cause foodborne disease. In the present study, we tested a total of 51 isolates of S. aureus from small-ruminant dairy farms with artisan dairy facilities, all located in Latium, Italy. The farms have a known history of a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Most of the MRSA isolates (27 of 51) belonged to spa-type t127 (43.1%), followed by t2678 (3.9%), t044 (2%), t1166 (2%), and t1773 (2%). PFGE performed on mecA positive strains identified one cluster (≥ 80% of similarity), comprising 22 MRSA...
May 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28509678/becoming-a-chef-in-the-human-leukocyte-antigen-kitchen-interpretation-and-modification-of-human-leukocyte-antigen-antibody-assays
#19
Robert S Liwski, Anna L Greenshields, Robert A Bray, Howard M Gebel
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Fluorescence-based human leukocyte antigen (HLA) antibody detection methods, including flow cytometric crossmatch and single antigen bead assays revolutionized HLA antibody identification and assessment of immunological risk in transplant candidates and patients. Nevertheless, these assays are not flawless and their interpretation can be complex. This review highlights the limitations of the single antigen bead and flow cytometric crossmatch assays and discusses protocol modifications and interpretive approaches to address these issues...
May 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507987/pitx2-in-embryonic-and-adult-myogenesis
#20
REVIEW
Francisco Hernandez-Torres, Lara Rodríguez-Outeiriño, Diego Franco, Amelia E Aranega
Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue that represents between 30 and 38% of the human body mass and has important functions in the organism, such as maintaining posture, locomotor impulse, or pulmonary ventilation. The genesis of skeletal muscle during embryonic development is a process controlled by an elaborate regulatory network combining the interplay of extrinsic and intrinsic regulatory mechanisms that transform myogenic precursor cells into functional muscle fibers through a finely tuned differentiation program...
2017: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
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