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Human factors emergency

Abeer A Nasir, Razan Salah, Abla Sayyed Ahmad, Samah Abu Hijleh, Sa'eed Abu Kattab, Alia Al Kurd, Rawan Al Sharif, Raed Amro, Ahmad Khatib, Hana' Mousa, Walaa Shamasnah, Khammisa Shqerat, Rita Giacaman
BACKGROUND: Hamm is an Arabic word that is used to express suffering. Idioms of distress are communicated differently in different contexts and cultures. Understanding idioms of distress and symptoms can help in diagnosis and lead to socioculturally sensitive health care. METHODS: In this qualitative study, we did semi-structured interviews with men and women of all age groups. Questions focused on the definition, causes, and consequences of Hamm. Responses were analysed by reading and re-reading interview transcripts until themes and subthemes emerged...
February 21, 2018: Lancet
Ricardo Carrasco-Garcia, Patricia Barroso, Javier Perez-Olivares, Vidal Montoro, Joaquín Vicente
Understanding the role that facultative scavenger species may play in spreading infectious pathogens, and even becoming reservoirs for humans, domestic and wild ungulates or, on the contrary, preventing the spread of disease, requires a prior understanding of the pattern of carrion scavenging in specific scenarios. The objectives of this paper are (i) to describe the guild of vertebrate scavengers and (ii) to study the species-specific, habitat, and management-related factors involved in the usage of gut piles in South Central Spain (SCS), a tuberculosis (TB) endemic area...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
H Tligui, W Oudaina, S El Ftouh, F Madda, L Hesseissen
Human cutaneous infections due to Rhodotorula species as an emerged pathogens yeasts are rarely reported, particularly in skin folds, with the ability to infect immunocompromised as well as immunocompetent patient. In present case, we describe a fungal cutaneous infection due to Rhodotorula mucilaginosa in immunocompromised child, the patient has been diagnosed with retinoblastoma; the diagnosis was established by the cytological and clinical examination. However, the cytological examination found fungal forms...
March 15, 2018: Journal de Mycologie Médicale
Elissa S Epel, Alexandra D Crosswell, Stefanie E Mayer, Aric A Prather, George M Slavich, Eli Puterman, Wendy Berry Mendes
Stress can influence health throughout the lifespan, yet there is little agreement about what types and aspects of stress matter most for human health and disease. This is in part because "stress" is not a monolithic concept but rather, an emergent process that involves interactions between individual and environmental factors, historical and current events, allostatic states, and psychological and physiological reactivity. Many of these processes has alone been labeled as "stress." Stress science would be further advanced if researchers adopted a common conceptual model that incorporates epidemiological, affective, and psychophysiological perspectives, with more precise language for describing stress measures...
March 15, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
Vincent-Philippe Lavallée, Jalila Chagraoui, Tara MacRae, Miriam Marquis, Arnaud Bonnefoy, Jana Krosl, Sébastien Lemieux, Anne Marinier, Caroline Pabst, Georges-Étienne Rivard, Josée Hébert, Guy Sauvageau
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a medical emergency because of associated lethal early bleeding, a condition preventable by prompt diagnosis and therapeutic intervention. The mechanisms underlying the hemostatic anomalies of APL are not completely elucidated. RNA-sequencing-based characterization of APL (n = 30) was performed and compared to that of other acute myeloid leukemia (n = 400) samples and normal promyelocytes. Perturbations in the transcriptome of coagulation and fibrinolysis-related genes in APL extend beyond known culprits and now include Thrombin, Factor X and Urokinase Receptor...
February 23, 2018: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
Xiaoqiong Gu, Qi Xiang Martin Tay, Shu Harn Te, Nazanin Saeidi, Shin Giek Goh, Ariel Kushmaro, Janelle R Thompson, Karina Yew-Hoong Gin
This study seeks to understand the general distribution of virome abundance and diversity in tropical freshwater ecosystems in Singapore and the geospatial distribution of the virome under different landuse patterns. Correlations between diversity, environmental parameters and land use patterns were analyzed and significant correlations were highlighted. Overall, the majority (65.5%) of the annotated virome belonged to bacteriophages. The percentage of Caudovirales was higher in reservoirs whereas the percentages of Dicistroviridae, Microviridae and Circoviridae were higher in tributaries...
March 8, 2018: Water Research
Cheng-Dong Ji, Yan-Xia Wang, Dong-Fang Xiang, Qiang Liu, Zhi-Hua Zhou, Feng Qian, Lang Yang, Yong Ren, Wei Cui, Sen-Lin Xu, Xi-Long Zhao, Xia Zhang, Yan Wang, Peng Zhang, Ji-Ming Wang, You-Hong Cui, Xiu-Wu Bian
Potassium ion channels are emerging as pro-malignant factors involved in cancer progression. In this study, we found that invading human gastric cancer (GC) cells express high level of inwardly rectifying potassium channel 2.1 (Kir2.1). Silencing Kir2.1 markedly reduced the invasive and metastatic capabilities as well as the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of GC cells. The pro-malignant nature of Kir2.1 in GC cells was independent of potassium permeation but relied on its interaction with serine/threonine-protein kinase 38 (Stk38) to inhibit ubiquitination and degradation of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 2 (MEKK2)...
March 16, 2018: Cancer Research
Sebastian Huhn, Frauke Beyer, Rui Zhang, Leonie Lampe, Jana Grothe, Jürgen Kratzsch, Anja Willenberg, Jana Breitfeld, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Robert Trampel, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Arno Villringer, A Veronica Witte
INTRODUCTION: The polyphenol resveratrol has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on memory and the aging hippocampus due to calorie-restriction mimicking effects. However, the evidence based on human interventional studies is scarce. We therefore aimed to determine the effects of resveratrol on memory performance, and to identify potential underlying mechanisms using a broad array of blood-based biomarkers as well as hippocampus connectivity and microstructure assessed with ultra-high field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI)...
March 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Silvia Salerno, Aída Nelly García-Argáez, Elisabetta Barresi, Sabrina Taliani, Francesca Simorini, Concettina La Motta, Giorgio Amendola, Stefano Tomassi, Sandro Cosconati, Ettore Novellino, Federico Da Settimo, Anna Maria Marini, Lisa Dalla Via
Inhibition of angiogenesis via blocking vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) signaling pathway emerged as an established approach in anticancer therapy. So far, many monoclonal antibodies and ATP-competitive small molecule inhibitors have been clinically validated and approved. In this study, structure-activity relationships (SAR) within the 2-phenylamino-substituted benzothiopyrano[4,3-d]pyrimidine class of kinase inhibitors were further refined by the synthesis and biological evaluation of new compounds 1-21 featuring different substitution patterns on the pendant phenyl moiety, combined with H, OCH3 , or Cl at 8-position...
March 7, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Rishibha Sachdev, Karin Kappes-Horn, Lydia Paulsen, Yvonne Duernberger, Catharina Pleschka, Philip Denner, Bishwajit Kundu, Jens Reimann, Ina Vorberg
Sporadic inclusion body myositis (sIBM) is the most prevalent acquired muscle disorder in the elderly with no defined etiology or effective therapy. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and deposition of myostatin, a secreted negative regulator of muscle growth, have been implicated in disease pathology. The myostatin signaling pathway has emerged as a major target for symptomatic treatment of muscle atrophy. Here, we systematically analyzed the maturation and secretion of myostatin precursor MstnPP and its metabolites in a human muscle cell line...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
Xiaohui Chen, Yujie Deng, Yi Shi, Weifeng Zhu, Yibin Cai, Chunwei Xu, Kunshou Zhu, Xiongwei Zheng, Gang Chen, Qi Xie, Guoxing Weng
Functional inactivation of human runt-related transcription factor 3 (RUNX3) through mutation or epigenetic silencing has been well-documented in many cancerous entities. In addition to gene mutation and promoter hypermethylation, cytoplasmic mislocalization has emerged as another major manifestation of RUNX3 dysfunction in malignancies including breast, colorectal and gastric cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and different RUNX3 expression patterns would have different overall survival (OS), and the associations between different patterns of clinicopathological parameters and clinical outcome...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Jeliazko R Jeliazkov, Adnan Sljoka, Daisuke Kuroda, Nobuyuki Tsuchimura, Naoki Katoh, Kouhei Tsumoto, Jeffrey J Gray
Antibodies can rapidly evolve in specific response to antigens. Affinity maturation drives this evolution through cycles of mutation and selection leading to enhanced antibody specificity and affinity. Elucidating the biophysical mechanisms that underlie affinity maturation is fundamental to understanding B-cell immunity. An emergent hypothesis is that affinity maturation reduces the conformational flexibility of the antibody's antigen-binding paratope to minimize entropic losses incurred upon binding. In recent years, computational and experimental approaches have tested this hypothesis on a small number of antibodies, often observing a decrease in the flexibility of the complementarity determining region (CDR) loops that typically comprise the paratope and in particular the CDR-H3 loop, which contributes a plurality of antigen contacts...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Corneliu Petru Popescu, Simin Aysel Florescu, Ani Ioana Cotar, Daniela Badescu, Cornelia Svetlana Ceianu, Mihaela Zaharia, Gratiela Tardei, Daniel Codreanu, Emanoil Ceausu, Simona Maria Ruta
BACKGROUND: In Romania, after a major outbreak in 1996, West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) was reported only in a limited number of cases annually. During 2016-2017, a significant increase in the number of WNND cases was reported at the national level, associated with high mortality rates. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all cases confirmed with WNND, hospitalized during 2012-2017 in a single tertiary facility from Bucharest was performed in order to determine the annual prevalence and mortality rate and the risk factors associated with a severe outcome...
March 12, 2018: Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease
Ximena Corso-Díaz, Catherine Jaeger, Vijender Chaitankar, Anand Swaroop
Complex biological processes, such as organogenesis and homeostasis, are stringently regulated by genetic programs that are fine-tuned by epigenetic factors to establish cell fates and/or to respond to the microenvironment. Gene regulatory networks that guide cell differentiation and function are modulated and stabilized by modifications to DNA, RNA and proteins. In this review, we focus on two key epigenetic changes - DNA methylation and histone modifications - and discuss their contribution to retinal development, aging and disease, especially in the context of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic retinopathy...
March 12, 2018: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Samin Nobakht, Arash Shirdel, Yasamin Molavi-Taleghani, Mohammad M Doustmohammadi, Hojjat Sheikhbardsiri
INTRODUCTION: Human resource supply is considered as one of the most vital factors in achieving organizational goals, and human resources are the most valuable factor in the production and delivery of services. Labor shortages and surpluses could downgrade the quality of services offered to patients. Considering the seriousness of this issue, this study aimed to investigate the status of human resources in Iran hospitals. METHODS: The narrative review was conducted according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines...
March 15, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
G Ström, S Boqvist, A Albihn, L-L Fernström, A Andersson Djurfeldt, S Sokerya, T Sothyra, U Magnusson
Background: Administration of antimicrobials to food-producing animals is regarded as a major contributor to the overall emergence of resistance in bacteria worldwide. However, few data are available on global antimicrobial use and resistance (AMR) in livestock, especially from low- and middle-income countries. Methods: We conducted a structured survey of 91 small-scale pig farms in the urban and peri-urban areas of Phnom Penh, Cambodia, to assess the farmers' knowledge, attitudes and practices related to antimicrobial use in their pig production...
2018: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
Yvonne Gräser, Michel Monod, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, Karolina Dukik, Pietro Nenoff, Alexandra Kargl, Christiane Kupsch, Ping Zhan, Ann Packeu, Vishnu Chaturvedi, Sybren de Hoog
Dermatophyte research has renewed interest because of changing human floras with changing socioeconomic conditions, and because of severe chronic infections in patients with congenital immune disorders. Main taxonomic traits at the generic level have changed considerably, and now fine-tuning at the species level with state-of-the-art technology has become urgent. Research on virulence factors focuses on secreted proteases now has support in genome data. It is speculated that most protease families are used for degrading hard keratin during nitrogen recycling in the environment, while others, such as Sub6 may have emerged as a result of ancestral gene duplication, and are likely to have specific roles during infection...
April 1, 2018: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Denise C Hsu, Kimberly F Breglio, Luxin Pei, Chun-Shu Wong, Bruno B Andrade, Virginia Sheikh, Margery Smelkinson, Constantinos Petrovas, Adam Rupert, Leonardo Gil-Santana, Adrian Zelazny, Steven M Holland, Kenneth Olivier, Daniel Barber, Irini Sereti
Background: Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an aberrant inflammatory response in individuals with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, after antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. The pathogenesis of Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)-associated IRIS has not been fully elucidated. Methods: We investigated monocyte and CD4+ T-cell responses in vitro, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) expression in tissues, and plasma cytokines and inflammatory markers, in 13 HIV-infected patients with MAC-IRIS and 14 HIV-uninfected patients with pulmonary MAC infection...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Kate H Thomas, Justin T McDaniel, David L Albright, Kari L Fletcher, Harold G Koenig
Suicide rates among military veterans exceed those found in the general population. While the exact reasons for these high rates are unknown, contributing factors may include the military's perceived rejection of patient identities, creating barriers to mental health care within the clinical sector and a mandate for prevention programs. Spiritual fitness has emerged over the last decade as an important concept in human performance optimization and is included among holistic approaches to developing and maintaining mentally fit fighting forces...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Religion and Health
Tanaya Vaidya, Robert M Straubinger, Sihem Ait-Oudhia
PURPOSE: Trastuzumab combined with Doxorubicin (DOX) demonstrates significant clinical activity in human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer (BC). However, emergence of treatment resistance and trastuzumab associated cardiotoxicity remain clinical challenges. In an effort to improve patient outcome, we have developed and evaluated novel tri-functional immunoliposomes (TFIL) that target HER2-receptors on BC cells and CD3-receptors on T-lymphocytes, and deliver DOX...
March 13, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
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