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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646814/nutritional-management-of-metabolic-endotoxemia-a-clinical-review
#1
Benjamin I Brown
Context • Diet-induced, metabolic endotoxemia is emerging as an important contributory factor to the development of a wide range of chronic diseases, including cardiometabolic, autoimmune, psychiatric, and neurodegenerative illnesses. Emerging human clinical studies have demonstrated that diet and dietary components are potent modifiers of circulating endotoxins and can be used to reduce plasma levels significantly and improve metabolic health. Objective • The aim of the current study was to explore briefly the concept of metabolic endotoxemia and its relationship to disease development, to examine the influence of diet and dietary components on circulating endotoxins, and, finally, discuss the clinical relevance of nutritional interventions for management of metabolic endotoxemia...
July 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646426/eftrenonacog-alfa-a-review-in-haemophilia-b
#2
Sheridan M Hoy
Eftrenonacog alfa (Alprolix™) is a recombinant fusion protein comprising human factor IX (FIX) covalently linked to the constant region (Fc) domain of human IgG1 (i.e. rFIXFc). The presence of the Fc domain extends the terminal half-life (t½) of rFIXFc, permitting prolonged treatment intervals. rFIXFc is available for intravenous use for the prophylaxis and treatment of bleeding in patients with haemophilia B. In two multinational, phase III studies in previously treated children, adolescents and adults with severe haemophilia B, rFIXFc prophylaxis resulted in low median annualized bleeding rates (ABRs), and was associated with reductions in median weekly factor consumption and dosing frequency compared with pre-study FIX regimens...
June 23, 2017: Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646114/staphylococcus-aureus-strain-newman-photoinactivation-and-cellular-response-to-sunlight-exposure
#3
Jill S McClary, Lauren M Sassoubre, Alexandria B Boehm
Sunlight influences microbial water quality of surface waters. Previous studies have investigated photoinactivation mechanisms and cellular photostress responses of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB), including Escherichia coli and enterococci, but further work is needed to characterize photostress responses of bacterial pathogens. Here we investigate the photoinactivation of Staphylococcus aureus (strain Newman), a pigmented, waterborne pathogen of emerging concern. We measured photodecay using standard culture-based assays and cellular membrane integrity; and investigated photostress response by measuring the relative number of mRNA transcripts of select oxidative stress, DNA repair, and metabolism genes...
June 23, 2017: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643862/tumor-angiogenesis-revisited-regulators-and-clinical-implications
#4
REVIEW
Roberto Ronca, Mohammed Benkheil, Stefania Mitola, Sofie Struyf, Sandra Liekens
Since Judah Folkman hypothesized in 1971 that angiogenesis is required for solid tumor growth, numerous studies have been conducted to unravel the angiogenesis process, analyze its role in primary tumor growth, metastasis and angiogenic diseases, and to develop inhibitors of proangiogenic factors. These studies have led in 2004 to the approval of the first antiangiogenic agent (bevacizumab, a humanized antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor) for the treatment of patients with metastatic colorectal cancer...
June 23, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643088/potential-therapeutic-applications-of-human-anti-m%C3%A3-llerian-hormone-amh-analogues-in-reproductive-medicine
#5
REVIEW
Vitaly A Kushnir, David B Seifer, David H Barad, Aritro Sen, Norbert Gleicher
Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily are key regulators of various physiological processes. Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) which is also commonly known as Müllerian-inhibiting substance (MIS) is a member of the TGF-beta superfamily and an important regulator of reproductive organ differentiation and ovarian follicular development. While AMH has been used for diagnostic purposes as a biomarker for over 15 years, new potential therapeutic applications of recombinant human AMH analogues are now emerging as pharmacologic agents in reproductive medicine...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642850/transcriptional-network-controlling-endochondral-ossification
#6
REVIEW
Kenji Hata, Yoshifumi Takahata, Tomohiko Murakami, Riko Nishimura
Endochondral ossification is the fundamental process of skeletal development in vertebrates. Chondrocytes undergo sequential steps of differentiation, including mesenchymal condensation, proliferation, hypertrophy, and mineralization. These steps, which are required for the morphological and functional changes in differentiating chondrocytes, are strictly regulated by a complex transcriptional network. Biochemical and mice genetic studies identified chondrogenic transcription factors critical for endochondral ossification...
May 2017: Journal of Bone Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642844/role-of-bacterioferritin-ferritin-in-m-tuberculosis-pathogenesis-and-drug-resistance-a-future-perspective-by-interactomic-approach
#7
Divakar Sharma, Deepa Bisht
Tuberculosis is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, one of the most successful and deadliest human pathogen. Aminoglycosides resistance leads to emergence of extremely drug resistant strains of M. tuberculosis. Iron is crucial for the biological functions of the cells. Iron assimilation, storage and their utilization is not only involved in pathogenesis but also in emergence of drug resistance strains. We previously reported that iron storing proteins (bacterioferritin and ferritin) were found to be overexpressed in aminoglycosides resistant isolates...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642292/frequency-and-magnitude-of-intermittent-hypoxia-modulate-endothelial-wound-healing-in-a-cell-culture-model-of-sleep-apnea
#8
Noelia Campillo, Bryan Falcones, Josep M Montserrat, David Gozal, Ana Obeso, Teresa Gallego-Martin, Daniel Navajas, Isaac Almendros, Ramon Farre
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) has been implicated in the cardiovascular consequences of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). However, the lack of suitable experimental systems has precluded assessment as to whether IH is detrimental, protective or both for the endothelium. The aim of the work was to determine the effects of frequency and amplitude of IH oxygenation swings on aortic endothelial wound healing. Monolayers of human primary endothelial cells were wounded, and subjected to constant oxygenation (1%, 4%, 13% or 20% O2) or IH at different frequencies (0...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641119/maternal-progesterone-levels-are-modulated-by-maternal-bmi-and-predict-birth-weight-sex-specifically-in-human-pregnancies
#9
Anke Diemert, Janina Goletzke, Claus Barkmann, Robert Jung, Kurt Hecher, Petra Arck
OBJECTIVE: Successful pregnancy outcome is the result of a tailored adaptation of the maternal endocrine and immune system throughout gestation. We aimed to investigate if maternal endocrine, anthropometric and life style factors assessed longitudinally throughout pregnancy allow prediction of birth weight. STUDY DESIGN: Data on maternal factors and obstetrical characteristics from 220 pregnancies from a German prospective pregnancy cohort were analyzed using univariate and multivariate regression models...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640877/identification-of-c-ebp%C3%AE-as-a-novel-target-of-the-hpv8-e6-protein-regulating-mir-203-in-human-keratinocytes
#10
Anna M Marthaler, Marta Podgorska, Pascal Feld, Alina Fingerle, Katrin Knerr-Rupp, Friedrich Grässer, Hans Smola, Klaus Roemer, Elke Ebert, Yoo-Jin Kim, Rainer M Bohle, Cornelia S L Müller, Jörg Reichrath, Thomas Vogt, Magdalena Malejczyk, Sławomir Majewski, Sigrun Smola
Patients suffering from Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), a rare inherited skin disease, display a particular susceptibility to persistent infection with cutaneous genus beta-human papillomavirus (beta-HPV), such as HPV type 8. They have a high risk to develop non-melanoma skin cancer at sun-exposed sites. In various models evidence is emerging that cutaneous HPV E6 proteins disturb epidermal homeostasis and support carcinogenesis, however, the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood as yet. In this study we demonstrate that microRNA-203 (miR-203), a key regulator of epidermal proliferation and differentiation, is strongly down-regulated in HPV8-positive EV-lesions...
June 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638807/translational-rodent-models-for-research-on-parasitic-protozoa-a-review-of-confounders-and-possibilities
#11
REVIEW
Totta Ehret, Francesca Torelli, Christian Klotz, Amy B Pedersen, Frank Seeber
Rodents, in particular Mus musculus, have a long and invaluable history as models for human diseases in biomedical research, although their translational value has been challenged in a number of cases. We provide some examples in which rodents have been suboptimal as models for human biology and discuss confounders which influence experiments and may explain some of the misleading results. Infections of rodents with protozoan parasites are no exception in requiring close consideration upon model choice. We focus on the significant differences between inbred, outbred and wild animals, and the importance of factors such as microbiota, which are gaining attention as crucial variables in infection experiments...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638489/harnessing-integrative-omics-to-facilitate-molecular-imaging-of-the-human-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-family-for-precision-medicine
#12
REVIEW
Martin Pool, H Rudolf de Boer, Marjolijn N Lub-de Hooge, Marcel A T M van Vugt, Elisabeth G E de Vries
Cancer is a growing problem worldwide. The cause of death in cancer patients is often due to treatment-resistant metastatic disease. Many molecularly targeted anticancer drugs have been developed against 'oncogenic driver' pathways. However, these treatments are usually only effective in properly selected patients. Resistance to molecularly targeted drugs through selective pressure on acquired mutations or molecular rewiring can hinder their effectiveness. This review summarizes how molecular imaging techniques can potentially facilitate the optimal implementation of targeted agents...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637923/infectivity-of-plasmodium-falciparum-sporozoites-determines-emerging-parasitemia-in-infected-volunteers
#13
Matthew B B McCall, Linda J Wammes, Marijke C C Langenberg, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Jona Walk, Cornelus C Hermsen, Wouter Graumans, Rob Koelewijn, Jean-François Franetich, Sandra Chishimba, Max Gerdsen, Audrey Lorthiois, Marga van de Vegte, Dominique Mazier, Else M Bijker, Jaap J van Hellemond, Perry J J van Genderen, Robert W Sauerwein
Malaria sporozoites must first undergo intrahepatic development before a pathogenic blood-stage infection is established. The success of infection depends on host and parasite factors. In healthy human volunteers undergoing controlled human malaria infection (CHMI), we directly compared three clinical Plasmodium falciparum isolates for their ability to infect primary human hepatocytes in vitro and to drive the production of blood-stage parasites in vivo. Our data show a correlation between the efficiency of strain-specific sporozoite invasion of human hepatocytes and the dynamics of patent parasitemia in study subjects, highlighting intrinsic differences in infectivity among P...
June 21, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637755/seasonal-h3n2-and-2009-pandemic-h1n1-influenza-a-viruses-reassort-efficiently-but-produce-attenuated-progeny
#14
Kara L Phipps, Nicolle Marshall, Hui Tao, Shamika Danzy, Nina Onuoha, John Steel, Anice C Lowen
Reassortment of gene segments between co-infecting influenza A viruses (IAV) facilitates viral diversification and has significant epidemiological impact on seasonal and pandemic influenza. Since 1977, human IAVs of H1N1 and H3N2 subtypes have co-circulated with relatively few documented cases of reassortment. We evaluated the potential for viruses of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) and seasonal H3N2 lineages to reassort under experimental conditions. Results of heterologous co-infections with pH1N1 and H3N2 viruses were compared to those obtained following co-infection with homologous, genetically tagged, pH1N1 viruses as a control...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637754/functional-evolution-of-influenza-ns1-protein-in-currently-circulating-human-2009-pandemic-h1n1-viruses
#15
Amelia M Clark, Aitor Nogales, Luis Martinez-Sobrido, David J Topham, Marta L DeDiego
In 2009, a novel H1N1 influenza virus emerged in humans, causing a global pandemic. It was previously shown that the NS1 protein from this human 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) virus was an effective interferon (IFN) antagonist, but could not inhibit general host gene expression, unlike other NS1 proteins from seasonal human H1N1 and H3N2 viruses. Here, we show that the NS1 protein from currently circulating pH1N1 viruses has evolved to encode 6 amino acid changes (E55K, L90I, I123V, E125D, K131E, and N205S) with respect to the original protein...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637515/current-globalization-of-drug-interventional-clinical-trials-characteristics-and-associated-factors-2011-2013
#16
Sohyun Jeong, Minji Sohn, Jae Hyun Kim, Minoh Ko, Hee-Won Seo, Yun-Kyoung Song, Boyoon Choi, Nayoung Han, Han-Sung Na, Jong Gu Lee, In-Wha Kim, Jung Mi Oh, Euni Lee
BACKGROUND: Clinical trial globalization is a major trend for industry-sponsored clinical trials. There has been a shift in clinical trial sites towards emerging regions of Eastern Europe, Latin America, Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Our study objectives were to evaluate the current characteristics of clinical trials and to find out the associated multiple factors which could explain clinical trial globalization and its implications for clinical trial globalization in 2011-2013. METHODS: The data elements of "phase," "recruitment status," "type of sponsor," "age groups," and "design of trial" from 30 countries were extracted from the ClinicalTrials...
June 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636934/the-tmao-producing-enzyme-flavin-containing-monooxygenase-3-regulates-obesity-and-the-beiging-of-white-adipose-tissue
#17
Rebecca C Schugar, Diana M Shih, Manya Warrier, Robert N Helsley, Amy Burrows, Daniel Ferguson, Amanda L Brown, Anthony D Gromovsky, Markus Heine, Arunachal Chatterjee, Lin Li, Xinmin S Li, Zeneng Wang, Belinda Willard, YongHong Meng, Hanjun Kim, Nam Che, Calvin Pan, Richard G Lee, Rosanne M Crooke, Mark J Graham, Richard E Morton, Carl D Langefeld, Swapan K Das, Lawrence L Rudel, Nizar Zein, Arthur J McCullough, Srinivasan Dasarathy, W H Wilson Tang, Bernadette O Erokwu, Chris A Flask, Markku Laakso, Mete Civelek, Sathyamangla V Naga Prasad, Joerg Heeren, Aldons J Lusis, Stanley L Hazen, J Mark Brown
Emerging evidence suggests that microbes resident in the human intestine represent a key environmental factor contributing to obesity-associated disorders. Here, we demonstrate that the gut microbiota-initiated trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO)-generating pathway is linked to obesity and energy metabolism. In multiple clinical cohorts, systemic levels of TMAO were observed to strongly associate with type 2 diabetes. In addition, circulating TMAO levels were associated with obesity traits in the different inbred strains represented in the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel...
June 20, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630349/pi3k-p110%C3%AE-mediates-the-oncogenic-activity-induced-by-loss-of-the-novel-tumor-suppressor-pi3k-p85%C3%AE
#18
Lauren M Thorpe, Jennifer M Spangle, Carolynn E Ohlson, Hailing Cheng, Thomas M Roberts, Lewis C Cantley, Jean J Zhao
Mutation or loss of the p85 regulatory subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) is emerging as a transforming factor in cancer, but the mechanism of transformation has been controversial. Here we find that hemizygous deletion of the PIK3R1 gene encoding p85α is a frequent event in breast cancer, with PIK3R1 expression significantly reduced in breast tumors. PIK3R1 knockdown transforms human mammary epithelial cells, and genetic ablation of Pik3r1 accelerates a mouse model of HER2/neu-driven breast cancer...
June 19, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630007/rna-localization-making-its-way-to-the-center-stage
#19
REVIEW
Ashley Chin, Eric Lécuyer
Cells are highly organized entities that rely on intricate addressing mechanisms to sort their constituent molecules to precise subcellular locations. These processes are crucial for cells to maintain their proper organization and carry out specialized functions in the body, while genetic perturbations that clog up these addressing systems can contribute to disease aetiology. The trafficking of RNA molecules represents an important layer in the control of cellular organization, a process that is both highly prevalent and for which features of the regulatory machineries have been deeply conserved evolutionarily...
June 16, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629427/targeting-vegfr-3-2-signaling-pathways-with-ad0157-a-potential-strategy-against-tumor-associated-lymphangiogenesis-and-lymphatic-metastases
#20
Melissa García-Caballero, Jenny Paupert, Silvia Blacher, Maureen Van de Velde, Ana Rodríguez Quesada, Miguel Angel Medina, Agnès Noël
BACKGROUND: Lymphatic metastasis is one of the leading causes of death in patients with different types of cancer and is the main prognostic factor for the disease survival. The formation of new lymphatic vessels (lymphangiogenesis) in primary tumors facilitates tumor cell dissemination to regional lymph nodes and correlates with distant metastases. Lymphangiogenesis has thus emerged as a suitable therapeutic target to block metastases, but no anti-lymphangiogenic compounds have been approved for clinical use to date...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
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