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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324503/visualization-of-human-telomerase-localization-by-fluorescence-microscopy-techniques
#1
Eladio Abreu, Rebecca M Terns, Michael P Terns
Human telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein (RNP) that synthesizes DNA repeats at the ends of chromosomes and maintains telomere length and genome stability. The enzyme is comprised of telomerase RNA (hTR) (which provides the template for telomere addition) and several protein subunits including telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) (the catalytic component). Intracellular trafficking of the enzyme has emerged as an important factor in the regulation of telomerase activity. Telomerase trafficking between nuclear Cajal bodies (proposed sites of telomerase biogenesis and regulation) and telomeres (sites of action) is regulated by the cell cycle in concordance with telomere synthesis during S phase...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324452/a-review-of-ranibizumab-for-the-treatment-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#2
REVIEW
Michael W Stewart
INTRODUCTION: Laser photocoagulation has been the standard treatment for diabetic macular edema (DME) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) for several decades. The discovery of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the subsequent determination of its critical role in the development DME and PDR has led to the development of VEGF inhibitory drugs. Ranibizumab was the first anti-VEGF drug approved for the treatment of both DME and diabetic retinopathy in eyes with DME. METHODS: Medline searches with the keywords "ranibizumab," "diabetic macular edema," and "proliferative diabetic retinopathy" were performed to identify pertinent pre-clinical studies and clinical trials...
March 21, 2017: Ophthalmology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319895/impact-of-high-cholesterol-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-on-metabolic-diseases-an-updated-mini-review
#3
REVIEW
Erdi Sozen, Nesrin Kartal Ozer
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site of protein folding and calcium storage. Beside the role of ER in protein homeostasis, it controls the cholesterol production and lipid-membrane biosynthesis as well as surviving and cell death signaling mechanisms in the cell. It is well-documented that elevated plasma cholesterol induces adverse effects in cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), liver disorders, such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), non-alcoholic steatosis hepatitis (NASH), and metabolic diseases which are associated with oxidative and ER stress...
March 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319704/assessing-the-drivers-shaping-global-patterns-of-urban-vegetation-landscape-structure
#4
C Dobbs, C Nitschke, D Kendal
Vegetation is one of the main resources involve in ecosystem functioning and providing ecosystem services in urban areas. Little is known on the landscape structure patterns of vegetation existing in urban areas at the global scale and the drivers of these patterns. We studied the landscape structure of one hundred cities around the globe, and their relation to demography (population), socioeconomic factors (GDP, Gini Index), climate factors (temperature and rain) and topographic characteristics (altitude, variation in altitude)...
March 15, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319151/ethical-problems-in-an-era-where-disasters-have-become-a-part-of-daily-life-a-qualitative-study-of-healthcare-workers-in-turkey
#5
M Murat Civaner, Kevser Vatansever, Kayihan Pala
BACKGROUND: Natural disasters, armed conflict, migration, and epidemics today occur more frequently, causing more death, displacement of people and economic loss. Their burden on health systems and healthcare workers (HCWs) is getting heavier accordingly. The ethical problems that arise in disaster settings may be different than the ones in daily practice, and can cause preventable harm or the violation of basic human rights. Understanding the types and the determinants of ethical challenges is crucial in order to find the most benevolent action while respecting the dignity of those affected people...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319066/nucleus-accumbens-associated-protein-1-promotes-glycolysis-and-survival-of-hypoxic-tumor-cells-via-the-hdac4-hif-1%C3%AE-axis
#6
Y Zhang, Y-J Ren, L-C Guo, C Ji, J Hu, H-H Zhang, Q-H Xu, W-D Zhu, Z-J Ming, Y-S Yuan, X Ren, J Song, J-M Yang
Nucleus accumbens-associated protein-1 (NAC1), a nuclear factor of the BTB/POZ gene family, has emerging roles in cancer. In this study, we identified the NAC1-HDAC4-HIF-1α axis as an important pathway in regulating glycolysis and hypoxic adaptation in tumor cells. We show that nuclear NAC1 binds to histone deacetylase type 4 (HDAC4), hindering phosphorylation of HDAC4 at Ser(246) and preventing its nuclear export that leads to cytoplasmic degradation of the deacetylase. Accumulation of HDAC4 in the nuclei results in an attenuation of HIF-1α acetylation, enhancing the stabilization and transcriptional activity of HIF-1α and strengthening adaptive response of cells to hypoxia...
March 20, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315949/-89-zr-onartuzumab-pet-imaging-of-c-met-receptor-dynamics
#7
Martin Pool, Anton G T Terwisscha van Scheltinga, Arjan Kol, Danique Giesen, Elisabeth G E de Vries, Marjolijn N Lub-de Hooge
PURPOSE: c-MET and its ligand hepatocyte growth factor are often dysregulated in human cancers. Dynamic changes in c-MET expression occur and might predict drug efficacy or emergence of resistance. Noninvasive visualization of c-MET dynamics could therefore potentially guide c-MET-directed therapies. We investigated the feasibility of (89)Zr-labelled one-armed c-MET antibody onartuzumab PET for detecting relevant changes in c-MET levels induced by c-MET-mediated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib resistance or heat shock protein-90 (HSP90) inhibitor NVP-AUY-922 treatment in human non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) xenografts...
March 19, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304148/the-enigmatic-role-of-runx1-in-female-related-cancers-current-knowledge-future-perspectives
#8
REVIEW
Alessandra I Riggio, Karen Blyth
Historically associated with the aetiology of human leukaemia, the RUNX1 gene has in recent years reared its head in an assortment of epithelial cancers. This review discusses the state-of-the-art knowledge of the enigmatic role played by RUNX1 in female-related cancers of the breast, the uterus and the ovary. The weight of evidence accumulated so far is indicative of a very context-dependent role, as either an oncogene or a tumour suppressor. This is corroborated by high-throughput sequencing endeavours which report different genetic alterations affecting the gene, including amplification, deep deletion and mutations...
March 17, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303126/the-influence-of-host-stress-on-the-mechanism-of-infection-lost-microbiomes-emergent-pathobiomes-and-the-role-of-interkingdom-signaling
#9
John C Alverdy, James N Luo
Mammals constantly face stressful situations, be it extended periods of starvation, sleep deprivation from fear of predation, changing environmental conditions, or loss of habitat. Today, mammals are increasingly exposed to xenobiotics such as pesticides, pollutants, and antibiotics. Crowding conditions such as those created for the purposes of meat production from animals or those imposed upon humans living in urban environments or during world travel create new levels of physiologic stress. As such, human progress has led to an unprecedented exposure of both animals and humans to accidental pathogens (i...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302559/in-vitro-monoamine-oxidase-inhibition-potential-of-alpha-methyltryptamine-analog-new-psychoactive-substances-for-assessing-possible-toxic-risks
#10
Lea Wagmann, Simon D Brandt, Pierce V Kavanagh, Hans H Maurer, Markus R Meyer
Tryptamines have emerged as new psychoactive substances (NPS), which are distributed and consumed recreationally without preclinical studies or safety tests. Within the alpha-methylated tryptamines, some of the psychoactive effects of the prototypical alpha-methyltryptamine (AMT) have been described decades ago and a contributing factor of its acute toxicity appears to involve the inhibition of monoamine oxidase (MAO). However, detailed information about analogs is scarce. Therefore, thirteen AMT analogs were investigated for their potential to inhibit MAO...
March 13, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302106/barriers-and-facilitators-of-linkage-to-hiv-care-among-hiv-infected-young-chinese-men-who-have-sex-with-men-a-qualitative-study
#11
Haochu Li, Chongyi Wei, Joseph Tucker, Dianmin Kang, Meizhen Liao, Eleanor Holroyd, Jietao Zheng, Qian Qi, Wei Ma
BACKGROUND: The Four Free and One Care Policy (HIV/AIDS-related free services) has been in place in China since 2004. However, linkage to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) care is not yet achieved very well among people living with HIV. We conducted a qualitative study to explore individual and contextual factors that may influence a linkage to HIV care from the perspective of young HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in a highly centralized HIV care context of China. METHODS: Purposive sampling was used to recruit 21 HIV-infected MSM in Shandong Province, with in-depth interviews conducted between March and July 2015...
March 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302017/targeting-pyrimidine-pathway-of-plasmodium-knowlesi-new-strategies-towards-identification-of-novel-antimalarial-chemotherapeutic-agents
#12
Mayank Rashmi, Manoj Kumar Yadav, D Swati
Plasmodium knowlesi has been recently recognized as a human malarial parasite, particularly in the region of south-east Asia. The effective prevention and treatment of this disease is increasingly bound to fail due to the emergence of drug resistance. Hence, design of new drugs against known targets is gaining importance. Pyrimidine pathway is a crucial metabolic pathway in P. knowlesi, and the enzymes involved are also unique in terms of their structure and function as compared to its human counterpart. Thus targeting Dihydroorotase, an enzyme involved in the pyrimidine pathway, provides a promising route for novel drug development...
March 15, 2017: Combinatorial Chemistry & High Throughput Screening
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301631/androgen-receptor-function-and-androgen-receptor-targeted-therapies-in-breast-cancer-a-review
#13
Miho Kono, Takeo Fujii, Bora Lim, Meghan Sri Karuturi, Debasish Tripathy, Naoto T Ueno
Importance: The androgen receptor (AR) pathway is emerging as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. To date, AR-targeted drugs have been approved only for treatment of prostate cancer; however, AR-targeted treatment for breast cancer is an area of active investigation. Through review of preclinical studies, retrospective clinical studies, and clinical trials, we examined the biology of AR and AR-related pathways, the potential for AR-targeted therapies in breast cancer, and potential biomarkers for AR-targeted treatments...
March 16, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300224/short-term-air-pollution-exposure-aggravates-parkinson-s-disease-in-a-population-based-cohort
#14
Hyewon Lee, Woojae Myung, Doh Kwan Kim, Satbyul Estella Kim, Clara Tammy Kim, Ho Kim
Increasing experimental evidence has suggested air pollution as new risk factor for neurological disease. Although long-term exposure is reportedly related to neurological disease, information on association with short-term exposure is scarce. We examined the association of short-term exposure to particles <2.5 μm (PM2.5), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ozone (O3), and carbon monoxide (CO) with PD aggravation in Seoul from the National Health Insurance Service-National Sample Cohort, Korea during 2002-2013...
March 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299674/the-emerging-roles-of-runx-transcription-factors-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#15
Dominic Chih-Cheng Voon, Jean Paul Thiery
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an evolutionary conserved morphogenetic program necessary for the shaping of the body plan during development. It is guided precisely by growth factor signaling and a dedicated network of specialised transcription factors. These are supported by other transcription factor families serving auxiliary functions during EMT, beyond their general roles as effectors of major signaling pathways. EMT transiently induces in epithelial cells mesenchymal properties, such as the loss of cell-cell adhesion and a gain in cell motility...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299152/ebola-viral-disease-in-west-africa-a-threat-to-global-health-economy-and-political-stability
#16
Semeeh Akinwale Omoleke, Ibrahim Mohammed, Yauba Saidu
The West African sub-continent is currently experiencing its first, and ironically, the largest and longest Ebola viral diseases (EVD) outbreak ever documented in modern medical history. The current outbreak is significant in several ways, including longevity, magnitude of morbidity and mortality, occurrence outside the traditional niches, rapid spread and potential of becoming a global health tragedy. The authors provided explicit insights into the current and historical background, drivers of the epidemic, societal impacts, status of vaccines and drugs development and proffered recommendations to halt and prevent future occurrences...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Public Health in Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298880/h7n9-and-h5n1-avian-influenza-suitability-models-for-china-accounting-for-new-poultry-and-live-poultry-markets-distribution-data
#17
Jean Artois, Shengjie Lai, Luzhao Feng, Hui Jiang, Hang Zhou, Xiangping Li, Madhur S Dhingra, Catherine Linard, Gaëlle Nicolas, Xiangming Xiao, Timothy P Robinson, Hongjie Yu, Marius Gilbert
In the last two decades, two important avian influenza viruses infecting humans emerged in China, the highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 virus in the late nineties, and the low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) H7N9 virus in 2013. China is home to the largest population of chickens (4.83 billion) and ducks (0.694 billion), representing, respectively 23.1 and 58.6% of the 2013 world stock, with a significant part of poultry sold through live-poultry markets potentially contributing to the spread of avian influenza viruses...
2017: Stochastic Environmental Research and Risk Assessment: Research Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298639/benzyl-butyl-phthalate-decreases-myogenic-differentiation-of-endometrial-mesenchymal-stem-stromal-cells-through-mir-137-mediated-regulation-of-pitx2
#18
Hung-Sheng Chen, Chia-Yi Hsu, Yu-Chia Chang, Hui-Yu Chuang, Cheng-Yu Long, Tsung-Hua Hsieh, Eing-Mei Tsai
Phthalate, an environmental toxin, has been considered as an endocrine-disrupting chemical. Growing evidence has demonstrated links between endocrine-disrupting chemicals, tissue development, and reproductive physiology, but the mechanisms of gene expression regulation by environmental factors that affect cell differentiation are unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) on human endometrial mesenchymal stem/stromal cell (EN-MSC) differentiation and identified a novel signaling pathway...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298610/high-skilled-labour-mobility-in-europe-before-and-after-the-2004-enlargement
#19
Alexander M Petersen, Michelangelo Puliga
The extent to which international high-skilled mobility channels are forming is a question of great importance in an increasingly global knowledge-based economy. One factor facilitating the growth of high-skilled labour markets is the standardization of certifiable degrees meriting international recognition. Within this context, we analysed an extensive high-skilled mobility database comprising roughly 382 000 individuals from five broad profession groups (Medical, Education, Technical, Science & Engineering and Business & Legal) over the period 1997-2014, using the 13-country expansion of the European Union (EU) to provide insight into labour market integration...
March 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297582/human-stem-cell-derived-endothelial-hepatic-platform-for-efficacy-testing-of-vascular-protective-metabolites-from-nutraceuticals
#20
Balakrishnan Chakrapani Narmada, Yeek Teck Goh, Huan Li, Sanjay Sinha, Hanry Yu, Christine Cheung
Atherosclerosis underlies many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Nutraceuticals are emerging as a therapeutic moiety for restoring vascular health. Unlike small-molecule drugs, the complexity of ingredients in nutraceuticals often confounds evaluation of their efficacy in preclinical evaluation. It is recognized that the liver is a vital organ in processing complex compounds into bioactive metabolites. In this work, we developed a coculture system of human pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (hPSC-ECs) and human pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatocytes (hPSC-HEPs) for predicting vascular-protective effects of nutraceuticals...
March 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
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