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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911069/-urological-pathology-of-lymphatic-origin
#1
A Domènech, A Serrano, I Forner-Cordero, F Gómez, D Maldonado, C Domínguez
OBJECTIVES: Lymphatic disease is a rarely cause of some very unspecific genitourinary manifestations, assuming a diagnostic challenge in most cases. The aim of this paper is to warn about the possible etiology of these urological lymphatic presentations and discuss its management. METHODS: Retrospective review of clinical data in pediatric patients with urological pathology of lymphatic origin between 2008-2014. Three patients, two boys and a girl, were included...
January 25, 2016: Cirugía Pediátrica: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Cirugía Pediátrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911025/effect-of-balloon-expandable-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-positioning-a-patient-specific-numerical-model
#2
Matteo Bianchi, Gil Marom, Ram P Ghosh, Harold A Fernandez, James R Taylor, Marvin J Slepian, Danny Bluestein
Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as a life-saving and effective alternative to surgical valve replacement in high-risk, elderly patients with severe calcific aortic stenosis. Despite its early promise, certain limitations and adverse events, such as suboptimal placement and valve migration, have been reported. In the present study, it was aimed to evaluate the effect of various TAVR deployment locations on the procedural outcome by assessing the risk for valve migration. The deployment of a balloon-expandable Edwards SAPIEN valve was simulated via finite element analysis in a patient-specific calcified aortic root, which was reconstructed from CT scans of a retrospective case of valve migration...
December 2016: Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906261/impact-of-nonstationary-optical-illumination-on-image-reconstruction-in-optoacoustic-tomography
#3
Yang Lou, Kun Wang, Alexander A Oraevsky, Mark A Anastasio
Optoacoustic tomography (OAT), also known as photoacoustic tomography, is a rapidly emerging hybrid imaging technique that possesses great potential for a wide range of biomedical imaging applications. In OAT, a laser is employed to illuminate the tissue of interest and acoustic signals are produced via the photoacoustic effect. From these data, an estimate of the distribution of the absorbed optical energy density within the tissue is reconstructed, referred to as the object function. This quantity is defined, in part, by the distribution of light fluence within the tissue that is established by the laser source...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903820/agent-based-modelling-in-synthetic-biology
#4
REVIEW
Thomas E Gorochowski
Biological systems exhibit complex behaviours that emerge at many different levels of organization. These span the regulation of gene expression within single cells to the use of quorum sensing to co-ordinate the action of entire bacterial colonies. Synthetic biology aims to make the engineering of biology easier, offering an opportunity to control natural systems and develop new synthetic systems with useful prescribed behaviours. However, in many cases, it is not understood how individual cells should be programmed to ensure the emergence of a required collective behaviour...
November 30, 2016: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903783/uncovering-the-mechanisms-of-caenorhabditis-elegans-ageing-from-global-quantification-of-the-underlying-landscape
#5
Lei Zhao, Jin Wang
Recent studies on Caenorhabditis elegans reveal that gene manipulations can extend its lifespan several fold. However, how the genes work together to determine longevity is still an open question. Here we construct a gene regulatory network for worm ageing and quantify its underlying potential and flux landscape. We found ageing and rejuvenation states can emerge as basins of attraction at certain gene expression levels. The system state can switch from one attractor to another driven by the intrinsic or external perturbations through genetics or the environment...
November 2016: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903701/can-multi-generational-exposure-to-ocean-warming-and-acidification-lead-to-the-adaptation-of-life-history-and-physiology-in-a-marine-metazoan
#6
Emma M Gibbin, Leela J Chakravarti, Michael D Jarrold, Felix Christen, Vincent Turpin, Gloria Massamba N'Siala, Pierre U Blier, Piero Calosi
Ocean warming and acidification are concomitant global drivers that are currently threatening the survival of marine organisms. How species will respond to these changes depends on their capacity for plastic and adaptive responses. Little is known about the mechanisms that govern plasticity and adaptability or how global changes will influence these relationships across multiple generations. Here, we exposed the emerging model marine polychaete Ophryotrocha labronica to conditions simulating ocean warming and acidification, in isolation and in combination over five generations to identify: (i) how multiple versus single global change drivers alter both juvenile and adult life-traits; (ii) the mechanistic link between adult physiological and fitness-related life-history traits; (iii) whether observed phenotypic changes observed over multiple generations are of plastic and/or adaptive origin...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901087/polymorphism-of-fibrillar-structures-depending-on-the-size-of-assembled-a%C3%AE-17-42-peptides
#7
Mookyung Cheon, Mooseok Kang, Iksoo Chang
The size of assembled Aβ17-42 peptides can determine polymorphism during oligomerization and fibrillization, but the mechanism of this effect is unknown. Starting from separate random monomers, various fibrillar oligomers with distinct structural characteristics were identified using discontinuous molecular dynamics simulations based on a coarse-grained protein model. From the structures observed in the simulations, two characteristic oligomer sizes emerged, trimer and paranuclei, which generated distinct structural patterns during fibrillization...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901083/resveratrol-serves-as-a-protein-substrate-interaction-stabilizer-in-human-sirt1-activation
#8
Xuben Hou, David Rooklin, Hao Fang, Yingkai Zhang
Resveratrol is a natural compound found in red wine that has been suggested to exert its potential health benefit through the activation of SIRT1, a crucial member of the mammalian NAD(+)-dependent deacetylases. SIRT1 has emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for many aging related diseases, however, how its activity can only be activated toward some specific substrates by resveratrol has been poorly understood. Herein, by employing extensive molecular dynamics simulations as well as fragment-centric topographical mapping of binding interfaces, we have clarified current controversies in the literature and elucidated that resveratrol plays an important activation role by stabilizing SIRT1/peptide interactions in a substrate-specific manner...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898627/publishing-trends-in-the-field-of-pediatric-emergency-medicine-from-2004-to-2013
#9
Nancy S Rixe, Jeffrey Rixe, Joshua Glick, Erik Lehman, Robert P Olympia
OBJECTIVE: To identify publishing trends within the field of pediatric emergency medicine between 2004 and 2013. METHODS: We conducted a MEDLINE search of pediatric emergency medicine articles, filtered by clinical trial, published between 2004 and 2013 in ten journals from the fields of pediatrics, emergency medicine, general medicine, and pediatric emergency medicine. Each article was classified by journal type, study design, results (positive or negative/equivocal), age/type of subjects, and major topic (based on the objective of the study)...
December 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897988/reciprocally-benefited-secure-transmission-for-spectrum-sensing-based-cognitive-radio-sensor-networks
#10
Dawei Wang, Pinyi Ren, Qinghe Du, Li Sun, Yichen Wang
The rapid proliferation of independently-designed and -deployed wireless sensor networks extremely crowds the wireless spectrum and promotes the emergence of cognitive radio sensor networks (CRSN). In CRSN, the sensor node (SN) can make full use of the unutilized licensed spectrum, and the spectrum efficiency is greatly improved. However, inevitable spectrum sensing errors will adversely interfere with the primary transmission, which may result in primary transmission outage. To compensate the adverse effect of spectrum sensing errors, we propose a reciprocally-benefited secure transmission strategy, in which SN's interference to the eavesdropper is employed to protect the primary confidential messages while the CRSN is also rewarded with a loose spectrum sensing error probability constraint...
November 25, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897972/mechanism-of-allosteric-regulation-of-%C3%AE-2-adrenergic-receptor-by-cholesterol
#11
Moutusi Manna, Miia Niemelä, Joona Tynkkynen, Matti Javanainen, Waldemar Kulig, Daniel J Müller, Tomasz Rog, Ilpo Vattulainen
There is evidence that lipids can be allosteric regulators of membrane protein structure and activation. However, there are no data showing how exactly the regulation emerges from specific lipid-protein interactions. Here we show in atomistic detail how the human β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) - a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor - is modulated by cholesterol in an allosteric fashion. Extensive atomistic simulations show that cholesterol regulates β2AR by limiting its conformational variability. The mechanism of action is based on the binding of cholesterol at specific high-affinity sites located near the transmembrane helices 5-7 of the receptor...
November 29, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897133/magnetic-avalanches-in-granular-ferromagnets-thermal-activated-collective-behavior
#12
Gia-Wei Chern
We present a numerical study on the thermal activated avalanche dynamics in granular materials composed of ferromagnetic clusters embedded in a non-magnetic matrix. A microscopic dynamical simulation based on the reaction-diffusion process is developed to model the magnetization process of such systems. The large-scale simulations presented here explicitly demonstrate inter-granular collective behavior induced by thermal activation of spin tunneling. In particular, we observe an intriguing criticality controlled by the rate of energy dissipation...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897011/a-spatiotemporal-model-to-simulate-chemotherapy-regimens-for-heterogeneous-bladder-cancer-metastases-to-the-lung
#13
Kimberly R Kanigel Winner, James C Costello
Tumors are composed of heterogeneous populations of cells. Somatic genetic aberrations are one form of heterogeneity that allows clonal cells to adapt to chemotherapeutic stress, thus providing a path for resistance to arise. In silico modeling of tumors provides a platform for rapid, quantitative experiments to inexpensively study how compositional heterogeneity contributes to drug resistance. Accordingly, we have built a spatiotemporal model of a lung metastasis originating from a primary bladder tumor, incorporating in vivo drug concentrations of first-line chemotherapy, resistance data from bladder cancer cell lines, vascular density of lung metastases, and gains in resistance in cells that survive chemotherapy...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897008/tracing-co-regulatory-network-dynamics-in-noisy-single-cell-transcriptome-trajectories
#14
Pablo Cordero, Joshua M Stuart
The availability of gene expression data at the single cell level makes it possible to probe the molecular underpinnings of complex biological processes such as differentiation and oncogenesis. Promising new methods have emerged for reconstructing a progression 'trajectory' from static single-cell transcriptome measurements. However, it remains unclear how to adequately model the appreciable level of noise in these data to elucidate gene regulatory network rewiring. Here, we present a framework called Single Cell Inference of MorphIng Trajectories and their Associated Regulation (SCIMITAR) that infers progressions from static single-cell transcriptomes by employing a continuous parametrization of Gaussian mixtures in high-dimensional curves...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895984/fabrication-and-analysis-of-microfiber-array-platform-for-optogenetics-with-cellular-resolution
#15
Jian-Hong Chen, Ming-Yi Chou, Chien-Yuan Pan, Lon A Wang
Optogenetics has emerged as a revolutionary technology especially for neuroscience and has advanced continuously over the past decade. Conventional approaches for patterned in vivo optical illumination have a limitation on the implanted device size and achievable spatio-temporal resolution. In this work, we developed a fabrication process for a microfiber array platform. Arrayed poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) microfibers were drawn from a polymer solution and packaged with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The exposed end face of a packaged microfiber was tuned to have a size corresponding to a single cell...
November 1, 2016: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895011/evaluation-of-fluoroquinolone-activity-against-emergence-of-resistant-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-using-in-vitro-dynamic-models
#16
Seung-Jin Lee, Elias Gebru Awji, Na-Hye Park, Seung-Chun Park
The objectives of this study were to determine pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices of fluoroquinolones that minimize the emergence of resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) using in vitro dynamic models, and to establish mechanisms of resistance. Three fluoroquinolones, difloxacin (DIF), enrofloxacin (ENR) and marbofloxacin (MAR), at five dose levels and 3 days of treatment were simulated. Bacterial killing-regrowth kinetics and emergence of resistant bacteria after antibacterial drug- exposure were quantified...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891682/robust-min-system-oscillation-in-the-presence-of-internal-photosynthetic-membranes-in-cyanobacteria
#17
Joshua S MacCready, Jory Schossau, Katherine W Osteryoung, Daniel C Ducat
The oscillatory Min system of Escherichia coli defines the cell division plane by regulating the site of FtsZ-ring formation and represents one of the best-understood examples of emergent protein self-organization in nature. The oscillatory patterns of the Min-system proteins MinC, MinD and MinE (MinCDE) are strongly dependent on the geometry of membranes they bind. Complex internal membranes within cyanobacteria could disrupt this self-organization by sterically occluding or sequestering MinCDE from the plasma membrane...
November 5, 2016: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891087/a-monte-carlo-evaluation-of-weighted-community-detection-algorithms
#18
Kathleen M Gates, Teague Henry, Doug Steinley, Damien A Fair
The past decade has been marked with a proliferation of community detection algorithms that aim to organize nodes (e.g., individuals, brain regions, variables) into modular structures that indicate subgroups, clusters, or communities. Motivated by the emergence of big data across many fields of inquiry, these methodological developments have primarily focused on the detection of communities of nodes from matrices that are very large. However, it remains unknown if the algorithms can reliably detect communities in smaller graph sizes (i...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890136/age-related-differences-in-decision-making-for-digital-escape-route-signage-under-strenuous-emergency-conditions-of-tilted-passenger-ships
#19
Sonja Th Kwee-Meier, Alexander Mertens, Christopher M Schlick
This age-differentiated study investigated preferences for new digital, situation-adaptive escape route signage with informative and flashing elements under simulated emergency conditions of tilted passenger ships. The decision-making behaviour of 26 young (20-30 years) and 26 elderly (60-77 years) participants was observed in four conditions varying in applied stressors and in level versus uphill walking at 7° and 14°. In line with previous studies, decisions of young participants were significantly influenced by flashing elements on signs...
March 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889206/protlid-a-residue-based-pharmacophore-approach-to-identify-cognate-protein-ligands-in-the-immunoglobulin-superfamily
#20
Eng-Hui Yap, Andras Fiser
Members of the extracellular immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) play a key role in immune regulation through the control of the co-stimulatory pathway, and have emerged as potent drug targets in cancers, infectious diseases, and autoimmunity. Despite the difficult experimental access to this class of proteins, single structures of ectodomains of IgSF proteins are solved with regularity. However, the most biologically critical challenge for this class of proteins is the identification of their cognate ligands that communicate intercellular signals...
November 11, 2016: Structure
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