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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230376/facet-dependent-thermal-instability-in-licoo2
#1
Soroosh Sharifi-Asl, Fernando A Soto, Anmin Nie, Yifei Yuan, Hasti Asayesh-Ardakani, Tara Foroozan, Vitaliy Yurkiv, Boao Song, Farzad Mashayek, Robert F Klie, Khalil Amine, Jun Lu, Perla B Balbuena, Reza Shahbazian-Yassar
Thermal runaways triggered by the oxygen release from oxide cathode materials pose a major safety concern for widespread application of lithium ion batteries. Utilizing in-situ aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) at high temperatures, we show that oxygen release from LixCoO2 cathode crystals is occurring at the surface of particles. We correlated this local oxygen evolution from the LixCoO2 structure with local phase transitions spanning from layered to spinel and then to rock salt structure upon exposure to elevated temperatures...
February 23, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230068/structural-evolutions-and-hereditary-characteristics-of-icosahedral-nano-clusters-formed-in-mg70zn30-alloys-during-rapid-solidification-processes
#2
Yong-Chao Liang, Rang-Su Liu, Quan Xie, Ze-An Tian, Yun-Fei Mo, Hai-Tao Zhang, Hai-Rong Liu, Zhao-Yang Hou, Li-Li Zhou, Ping Peng
To investigate the structural evolution and hereditary mechanism of icosahedral nano-clusters formed during rapid solidification, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study has been performed for a system consisting of 10(7) atoms of liquid Mg70Zn30 alloy. Adopting Honeycutt-Anderson (HA) bond-type index method and cluster type index method (CTIM-3) to analyse the microstructures in the system it is found that for all the nano-clusters including 2~8 icosahedral clusters in the system, there are 62 kinds of geometrical structures, and those can be classified, by the configurations of the central atoms of basic clusters they contained, into four types: chain-like, triangle-tailed, quadrilateral-tailed and pyramidal-tailed...
February 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228538/route-choice-in-pedestrians-determinants-for-initial-choices-and-revising-decisions
#3
Weichen Liao, Armel U Kemloh Wagoum, Nikolai W F Bode
In moving pedestrian crowds, the distribution of individuals over different available routes emerges from the decisions of individuals that may be influenced by the actions of others. Understanding this phenomenon not only is important for research into collective behaviour, but also has practical applications for building safety and event management. Here, we study the mechanisms underlying pedestrian route choice, focusing on how time-independent information, such as path lengths, and time-dependent information, such as queue lengths, affect both initial decisions and subsequent changes in route choices...
February 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227909/neuromorphic-circuit-modeling-directional-selectivity-in-the-visual-cortex
#4
Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali, Alice C Parker, Alice C Parker, Saeid Barzegarjalali
We have designed a neuromorphic circuit that models directional selectivity in the visual cortex, where selected neurons fire depending on the direction of object motion, along with the size and orientation of the object. The neuromorphic circuit is biomimetic. It consists of neurons and synapses, and models biological mechanisms. Neurons (including the Axon Hillock and the Dendritic Arbor) are designed with CMOS technology and synapses (both excitatory and inhibitory) are designed with Carbon Nanotube Transistors...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227874/cluster-based-architecture-and-network-maintenance-protocol-for-medical-priority-aware-cognitive-radio-based-hospital
#5
Ishtiak Al Mamoon, A K M Muzahidul Islam, Sabariah Baharun, Ashir Ahmed, Shozo Komaki, Ishtiak Al Mamoon, A K M Muzahidul Islam, Sabariah Baharun, Ashir Ahmed, Shozo Komaki, Ishtiak Al Mamoon, Shozo Komaki, Ashir Ahmed, A K M Muzahidul Islam, Sabariah Baharun
Due to the rapid growth of wireless medical devices in near future, wireless healthcare services may face some inescapable issue such as medical spectrum scarcity, electromagnetic interference (EMI), bandwidth constraint, security and finally medical data communication model. To mitigate these issues, cognitive radio (CR) or opportunistic radio network enabled wireless technology is suitable for the upcoming wireless healthcare system. The up-to-date research on CR based healthcare has exposed some developments on EMI and spectrum problems...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28227166/modeling-distinct-sources-of-neural-variability-driving-neuroprosthetic-control
#6
Preeya Khanna, Vivek R Athalye, Suraj Gowda, Rui M Costa, Jose M Carmena, Preeya Khanna, Vivek R Athalye, Suraj Gowda, Rui M Costa, Jose M Carmena, Jose M Carmena, Vivek R Athalye, Rui M Costa, Preeya Khanna, Suraj Gowda
Many closed-loop, continuous-control brain-machine interface (BMI) architectures rely on decoding via a linear readout of noisy population neural activity. However, recent work has found that decomposing neural population activity into correlated and uncorrelated variability reveals that improvements in cursor control coincide with the emergence of correlated neural variability. In order to address how correlated and uncorrelated neural variability arises and contributes to BMI cursor control, we simulate a neural population receiving combinations of shared inputs affecting all cells and private inputs affecting only individual cells...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226944/3d-force-torque-characterization-of-emergency-cricothyroidotomy-procedure-using-an-instrumented-scalpel
#7
Adam Ryason, Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Kathryn L Butler, Marc DeMoya, Suvranu De, Adam Ryason, Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Kathryn L Butler, Marc DeMoya, Suvranu De, Suvranu De, Marc DeMoya, Kathryn L Butler, Ganesh Sankaranarayanan, Adam Ryason
Emergency Cricothyroidotomy (CCT) is a surgical procedure performed to secure a patient's airway. This high-stakes, but seldom-performed procedure is an ideal candidate for a virtual reality simulator to enhance physician training. For the first time, this study characterizes the force/torque characteristics of the cricothyroidotomy procedure, to guide development of a virtual reality CCT simulator for use in medical training. We analyze the upper force and torque thresholds experienced at the human-scalpel interface...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226859/effects-of-prefrontal-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-working-memory-and-reaction-time
#8
Ines S Verissimo, Isabel M Barradas, Tiago T Santos, Pedro C Miranda, Hugo A Ferreira, Ines S Verissimo, Isabel M Barradas, Tiago T Santos, Pedro C Miranda, Hugo A Ferreira, Pedro C Miranda, Ines S Verissimo, Tiago T Santos, Isabel M Barradas, Hugo A Ferreira
Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has proven to be a useful tool in the scientific research community, particularly for clinical investigation purposes. Neuroimaging studies indicate that there is a connection between the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and working memory (WM), as well as between the primary motor cortex and reaction time (RT). Thus, our goal was to evaluate the effect of anodal stimulation of the PFC, with respect to WM and RT. We tested 20 healthy subjects randomized into two groups - half received active stimulation and the other half sham stimulation...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226489/3d-printed-microfluidic-mixer-for-point-of-care-diagnosis-of-anemia
#9
Kimberly Plevniak, Matthew Campbell, Mei He, Kimberly Plevniak, Matthew Campbell, Mei He, Matthew Campbell, Mei He, Kimberly Plevniak
3D printing has been an emerging fabrication tool in prototyping and manufacturing. We demonstrated a 3D microfluidic simulation guided computer design and 3D printer prototyping for quick turnaround development of microfluidic 3D mixers, which allows fast self-mixing of reagents with blood through capillary force. Combined with smartphone, the point-of-care diagnosis of anemia from finger-prick blood has been successfully implemented and showed consistent results with clinical measurements. Capable of 3D fabrication flexibility and smartphone compatibility, this work presents a novel diagnostic strategy for advancing personalized medicine and mobile healthcare...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226484/design-simulation-and-evaluation-of-uniform-magnetic-field-systems-for-head-free-eye-movement-recordings-with-scleral-search-coils
#10
Karin Eibenberger, Bernhard Eibenberger, Michele Rucci, Karin Eibenberger, Bernhard Eibenberger, Michele Rucci, Bernhard Eibenberger, Karin Eibenberger, Michele Rucci
The precise measurement of eye movements is important for investigating vision, oculomotor control and vestibular function. The magnetic scleral search coil technique is one of the most precise measurement techniques for recording eye movements with very high spatial (≈ 1 arcmin) and temporal (>kHz) resolution. The technique is based on measuring voltage induced in a search coil through a large magnetic field. This search coil is embedded in a contact lens worn by a human subject. The measured voltage is in direct relationship to the orientation of the eye in space...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221930/escherichia-albertii-inactivation-following-l-lactic-acid-exposure-or-cooking-in-ground-beef
#11
Amie M Jones-Ibarra, Kayley R Wall, Jennifer Vuia-Riser, Chris R Kerth, Alejandro Castillo, T Matthew Taylor
Escherichia albertii is an emerging foodborne pathogen recovered from young children and adults exhibiting symptoms of gastroenteritis via pathogenesis factors including attaching and effacing lesions, cytolethal distending toxin, and Shiga toxin variants. Study objectives were to determine E. albertii survival following (i) exposure to lactic acid as a function of solution pH and incubation period and (ii) cooking ground beef patties to different endpoint temperatures. E. albertii was incubated in phosphate buffer containing 3...
September 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221348/self-assembly-of-nanoparticles-into-biomimetic-capsid-like-nanoshells
#12
Ming Yang, Henry Chan, Gongpu Zhao, Joong Hwan Bahng, Peijun Zhang, Petr Král, Nicholas A Kotov
Nanoscale compartments are one of the foundational elements of living systems. Capsids, carboxysomes, exosomes, vacuoles and other nanoshells easily self-assemble from biomolecules such as lipids or proteins, but not from inorganic nanomaterials because of difficulties with the replication of spherical tiling. Here we show that stabilizer-free polydispersed inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) can spontaneously organize into porous nanoshells. The association of water-soluble CdS NPs into self-limited spherical capsules is the result of scale-modified electrostatic, dispersion and other colloidal forces...
March 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220187/-emergency-medical-training-through-simulation-always-the-same-for-everyone
#13
A Schaumberg, T Schröder, M Sander
Simulation assumes a growing importance in the field of emergency medical education. Many rescue service schools work with simulators or even have their own simulation center. Classic resuscitation training in the classroom is increasingly being replaced by realistic case scenarios. But simulators themselves do not train! Using a simulator in emergency medical training does not necessarily mean achieving sustained learning success among the participants. Depending on the skills, abilities or competences being taught, there seems to be different requirements for simulation...
February 20, 2017: Der Anaesthesist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216659/the-%C3%AE-barrel-assembly-machinery-in-motion
#14
REVIEW
Nicholas Noinaj, James C Gumbart, Susan K Buchanan
In Gram-negative bacteria, the biogenesis of β-barrel outer membrane proteins (OMPs) is mediated by the β-barrel assembly machinery (BAM) complex. During the past decade, structural and functional studies have collectively contributed to advancing our understanding of the structure and function of the BAM complex; however, the exact mechanism that is involved remains elusive. In this Progress article, we discuss recent structural studies that have revealed that the accessory proteins may regulate essential unprecedented conformational changes in the core component BamA during function...
February 20, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215399/restoring-standing-capabilities-with-feedback-control-of-functional-neuromuscular-stimulation-following-spinal-cord-injury
#15
REVIEW
Raviraj Nataraj, Musa L Audu, Ronald J Triolo
This paper reviews the field of feedback control for neuroprosthesis systems that restore advanced standing function to individuals with spinal cord injury. Investigations into closed-loop control of standing by functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS) have spanned three decades. The ultimate goal for FNS standing control systems is to facilitate hands free standing and enabling the user to perform manual functions at self-selected leaning positions. However, most clinical systems for home usage currently only provide basic upright standing using preprogrammed stimulation patterns...
February 15, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215065/application-of-computer-models-on-atrial-fibrillation-research
#16
Michela Masè
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a multifactorial and multiscale disease, where electrical, structural, anatomical and genetic factors contribute to the emergence of a complex and dynamic macroscopic phenotype. The incomplete understanding of AF mechanisms and the diversity and multiplicity of factors promoting the arrhythmia in humans have hampered the development of effective therapeutic approaches. Computer models and simulation of atrial arrhythmias may represent an unique allied to investigate AF mechanisms and direct therapeutic strategies, being able to merge and provide interpretation for multiscale data from cellular to entire organ scale levels...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Cardioangiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212336/the-influence-of-anion-shape-on-the-electrical-double-layer-microstructure-and-capacitance-of-ionic-liquids-based-supercapacitors-by-molecular-simulations
#17
Ming Chen, Song Li, Guang Feng
Room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) are an emerging class of electrolytes for supercapacitors. In this work, we investigate the effects of different supercapacitor models and anion shape on the electrical double layers (EDLs) of two different RTILs: 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([Emim][Tf₂N]) and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium 2-(cyano)pyrrolide ([Emim][CNPyr]) by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The EDL microstructure is represented by number densities of cations and anions, and the potential drop near neutral and charged electrodes reveal that the supercapacitor model with a single electrode has the same EDL structure as the model with two opposite electrodes...
February 16, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212103/simulation-of-healing-threshold-in-strain-induced-inflammation-through-a-discrete-informatics-model
#18
Israr Ibrahim, Sanjay Venkata Oruganti, Ramana Pidaparti
Respiratory diseases such as asthma and acute respiratory distress syndrome as well as acute lung injury involve inflammation at the cellular level. The inflammation process is very complex and is characterized by the emergence of cytokines along with other changes in cellular processes. Due to the complexity of the various constituents that makes up the inflammation dynamics, it is necessary to develop models that can complement experiments to fully understand inflammatory diseases. In this study, we developed a discrete informatics model based on cellular automata (CA) approach to investigate the influence of elastic field (stretch/strain) on the dynamics of inflammation and account for probabilistic adaptation based on statistical interpretation of existing experimental data...
February 15, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212076/selecting-power-efficient-signal-features-for-a-low-power-fall-detector
#19
Changhong Wang, Stephen Redmond, Wei Lu, Michael Stevens, Stephen Lord, Nigel Lovell
Falls are a serious threat to the health of older people. A wearable fall detector can automatically detect the occurrence of a fall and alert a caregiver or an emergency response service so they may deliver immediate assistance, improving the chances of recovering from fall-related injuries. One constraint of such a wearable technology is its limited battery life. Thus, minimization of power consumption is an important design concern, all the while maintaining satisfactory accuracy of the fall detection algorithms implemented on the wearable device...
February 15, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211720/dynamical-response-near-quantum-critical-points
#20
Andrew Lucas, Snir Gazit, Daniel Podolsky, William Witczak-Krempa
We study high-frequency response functions, notably the optical conductivity, in the vicinity of quantum critical points (QCPs) by allowing for both detuning from the critical coupling and finite temperature. We consider general dimensions and dynamical exponents. This leads to a unified understanding of sum rules. In systems with emergent Lorentz invariance, powerful methods from quantum field theory allow us to fix the high-frequency response in terms of universal coefficients. We test our predictions analytically in the large-N O(N) model and using the gauge-gravity duality and numerically via quantum Monte Carlo simulations on a lattice model hosting the interacting superfluid-insulator QCP...
February 3, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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