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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738295/does-the-effect-of-one-day-simulation-team-training-in-obstetric-emergencies-decline-within-one-year-a-post-hoc-analysis-of-a-multicentre-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#1
J van de Ven, A F Fransen, E Schuit, P J van Runnard Heimel, B W Mol, S G Oei
Does the effect of one-day simulation team training in obstetric emergencies decline within one year? A post-hoc analysis of a multicentre cluster randomised controlled trial. J van de Ven, AF Fransen, E Schuit, PJ van Runnard Heimel, BW Mol, SG Oei OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the effect of a one-day simulation-based obstetric team training on patient outcome changes over time. STUDY DESIGN: Post-hoc analysis of a multicentre, open, randomised controlled trial that evaluated team training in obstetrics (TOSTI study)...
July 14, 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734297/nonequilibrium-phase-coexistence-and-criticality-near-the-second-explosion-limit-of-hydrogen-combustion
#2
Lucas B Newcomb, Mohammad Alaghemandi, Jason R Green
While hydrogen is a promising source of clean energy, the safety and optimization of hydrogen technologies rely on controlling ignition through explosion limits: pressure-temperature boundaries separating explosive behavior from comparatively slow burning. Here, we show that the emergent nonequilibrium chemistry of combustible mixtures can exhibit the quantitative features of a phase transition. With stochastic simulations of the chemical kinetics for a model mechanism of hydrogen combustion, we show that the boundaries marking explosive domains of kinetic behavior are nonequilibrium critical points...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734094/moving-alcohol-prevention-research-forward-part-i-introducing-a-complex-systems-paradigm
#3
Yorghos Apostolopoulos, Michael K Lemke, Adam E Barry, Kristen Hassmiller Lich
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The drinking environment is a complex system consisting of a number of heterogeneous, evolving, and interacting components, which exhibit circular causality and emergent properties. These characteristics reduce the efficacy of commonly used research approaches, which typically do not account for the underlying dynamic complexity of alcohol consumption and the interdependent nature of diverse factors influencing misuse over time. We use alcohol misuse among college students in the United States as an example for framing our argument for a complex systems paradigm...
July 22, 2017: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733673/emergence-of-hysteresis-loop-in-social-contagions-on-complex-networks
#4
Zhen Su, Wei Wang, Lixiang Li, Jinghua Xiao, H Eugene Stanley
Understanding the spreading mechanisms of social contagions in complex network systems has attracted much attention in the physics community. Here we propose a generalized threshold model to describe social contagions. Using extensive numerical simulations and theoretical analyses, we find that a hysteresis loop emerges in the system. Specifically, the steady state of the system is sensitive to the initial conditions of the dynamics of the system. In the steady state, the adoption size increases discontinuously with the transmission probability of information about social contagions, and trial size exhibits a non-monotonic pattern, i...
July 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732298/stomatal-and-non-stomatal-factors-regulated-the-photosynthesis-of-soybean-seedlings-in-the-present-of-exogenous-bisphenol-a
#5
Liya Jiao, Lihong Wang, Qing Zhou, Xiaohua Huang
Bisphenol A (BPA) is an emerging environmental endocrine disruptor that has toxic effects on plants growth. Photosynthesis supplies the substances and energy required for plant growth, and regulated by stomatal and non-stomatal factors. Therefore, in this study, to reveal how BPA affects photosynthesis in soybean seedlings (Glycine max L.) from the perspective of stomatal and non-stomatal factors, the stomatal factors (stomatal conductance and behaviours) and non-stomatal factors (Hill reaction, apparent quantum efficiency, Rubisco activity, carboxylation efficiency, the maximum Rubisco carboxylation velocity, ribulose-1,5-bisphospate regeneration capacities mediated by maximum electron transport rates, and triose phosphate utilization rate) were investigated using a portable photosynthesis system...
July 18, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730801/impact-of-metal-contacts-to-the-performance-of-multilayer-hfs2-field-effect-transistors
#6
Xin-Ran Nie, Bing-Qi Sun, Hao Zhu, Min Zhang, Dong-Hui Zhao, Lin Chen, Qing-Qing Sun, David Wei Zhang
HfS2 is one of the emerging transition metal dichalcogenides and is very promising for low-power nanoelectronics and high-sensitivity optoelectronic device applications. We studied the band structures of 1T-HfS2 with different thickness by first principles simulation, and the impact of different metal contacts to the HfS2 device performance has been experimentally studied. Back-gate and top-gate HfS2 field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated, and better electrical characteristics have been achieved with the FETs with Ti/Au contact as compared with the Pt-contacted FETs...
July 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727932/laboratory-studies-of-methane-and-its-relationship-to-prebiotic-chemistry
#7
Kensei Kobayashi, Wolf D Geppert, Nathalie Carrasco, Nils G Holm, Olivier Mousis, Maria Elisabetta Palumbo, J Hunter Waite, Naoki Watanabe, Lucy M Ziurys
To examine how prebiotic chemical evolution took place on Earth prior to the emergence of life, laboratory experiments have been conducted since the 1950s. Methane has been one of the key molecules in these investigations. In earlier studies, strongly reducing gas mixtures containing methane and ammonia were used to simulate possible reactions in the primitive atmosphere of Earth, producing amino acids and other organic compounds. Since Earth's early atmosphere is now considered to be less reducing, the contribution of extraterrestrial organics to chemical evolution has taken on an important role...
July 20, 2017: Astrobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727724/grandmothering-and-cognitive-resources-are-required-for-the-emergence-of-menopause-and-extensive-post-reproductive-lifespan
#8
Carla Aimé, Jean-Baptiste André, Michel Raymond
Menopause, the permanent cessation of ovulation, occurs in humans well before the end of the expected lifespan, leading to an extensive post-reproductive period which remains a puzzle for evolutionary biologists. All human populations display this particularity; thus, it is difficult to empirically evaluate the conditions for its emergence. In this study, we used artificial neural networks to model the emergence and evolution of allocation decisions related to reproduction in simulated populations. When allocation decisions were allowed to freely evolve, both menopause and extensive post-reproductive life-span emerged under some ecological conditions...
July 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727258/changing-systems-through-effective-teams-a-role-for-simulation
#9
Elizabeth D Rosenman, Rosemarie Fernandez, Ambrose H Wong, Michael Cassara, Dylan D Cooper, Maybelle Kou, Torrey A Laack, Ivette Motola, Jessica R Parsons, Benjamin R Levine, James A Grand
Teams are the building blocks of the healthcare system, with growing evidence linking the quality of health care to team effectiveness, and team effectiveness to team training. Simulation has been identified as an effective modality for team training and assessment. Despite this, there are gaps in methodology, measurement, and implementation that prevent maximizing the impact of simulation modalities on team performance. As part of the 2017 Academic Emergency Medicine Consensus Conference "Catalyzing System Change through Health Care Simulation: Systems, Competency, and Outcomes," we explored the impact of simulation on various aspects of team effectiveness...
July 20, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726738/scheduling-for-emergency-tasks-in-industrial-wireless-sensor-networks
#10
Changqing Xia, Xi Jin, Linghe Kong, Peng Zeng
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are widely applied in industrial manufacturing systems. By means of centralized control, the real-time requirement and reliability can be provided by WSNs in industrial production. Furthermore, many approaches reserve resources for situations in which the controller cannot perform centralized resource allocation. The controller assigns these resources as it becomes aware of when and where accidents have occurred. However, the reserved resources are limited, and such incidents are low-probability events...
July 20, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724354/novel-plasmodium-falciparum-metabolic-network-reconstruction-identifies-shifts-associated-with-clinical-antimalarial-resistance
#11
Maureen A Carey, Jason A Papin, Jennifer L Guler
BACKGROUND: Malaria remains a major public health burden and resistance has emerged to every antimalarial on the market, including the frontline drug, artemisinin. Our limited understanding of Plasmodium biology hinders the elucidation of resistance mechanisms. In this regard, systems biology approaches can facilitate the integration of existing experimental knowledge and further understanding of these mechanisms. RESULTS: Here, we developed a novel genome-scale metabolic network reconstruction, iPfal17, of the asexual blood-stage P...
July 19, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724096/hydrology-and-soil-manipulations-of-iron-rich-ditch-mesocosms-provide-little-evidence-of-phosphorus-capture-within-the-profile
#12
David E Ruppert, Brian A Needelman, Peter J A Kleinman, Martin C Rabenhorst, Bahram Momen, David B Wester
Agricultural drainage ditches function as first-order streams and affect nutrient management. Soil mesocosms from a ditch featuring a vertical (increasing upward) gradient in iron (Fe) and phosphorus (P) were subjected to hydraulic and soil treatments. These manipulations mimicked aspects of dredging and controlled drainage and inspected the soil release and retention of P. Treatments did not remove P from simulated groundwater. Throughput water either gained in P (lack of dredging, especially under Fe-reducing conditions) or had P concentrations indistinguishable from input water (dredging)...
May 2017: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723913/prebiotic-selection-for-motifs-in-a-model-of-template-free-elongation-of-polymers-within-compartments
#13
Grant Kinsler, Sam Sinai, Nicholas Keone Lee, Martin A Nowak
The transition from prelife where self-replication does not occur, to life which exhibits self-replication and evolution, has been a subject of interest for many decades. Membranes, forming compartments, seem to be a critical component of this transition as they provide several concurrent benefits. They maintain localized interactions, generate electro-chemical gradients, and help in selecting cooperative functions as they arise. These functions pave the way for the emergence and maintenance of simple metabolic cycles and polymers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723718/three-dimensional-head-mounted-gaming-task-procedure-maximizes-effects-of-vestibular-rehabilitation-in-unilateral-vestibular-hypofunction-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#14
Alessandro Micarelli, Andrea Viziano, Ivan Augimeri, Domenico Micarelli, Marco Alessandrini
Considering the emerging advantages related to virtual reality implementation in clinical rehabilitation, the aim of the present study was to discover possible (i) improvements achievable in unilateral vestibular hypofunction patients using a self-assessed head-mounted device (HMD)-based gaming procedure when combined with a classical vestibular rehabilitation protocol (HMD group) as compared with a group undergoing only vestibular rehabilitation and (ii) HMD procedure-related side effects. Therefore, 24 vestibular rehabilitation and 23-matched HMD unilateral vestibular hypofunction individuals simultaneously underwent a 4-week rehabilitation protocol...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723065/advances-in-modeling-the-stability-of-non-covalent-complexes-in-charged-droplets-with-applications-in-esi-ms-experiments
#15
Styliani Consta, Mahmoud Sharawy, Myong In Oh, Anatoly Malevanets
Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry is used extensively to measure the equilibrium constant of non-covalent complexes. In this Perspective we attempt to present an accessible introduction to computational methodologies that can be applied to determine the stability of weak non-covalent complexes in their journey from bulk solution into the gaseous state. We demonstrate the usage of the methods on two typical examples of non-covalent complexes drawn from a broad class of nucleic acids and transient protein complexes found in aqueous droplets...
July 19, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721495/diversity-and-survival-of-artificial-lifeforms-under-sedimentation-and-random-motion
#16
Nicolas Glade, Olivier Bastien, Pascal Ballet
Cellular automata are often used to explore the numerous possible scenarios of what could have occurred at the origins of life and before, during the prebiotic ages, when very simple molecules started to assemble and organise into larger catalytic or informative structures, or to simulate ecosystems. Artificial self-maintained spatial structures emerge in cellular automata and are often used to represent molecules or living organisms. They converge generally towards homogeneous stationary soups of still-life creatures...
July 18, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721411/power-output-and-carrier-dynamics-studies-of-perovskite-solar-cells-under-working-conditions
#17
Man Yu, Hao-Yi Wang, Ming-Yang Hao, Yujun Qin, Li-Min Fu, Jian-Ping Zhang, Xi-Cheng Ai
Perovskite solar cells have emerged as promising photovoltaic systems with superb power conversion efficiency. For the practical application of perovskite devices, the greatest concerns are the power output density and the related dynamics under working conditions. In this study, the working conditions of planar and mesoscopic perovskite solar cells are simulated and the power output density evolutions with the working voltage are highlighted. The planar device exhibits higher capability of outputting power than the mesoscopic one...
July 19, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721169/investigating-an-outbreak-of-measles-in-margibi-county-liberia-october-2015
#18
Joseph Asamoah Frimpong, Maame Pokuah Amo-Addae, Peter Adebayo Adewuyi, Meeyoung Mattie Park, Casey Daniel Hall, Thomas Knue Nagbe
The emergence and re-emergence of infectious diseases highlights the need to have well-trained field epidemiologists who will be at the forefront in the fight against these diseases, especially during an outbreak. Training for outbreak investigation is most effective when participants can develop their competencies in a practical exercise. To that end, this case study was based on a measles outbreak investigation conducted in Liberia during October 2015 by Liberia Frontline Field Epidemiology Training Program (FETP) residents, simulating steps to perform outbreak investigation in a real-life situation as a field epidemiologist...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721168/cholera-outbreak-in-homa-bay-county-kenya-2015
#19
Jane Njoki Githuku, Waqo Gufu Boru, Casey Daniel Hall, Zeinab Gura, Elvis Oyugi, Rogath Saika Kishimba, Innocent Semali, Ghada Nadim Farhat, Meeyoung Mattie Park
Cholera is among the re-emerging diseases in Kenya. Beginning in December 2014, a persistent outbreak occurred involving 29 out of the 47 countries. Homa Bay County in Western Kenya was among the first counties to report cholera cases from January to April 2015. This case study is based on an outbreak investigation conducted by FELTP residents in Homa Bay County in February 2015. It simulates an outbreak investigation including laboratory confirmation, active case finding, descriptive epidemiology and implementation of control measures...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720831/minimum-winfree-loop-determines-self-sustained-oscillations-in-excitable-erd%C3%A3-s-r%C3%A3-nyi-random-networks
#20
Yu Qian, Xiaohua Cui, Zhigang Zheng
The investigation of self-sustained oscillations in excitable complex networks is very important in understanding various activities in brain systems, among which the exploration of the key determinants of oscillations is a challenging task. In this paper, by investigating the influence of system parameters on self-sustained oscillations in excitable Erdös-Rényi random networks (EERRNs), the minimum Winfree loop (MWL) is revealed to be the key factor in determining the emergence of collective oscillations...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
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