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Nicholas Cd Morley, Daniel R McGowan, Fergus V Gleeson, Kevin M Bradley
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
J K F Wong, C C Hsu, C H Lin, S H Lien, Y T Lin
BACKGROUND: Many techniques have been described to relieve the compression and reduce subluxation of the ulnar nerve following surgery. The subfascial anterior transposition of the ulnar nerve (SfATUN) is one described technique, but involves a long scar, risk of injury to the medial antebrachial cutaneous nerve, and possible nerve ischemia from anterior transposition. We assessed a more refined approach of endoscopy-assisted SfATUN for the treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. METHODS: A consecutive case series of 21 patients (15 males and 6 females) with evidence of nerve subluxation after ulnar nerve decompression were operated using an endoscopy-assisted SfATUN...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
Emer McGowan, Emma Stokes
BACKGROUND: Health service reform, physiotherapy graduate unemployment, and the impending introduction of state regulation mean that physiotherapists in Ireland today are facing many challenges. Leadership is needed to ensure that the profession will be able to adapt to the demands and inevitable changes ahead. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perceptions of physiotherapists in Ireland of leadership and leadership characteristics, and to explore their participation in leadership development training...
October 13, 2016: Physiotherapy Theory and Practice
Timothy R Jordan, Jasmine Dixon, Victoria A McGowan, Stoyan Kurtev, Kevin B Paterson
Recent research has shown that differences in the effectiveness of spatial frequencies for fast and slow skilled adult readers may be an important component of differences in reading ability in the skilled adult reading population (Jordan et al., 2016a). But the precise nature of this influence on lexical processing during reading remains to be fully determined. Accordingly, to gain more insight into the use of spatial frequencies by skilled adult readers with fast and slow reading abilities, the present study looked at effects of spatial frequencies on the processing of specific target words in sentences...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
Emily C McGowan, Thomas A Platts-Mills
Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic condition characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophil-predominant inflammation. In adults, the three most common treatment options are swallowed steroids, elimination diets, and periodic esophageal dilations. Many different elimination diets have been studied in adults, including elemental diets, allergy testing-directed diets, and empiric elimination diets. This article will review the existing data on these dietary therapies and will propose an approach to dietary management in adult EoE...
November 2016: Current Gastroenterology Reports
Conor P Kerley, Katrina Hutchinson, Jessica Bramham, Aisling McGowan, John Faul, Liam Cormican
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Our group and others have reported a high rate of vitamin D deficiency in obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS), where vitamin D levels (25(OH)D) correlate negatively with OSAS severity and some of its associated metabolic alterations. Data regarding vitamin D supplementation in OSAS are lacking. We wanted to evaluate the effect of vitamin D3 supplementation on OSAS symptoms and metabolic parameters. METHODS: We conducted a pilot, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of daily supplementation with 4,000 IU vitamin D3 (D3) or placebo (PL)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Joe Reichle, Kathryn Drager, Jessica Caron, Quannah Parker-McGowan
This article examines the growth of aided augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) in providing support to children and youth with significant communication needs. Addressing current trends and offering a discussion of needs and probable future advances is framed around five guiding principles initially introduced by Williams, Krezman, and McNaughton. These include: (1) communication is a basic right and the use of AAC, especially at a young age, can help individuals realize their communicative potential; (2) AAC, like traditional communication, requires it to be fluid with the ability to adapt to different environments and needs; (3) AAC must be individualized and appropriate for each user; (4) AAC must support full participation in society across all ages and interests; and (5) individuals who use AAC have the right to be involved in all aspects of research, development, and intervention...
November 2016: Seminars in Speech and Language
Paul Grimshaw, Linda McGowan, Elaine McNichol
Purpose For leadership and management of Western health systems, good quality relationships are a fundamental cornerstone of organising health and social care (H&SC) delivery, delivering benefits across organisations and communities. The purpose of this paper is to explore the extant management, H&SC literature, grounded in older people care, reveal behaviours, processes and practices that if readily identified across a context will support healthy relationships across the "whole system" of stakeholders. Design/methodology/approach An academic/practitioner group designed and guided a scoping literature review of the H&SC and broader management literature to identify and extract important behaviours, processes and practices underlying the support of high-quality relationships...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Health Organization and Management
Beverly W Henry, Derryl E Block, James R Ciesla, Beth Ann McGowan, John A Vozenilek
Literature on telehealth care delivery often addresses clinical, cost, technological, system, and organizational impacts. Less is known about interpersonal behaviors such as communication patterns and therapeutic relationship-building, which may have workforce development considerations. The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic literature review to identify interpersonal health care provider (HCP) behaviors and attributes related to provider-patient interaction during care in telehealth delivery...
October 1, 2016: Advances in Health Sciences Education: Theory and Practice
Mary K Horan, Jean M Donnelly, Ciara A McGowan, Eileen R Gibney, Fionnuala M McAuliffe
AIM: To examine the association between maternal nutrition and lifestyle factors and offspring adiposity, using baseline and 2-year postpartum follow-up data from a randomised control trial of low glycaemic index diet. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Food diaries and lifestyle questionnaires were completed during pregnancy and infant feeding and maternal lifestyle questionnaires 2 years postpartum for 281 mother and infant pairs from the ROLO study. Maternal anthropometry was measured throughout pregnancy and infant and maternal anthropometry was measured 2 years postpartum...
2016: Zeitschrift Für Gesundheitswissenschaften, Journal of Public Health
Janine McGowan, Alvaro De la Mora, Paul H Goodwin, Marc Habash, Mollah Md Hamiduzzaman, Paul G Kelly, Ernesto Guzman-Novoa
The microsporidium fungus Nosema ceranae is an intracellular parasite that infects the midgut of the honey bee, Apis mellifera. A major limitation of research on N. ceranae is that the fungus is non-culturable and thus studying it depends on the seasonal availability of Nosema spores. Also, spore viability and infectivity can vary considerably, and thus there is a need for reliable methods for determining those traits. This study examined different conditions for N. ceranae spore cryopreservation at -70°C, assessing spore viability and infectivity...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Lisa M Rowley, Kevin M Bradley, Philip Boardman, Aida Hallam, Daniel R McGowan
: Imaging on a gamma camera with Yttrium-90 ((90)Y) following selective internal radiotherapy (SIRT) may allow for verification of treatment delivery but suffers relatively poor spatial resolution and imprecise dosimetry calculation. (90)Y Positron Emission Tomography (PET) / Computed Tomography (CT) imaging is possible on 3D, time-of-flight machines however images are usually poor due to low count statistics and noise. A new PET reconstruction software using a Bayesian penalized likelihood (BPL) reconstruction algorithm (termed Q...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Niall M McGowan, Bogdan I Voinescu, Andrew N Coogan
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioural disorder which has been associated with sleep and circadian rhythm disturbances. Numerous studies have linked evening circadian typology with traits and behaviours associated with the disorder, although a precise reason for this relationship has not been clarified. The current study examines ADHD symptoms, impulsivity, cognitive failures, sleep quality and chronotype in a cohort of healthy young adults (N = 396). Results show significant, small magnitude associations between mid-point of sleep on free days, social jetlag (SJL) and ADHD symptoms and impulsivity, although not with cognitive failures...
September 26, 2016: Chronobiology International
Benjamin T Porebski, Shani Keleher, Jeffrey J Hollins, Adrian A Nickson, Emilia M Marijanovic, Natalie A Borg, Mauricio G S Costa, Mary A Pearce, Weiwen Dai, Liguang Zhu, James A Irving, David E Hoke, Itamar Kass, James C Whisstock, Stephen P Bottomley, Geoffrey I Webb, Sheena McGowan, Ashley M Buckle
The rugged folding landscapes of functional proteins puts them at risk of misfolding and aggregation. Serine protease inhibitors, or serpins, are paradigms for this delicate balance between function and misfolding. Serpins exist in a metastable state that undergoes a major conformational change in order to inhibit proteases. However, conformational labiality of the native serpin fold renders them susceptible to misfolding, which underlies misfolding diseases such as α1-antitrypsin deficiency. To investigate how serpins balance function and folding, we used consensus design to create conserpin, a synthetic serpin that folds reversibly, is functional, thermostable, and polymerization resistant...
September 26, 2016: Scientific Reports
J Wolcott, L Aliaga, O Altinok, A Bercellie, M Betancourt, A Bodek, A Bravar, H Budd, T Cai, M F Carneiro, J Chvojka, H da Motta, J Devan, S A Dytman, G A Díaz, B Eberly, E Endress, J Felix, L Fields, R Fine, R Galindo, H Gallagher, T Golan, R Gran, D A Harris, A Higuera, K Hurtado, M Kiveni, J Kleykamp, M Kordosky, T Le, E Maher, S Manly, W A Mann, C M Marshall, D A Martinez Caicedo, K S McFarland, C L McGivern, A M McGowan, B Messerly, J Miller, A Mislivec, J G Morfín, J Mousseau, D Naples, J K Nelson, A Norrick, Nuruzzaman, J Osta, V Paolone, J Park, C E Patrick, G N Perdue, L Rakotondravohitra, M A Ramirez, H Ray, L Ren, D Rimal, P A Rodrigues, D Ruterbories, H Schellman, D W Schmitz, C J Solano Salinas, S Sánchez Falero, N Tagg, B G Tice, E Valencia, T Walton, M Wospakrik, D Zhang
The MINERvA experiment observes an excess of events containing electromagnetic showers relative to the expectation from Monte Carlo simulations in neutral-current neutrino interactions with mean beam energy of 4.5 GeV on a hydrocarbon target. The excess is characterized and found to be consistent with neutral-current π^{0} production with a broad energy distribution peaking at 7 GeV and a total cross section of 0.26±0.02(stat.)±0.08(sys.)×10^{-39}  cm^{2}. The angular distribution, electromagnetic shower energy, and spatial distribution of the energy depositions of the excess are consistent with expectations from neutrino neutral-current diffractive π^{0} production from hydrogen in the hydrocarbon target...
September 9, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Jeremy Wd McGowan, Qingmei Shao, Parminder Js Vig, Gene L Bidwell
Bypassing the blood-brain barrier is one of the primary considerations when designing compounds intended to function in the central nervous system (CNS). Intranasal (IN) administration of otherwise blood-brain barrier impermeable molecules can result in high CNS concentrations and low systemic accumulation, indicating that IN administration may be a useful method of delivering therapeutics to the CNS. Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) is a large, non-immunogenic, highly manipulable biopolymer with extensive evidence supporting its use as a carrier with the ability to improve drug pharmacokinetics and drug targeting...
2016: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
Ian McGowan, Charlene S Dezzutti, Aaron Siegel, Jarret Engstrom, Alexiy Nikiforov, Kathryn Duffill, Cory Shetler, Nicola Richardson-Harman, Kaleab Abebe, David Back, Laura Else, Deidre Egan, Saye Khoo, James E Egan, Ronald Stall, Peter E Williams, Khaleel K Rehman, Amy Adler, Rhonda M Brand, Beatrice Chen, Sharon Achilles, Ross D Cranston
BACKGROUND: Long-acting injectable antiretroviral agents are being developed for HIV-1 prevention. The MWRI-01 study was done to characterise the safety, acceptability, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of long-acting rilpivirine. METHODS: We did a phase 1 open-label study at the University of Pittsburgh. We enrolled healthy individuals (aged 18-45 years) who were seronegative for HIV-1. Participants were assigned alternately one intramuscular dose of either 1200 mg or 600 mg long-acting rilpivirine, beginning with the 1200 mg dose...
September 16, 2016: Lancet HIV
Eric Juengst, Michelle L McGowan, Jennifer R Fishman, Richard A Settersten
Since the late 1980s, the human genetics and genomics research community has been promising to usher in a "new paradigm for health care"-one that uses molecular profiling to identify human genetic variants implicated in multifactorial health risks. After the completion of the Human Genome Project in 2003, a wide range of stakeholders became committed to this "paradigm shift," creating a confluence of investment, advocacy, and enthusiasm that bears all the marks of a "scientific/intellectual social movement" within biomedicine...
September 2016: Hastings Center Report
Bright N Okine, Manish K Madasu, Fiona McGowan, Charles Prendergast, Jessica C Gaspar, Brendan Harhen, Michelle Roche, David P Finn
The neural substrates and mechanisms mediating the antinociceptive effects of the endogenous bioactive lipid, N-palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), require further investigation. We investigated the effects of exogenous PEA administration into the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), an important brain region linked with cognitive and affective modulation of pain, on formalin-evoked nociceptive behaviour in rats. Potential involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoforms (PPAR) α and γ or endocannabinoid-mediated entourage effects at cannabinoid1 (CB1) receptors or transient receptor potential subfamily V member 1 (TRPV1) in mediating the effects of PEA was also investigated...
August 16, 2016: Pain
Courtney J McGowan, David B Pyne, Kevin G Thompson, John S Raglin, Mark Osborne, Ben Rattray
This study investigated the effect of completing additional warm-up strategies in the transition phase between the pool warm up and the start of a race on elite sprint swimming performance. Twenty-five elite swimmers (12 men, 20 ± 3 years; 13 women, 20 ± 2 years, performance standard ~807 FINA2014 points) completed a standardised pool warm up followed by a 30-min transition phase and a 100-m freestyle time trial. During the transition phase, swimmers wore a tracksuit jacket with integrated heating elements and performed a dry land-based exercise routine (Combo), or a conventional tracksuit and remained seated (Control)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
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