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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136116/prenatal-stress-glucocorticoids-and-developmental-programming-of-the-stress-response
#1
Patrick O McGowan, Stephen G Matthews
The early environment has a major impact on the developing embryo, fetus and infant. Parental adversity (maternal and paternal) and glucocorticoid exposure prior to conception and during pregnancy have profound effects on the development and subsequent function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and related behaviours. These effects are species-, sex- and age-specific, and depend on the timing and duration of exposure. The impact of these early exposures can extend across multiple generations, via both the maternal and paternal lineage, and recent studies have begun to determine the mechanisms by which this occurs...
November 10, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132668/diagnosis-and-management-of-eosinophilic-esophagitis
#2
REVIEW
Jeffrey M Wilson, Emily C McGowan
Unlike traditional food allergies, immunoglobulin E (IgE) is not a key mediator of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Nonetheless, foods antigens are important triggers of EoE, and allergists play an important role in management of this chronic disease. This review addresses insights into the diagnosis and management as it relates to our evolving understanding about the pathogenesis of EoE.
February 2018: Immunology and Allergy Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127060/granulocyte-colony-stimulating-factor-and-autologous-cd133-positive-stem-cell-therapy-in-liver-cirrhosis-realistic-an-open-label-randomised-controlled-phase-2-trial
#3
Philip Noel Newsome, Richard Fox, Andrew L King, Darren Barton, Nwe-Ni Than, Joanna Moore, Christopher Corbett, Sarah Townsend, James Thomas, Kathy Guo, Diana Hull, Heather A Beard, Jacqui Thompson, Anne Atkinson, Carol Bienek, Neil McGowan, Neil Guha, John Campbell, Dan Hollyman, Deborah Stocken, Christina Yap, Stuart John Forbes
BACKGROUND: Results of small-scale studies have suggested that stem-cell therapy is safe and effective in patients with liver cirrhosis, but no adequately powered randomised controlled trials have been done. We assessed the safety and efficacy of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and haemopoietic stem-cell infusions in patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: This multicentre, open-label, randomised, controlled phase 2 trial was done in three UK hospitals and recruited patients with compensated liver cirrhosis and MELD scores of 11·0-15·5...
November 7, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119571/targeted-exome-sequencing-defines-novel-and-rare-variants-in-complex-blood-group-serology-cases-for-a-red-blood-cell-reference-laboratory-setting
#4
Elizna M Schoeman, Eileen V Roulis, Yew-Wah Liew, Jacqueline R Martin, Tanya Powley, Brett Wilson, Glenda M Millard, Eunike C McGowan, Genghis H Lopez, Helen O'Brien, Jennifer A Condon, Robert L Flower, Catherine A Hyland
BACKGROUND: We previously demonstrated that targeted exome sequencing accurately defined blood group genotypes for reference panel samples characterized by serology and single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Here we investigate the application of this approach to resolve problematic serology and SNP-typing cases. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: The TruSight One sequencing panel and MiSeq platform was used for sequencing. CLC Genomics Workbench software was used for data analysis of the blood group genes implicated in the serology and SNP-typing problem...
November 8, 2017: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119473/preference-of-oral-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-versus-rectal-tenofovir-reduced-glycerin-1-gel-regimens-for-hiv-prevention-among-cisgender-men-and-transgender-women-who-engage-in-receptive-anal-intercourse-with-men
#5
Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Rebecca Giguere, Curtis Dolezal, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Iván C Balán, William Brown, Christine Rael, Barbra A Richardson, Jeanna M Piper, Linda-Gail Bekker, Suwat Chariyalertsak, Anupong Chitwarakorn, Pedro Gonzales, Timothy H Holtz, Albert Liu, Kenneth H Mayer, Carmen D Zorrilla, Javier R Lama, Ian McGowan, Ross D Cranston
Oral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) can prevent HIV transmission. Yet, some may prefer not to take systemic daily medication. MTN-017 was a 3-period, phase 2 safety and acceptability study of microbicide gel applied rectally either daily or before and after receptive anal intercourse (RAI), compared to daily oral tablet. At baseline, cisgender men and transgender women who reported RAI (N = 187) rated the daily oral regimen higher in overall liking, ease of use, and likelihood of future use than the gel regimens...
November 8, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112567/a-pilot-study-of-the-prevalence-of-anal-human-papillomavirus-and-dysplasia-in-a-cohort-of-patients-with-ibd
#6
Ross D Cranston, Miguel Regueiro, Jana Hashash, Jonathan R Baker, Nicola Richardson-Harman, Laura Janocko, Ian McGowan
BACKGROUND: Defective cell-mediated immunity increases the risk of human papillomavirus-associated anal dysplasia and cancer. There is limited information on anal canal disease in patients with IBD. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess anal/vaginal human papillomavirus and anal dysplasia prevalence in patients with IBD. DESIGN: Patients had an anal examination before routine colonoscopy. SETTINGS: The study was conducted at a tertiary IBD referral center...
December 2017: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110785/big-5-quasi-experimental-designs
#7
EDITORIAL
Peter Tugwell, J André Knottnerus, Jessie McGowan, Andrea Tricco
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109683/two-mechanisms-of-sensorimotor-set-adaptation-to-inclined-stance
#8
Kyoung-Hyun Lee, Asheeba Baksh, Alyssa Bryant, Mollie McGowan, Ryan McMillan, Raymond K Chong
Orientation of posture relative to the environment depends on the contributions from the somatosensory, vestibular, and visual systems mixed in varying proportions to produce a sensorimotor set. Here, we probed the sensorimotor set composition using a postural adaptation task in which healthy adults stood on an inclined surface for 3 min. Upon returning to a horizontal surface, participants displayed a range of postural orientations - from an aftereffect that consisted of a large forward postural lean to an upright stance with little or no aftereffect...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100026/structural-properties-governing-drug-plasma-protein-binding-determined-by-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-method
#9
Sharad Kamble, Paul Loadman, Michael H Abraham, Xiangli Liu
The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method employing stationary phases immobilized with plasma proteins was used for this study to investigate the structural properties governing drug-plasma protein binding. A set of 65 compounds with a broad range of structural diversity (in terms of volume, hydrogen-bonding, polarity and electrostatic force) were selected for this purpose. The Abraham linear free energy relationship (LFER) analyses of the retention factors on the immobilized HSA (human serum albumin) and AGP (α1-acid glycoprotein) stationary phases showed that McGowan's characteristic molecular volume (V), dipolarity/polarizability (S) and hydrogen bond basicity (B) are the three significant molecular descriptors of solutes determining the interaction with immobilized plasma proteins, whereas excess molar refraction (E) is less important and hydrogen bond acidity (A) is not of statistical significance in both systems, for electrically neutral compounds...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096879/non-invasive-fetal-rhd-genotyping-for-rhd-negative-women-stratified-into-rhd-gene-deletion-or-variant-groups-comparative-accuracy-using-two-blood-collection-tube-types
#10
Catherine A Hyland, Glenda M Millard, Helen O'Brien, Elizna M Schoeman, Genghis H Lopez, Eunike C McGowan, Anne Tremellen, Rachel Puddephatt, Kirsten Gaerty, Robert L Flower, Jonathan A Hyett, Glenn J Gardener
Non-invasive fetal RHD genotyping in Australia to reduce anti-D usage will need to accommodate both prolonged sample transport times and a diverse population demographic harbouring a range of RHD blood group gene variants. We compared RHD genotyping accuracy using two blood sample collection tube types for RhD negative women stratified into deleted RHD gene haplotype and RHD gene variant cohorts. Maternal blood samples were collected into EDTA and cell-free (cf)DNA stabilising (BCT) tubes from two sites, one interstate...
October 30, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095238/commentary-on-aerobic-versus-isometric-handgrip-exercise-in-hypertension-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Neil A Smart, Debra J Carlson, Ian Swaine, Cheri McGowan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092937/an-accessible-proteogenomics-informatics-resource-for-cancer-researchers
#12
Matthew C Chambers, Pratik D Jagtap, James E Johnson, Thomas McGowan, Praveen Kumar, Getiria Onsongo, Candace R Guerrero, Harald Barsnes, Marc Vaudel, Lennart Martens, Björn Grüning, Ira R Cooke, Mohammad Heydarian, Karen L Reddy, Timothy J Griffin
Proteogenomics has emerged as a valuable approach in cancer research, which integrates genomic and transcriptomic data with mass spectrometry-based proteomics data to directly identify expressed, variant protein sequences that may have functional roles in cancer. This approach is computationally intensive, requiring integration of disparate software tools into sophisticated workflows, challenging its adoption by nonexpert, bench scientists. To address this need, we have developed an extensible, Galaxy-based resource aimed at providing more researchers access to, and training in, proteogenomic informatics...
November 1, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091008/effect-of-a-bayesian-penalized-likelihood-pet-reconstruction-compared-with-ordered-subset-expectation-maximization-on-clinical-image-quality-over-a-wide-range-of-patient-weights
#13
Anna K Chilcott, Kevin M Bradley, Daniel R McGowan
OBJECTIVE: A study was performed to compare background liver signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and visually assessed image quality of clinical PET/CT studies from the same PET acquisition data reconstructed by Bayesian penalized likelihood (BPL) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OSEM) over a range of patient weights. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The effect of a BPL PET reconstruction algorithm on liver SNR and visually assessed image quality over a range of patient weights (41-196 kg; n = 108) was retrospectively compared with standard-of-care OSEM reconstruction on the same PET acquisition data after IV administration of (18)F-FDG (4 MBq/kg)...
November 1, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076098/good-manufacturing-practice-gmp-translation-of-advanced-cellular-therapeutics-lessons-for-the-manufacture-of-erythrocytes-as-medicinal-products
#14
Neil W A McGowan, John D M Campbell, Joanne C Mountford
Blood transfusion is a mainstay of modern medical practice. In many parts of the world the use of this life-saving therapy is hampered by issues of supply and the potential for transfusion transmitted infections. Accordingly, there are many studies seeking to find an alternative to donated red blood cells (RBCs) for transfusion, including large-scale production from adult and pluripotent stem cells, or erythroid cell lines. Translating basic studies, using any cell lineage, into protocols that are suitable for the generation of cellular therapies requires a wide range of biological and regulatory procedures to be put in place...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076032/brief-participant-centered-convergence-interviews-integrate-self-reports-product-returns-and-pharmacokinetic-results-to-improve-adherence-measurement-in-mtn-017
#15
Iván C Balán, Rebecca Giguere, William Brown, Alex Carballo-Diéguez, Stephanie Horn, Craig W Hendrix, Mark A Marzinke, Ratiya Pamela Kunjara Na Ayudhya, Karen Patterson, Jeanna M Piper, Ian McGowan, Javier R Lama, Ross D Cranston
MTN-017 compared the safety and acceptability of daily oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate, daily reduced-glycerin 1% tenofovir gel applied rectally, and the same gel applied before and after receptive anal intercourse. The Data Convergence Interview (DCI) and the Pharmacokinetic Data Convergence Interview (PK-DCI) were brief, collaborative interactions conducted with participants during adherence counseling sessions to improve accurate measurement of adherence to study product use. DCIs converged data from product return counts and participants' responses to daily text messages...
October 26, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072584/impaired-sleep-circadian-rhythms-and-neurogenesis-in-diet-induced-premature-aging
#16
Alexander J Stankiewicz, Erin M McGowan, Lili Yu, Irina V Zhdanova
Chronic high caloric intake (HCI) is a risk factor for multiple major human disorders, from diabetes to neurodegeneration. Mounting evidence suggests a significant contribution of circadian misalignment and sleep alterations to this phenomenon. An inverse temporal relationship between sleep, activity, food intake, and clock mechanisms in nocturnal and diurnal animals suggests that a search for effective therapeutic approaches can benefit from the use of diurnal animal models. Here, we show that, similar to normal aging, HCI leads to the reduction in daily amplitude of expression for core clock genes, a decline in sleep duration, an increase in scoliosis, and anxiety-like behavior...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069074/non-invasive-monitoring-of-brain-edema-after-hypoxia-in-newborn-piglets
#17
Shadi N Malaeb, Meltem Izzetoglu, Jane McGowan, Maria Delivoria-Papadopoulos
BACKGROUND: Development of cerebral edema after brain injury carries a high risk for brain damage and death. The present study tests the ability of a non-invasive cerebral edema monitoring system that uses near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) with water as the chromophore of interest to detect brain edema following hypoxia. METHODS: Ventilated piglets were exposed to hypoxia for 1 h, and then returned to normal oxygen levels for 4 h. A NIRS sensor was placed on the animal's head at baseline, and changes in light attenuation were converted to changes in H2O...
October 25, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067428/effect-of-therapeutic-hypothermia-initiated-after-6-hours-of-age-on-death-or-disability-among-newborns-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#18
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Abbot R Laptook, Seetha Shankaran, Jon E Tyson, Breda Munoz, Edward F Bell, Ronald N Goldberg, Nehal A Parikh, Namasivayam Ambalavanan, Claudia Pedroza, Athina Pappas, Abhik Das, Aasma S Chaudhary, Richard A Ehrenkranz, Angelita M Hensman, Krisa P Van Meurs, Lina F Chalak, Shannon E G Hamrick, Gregory M Sokol, Michele C Walsh, Brenda B Poindexter, Roger G Faix, Kristi L Watterberg, Ivan D Frantz, Ronnie Guillet, Uday Devaskar, William E Truog, Valerie Y Chock, Myra H Wyckoff, Elisabeth C McGowan, David P Carlton, Heidi M Harmon, Jane E Brumbaugh, C Michael Cotten, Pablo J Sánchez, Anna Maria Hibbs, Rosemary D Higgins
Importance: Hypothermia initiated at less than 6 hours after birth reduces death or disability for infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy at 36 weeks' or later gestation. To our knowledge, hypothermia trials have not been performed in infants presenting after 6 hours. Objective: To estimate the probability that hypothermia initiated at 6 to 24 hours after birth reduces the risk of death or disability at 18 months among infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy...
October 24, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29064881/propylene-glycol-in-contact-dermatitis-a-systematic-review
#19
Maria A McGowan, Andrew Scheman, Sharon E Jacob
Propylene glycol (PG), an emollient and emulsifier found in cosmetics, medications, and food, has been granted the dubious honor of being named the American Contact Dermatitis Society's Allergen of the Year for 2018. Contact, systemic, and irritant cutaneous reactions have been documented for PG, which has become an increasingly common ingredient. Propylene glycol is as contentious as it is ubiquitous because it acts as both a weak sensitizer and an irritant, confounding the results of positive patch tests...
October 23, 2017: Dermatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059092/allergen-of-the-year-propylene-glycol
#20
Sharon E Jacob, Andrew Scheman, Maria A McGowan
Propylene glycol (PG), an emollient and emulsifier found in cosmetics, medications, and food, has been granted the dubious honor of being named the American Contact Dermatitis Society's Allergen of the Year for 2018. Allergic and irritant contact dermatitis and systemic cutaneous reactions to PG, which has become an increasingly common ingredient, have been documented. Propylene glycol is as contentious as it is ubiquitous because it acts as both a weak sensitizer and an irritant, confounding the results of positive patch tests...
November 10, 2017: Dermatitis
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