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Sandipan Dutta, Susmita Datta, Somnath Datta
In many complex diseases such as cancer, a patient undergoes various disease stages before reaching a terminal state (say disease free or death). This fits a multistate model framework where a prognosis may be equivalent to predicting the state occupation at a future time t. With the advent of high throughput genomic and proteomic assays, a clinician may intent to use such high dimensional covariates in making better prediction of state occupation. In this article, we offer a practical solution to this problem by combining a useful technique, called pseudo value regression, with a latent factor or a penalized regression method such as the partial least squares (PLS) or the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), or their variants...
2017: Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation
Derik E Haggard, Agnes L Karmaus, Matthew T Martin, Richard S Judson, R Woodrow Setzer, Katie Paul Friedman
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program and the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) have used the human adrenocarcinoma (H295R) cell-based assay to predict chemical perturbation of androgen and estrogen production. Recently, a high-throughput H295R (HT-H295R) assay was developed as part of the ToxCast program that includes measurement of 11 hormones, including progestagens, corticosteroids, androgens, and estrogens. To date, 2012 chemicals have been screened at one concentration; of these, 656 chemicals have been screened in concentration-response...
December 1, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
Andrew H Kim, Charlotte Roberts, Brian G Feagan, Rupa Banerjee, Willem Bemelman, Keith Bodger, Marc Derieppe, Axel Dignass, Richard Driscoll, Ray Fitzpatrick, Janette Gaarentstroom-Lunt, Peter D Higgins, Paulo Gustavo Kotze, Jillian Meissner, Marian O'Connor, Zhi-Hua Ran, Corey A Siegel, Helen Terry, Welmoed K van Deen, C Janneke van der Woude, Alandra Weaver, Suk-Kyun Yang, Bruce E Sands, Séverine Vermeire, Simon Pl Travis
Background and Aims: Success in delivering value-based healthcare involves measuring outcomes that matter most to patients. Our aim was to develop a minimum Standard Set of patient-centred outcome measures for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), for use in different healthcare settings. Methods: An international working group (n=25) representing patients, patient associations, gastroenterologists, surgeons, specialist nurses, IBD registries and patient-reported outcome measure (PROM) methodologists participated in a series of teleconferences incorporating a modified Delphi process...
December 5, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Stephen C Groft, Manuel Posada de la Paz
Members of the rare disease community have devoted significant financial and personnel resources to address the numerous issues surrounding rare diseases. The past has been devoted to developing an emphasis on rare diseases including an emphasis on research studies or locating information on rare diseases and the requirements and limitations of conducting clinical trials with small patient populations. The expanded role of patient advocacy organizations and patient engagement in all aspects of clinical research continues to gain acceptance within the research community...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zhaoxian Wang, Feifei Feng, Xiaoshan Zhou, Liju Duan, Jing Wang, Yongjun Wu, Na Wang
Objective: To develop early intelligent discriminative model of lung cancer and evaluate the efficiency of diagnosis value. Methods: Based on the genetic polymorphism profile of CYP1A1-rs1048943, GSTM1, mEH-rs1051740, XRCC1-rs1799782 and XRCC1-rs25489 and the methylations of p16 and RASSF1A gene, and the length of telomere in the peripheral blood from 200 lung cancer patients and 200 health persons, the discriminative model was established through decision tree and ANN technique...
November 7, 2017: Oncotarget
Isabelle Durand-Zaleski, Pierre Mutuon, Isabelle Charreau, Cecile Tremblay, Daniela Rojas, Gilles Pialoux, Christian Chidiac, Catherine Capitant, Bruno Spire, Laurent Cotte, Julie Chas, Laurence Meyer, Jean Michel Molina
OBJECTIVES: We undertook the economic evaluation of the double-blind randomized ANRS-IPERGAY trial, which showed the efficacy of on-demand preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)-emtricitabine (FTC) in preventing HIV infection among high-risk MSM. DESIGN AND METHODS: The economic evaluation was prospective. Counseling, drugs (TDF-FTC at &OV0556;500.88 for 30 tablets), tests, visits, and hospital admissions were valued based on in-trial use...
January 2, 2018: AIDS
F Seyfried, H-J Buhr, C Klinger, T P Huettel, B Herbig, S Weiner, C Jurowich, A Dietrich
An expert committee was appointed by the German Society for General and Visceral Surgery to develop a panel of appropriate quality indicators to collate the quality of results, indications and structure in metabolic and bariatric surgery. This entailed assimilating the available evidence (systematic literature search), results from the national registry of the society (StuDoQ|MBE) and specific socioeconomic aspects (e. g. severely limited access to metabolic and bariatric surgery in Germany). These quality parameters were to be incorporated into the national guidelines and the rules of procedure for certification in the future...
December 5, 2017: Der Chirurg; Zeitschrift Für Alle Gebiete der Operativen Medizen
David Meder, Nils Kolling, Lennart Verhagen, Marco K Wittmann, Jacqueline Scholl, Kristoffer H Madsen, Oliver J Hulme, Timothy E J Behrens, Matthew F S Rushworth
Decisions are based on value expectations derived from experience. We show that dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and three other brain regions hold multiple representations of choice value based on different timescales of experience organized in terms of systematic gradients across the cortex. Some parts of each area represent value estimates based on recent reward experience while others represent value estimates based on experience over the longer term. The value estimates within these areas interact with one another according to their temporal scaling...
December 5, 2017: Nature Communications
Elie Azoulay, Jean-Louis Vincent, Derek C Angus, Yaseen M Arabi, Laurent Brochard, Stephen J Brett, Giuseppe Citerio, Deborah J Cook, Jared Randall Curtis, Claudia C Dos Santos, E Wesley Ely, Jesse Hall, Scott D Halpern, Nicholas Hart, Ramona O Hopkins, Theodore J Iwashyna, Samir Jaber, Nicola Latronico, Sangeeta Mehta, Dale M Needham, Judith Nelson, Kathleen Puntillo, Michael Quintel, Kathy Rowan, Gordon Rubenfeld, Greet Van den Berghe, Johannes Van der Hoeven, Hannah Wunsch, Margaret Herridge
In this review, we seek to highlight how critical illness and critical care affect longer-term outcomes, to underline the contribution of ICU delirium to cognitive dysfunction several months after ICU discharge, to give new insights into ICU acquired weakness, to emphasize the importance of value-based healthcare, and to delineate the elements of family-centered care. This consensus of 29 also provides a perspective and a research agenda about post-ICU recovery.
December 5, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Mustafa Al-Mashat, Michael Seneff
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Hui Zhang, David W Cowling, Matthew Facer
Various health insurance benefit designs based on value-based purchasing have been promoted to steer patients to high-value providers, but little is known about the designs' relative effectiveness and underlying mechanisms. We compared the impact of two designs implemented by the California Public Employees' Retirement System on inpatient hospital total hip or knee replacement: a reference-based pricing design for preferred provider organizations (PPOs) and a centers-of-excellence design for health maintenance organizations (HMOs)...
December 2017: Health Affairs
Karen E Joynt Maddox, Arnold M Epstein, Lok Wong Samson, Lena M Chen
In 2015 Medicare launched the Physician Value-Based Payment Modifier program, the largest US ambulatory care pay-for-performance program to date and a precursor to the forthcoming Merit-based Incentive Payment System. In its first year, the program included practices with a hundred or more clinicians. We found that 1,010 practices met this criterion, 899 of which had at least one attributed beneficiary. Of these latter practices, 263 (29.3 percent) failed to report performance data and received a 1 percent reporting-based penalty...
December 2017: Health Affairs
Joan M Teno, Russ Montgomery, Tom Valuck, Janet Corrigan, Diane E Meier, Amy Kelley, J Randall Curtis, Ruth Engelberg
Innovation is needed to improve care of the seriously ill, and there are important opportunities as we transition from a volume- to value-based payment system. Not all seriously ill are dying; some recover, while others are persistently functionally impaired. While we innovate in service delivery and payment models for the seriously ill, it is important that we concurrently develop accountability that ensures a focus on high-quality care rather than narrowly focusing on cost containment. The Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation convened a meeting of 45 experts to arrive at guiding principles for measurement, create a starter measurement set, specify a proposed definition of the denominator and its refinement, and identify research priorities for future implementation of the accountability system...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Palliative Medicine
Johanna E Groothuizen, Alison Callwood, Ann Gallagher
AIM: A discussion of issues associated with Values Based Recruitment for nurse education programmes. BACKGROUND: Values Based Recruitment is a mandatory element in selection processes of students for Higher Education healthcare courses in England, including all programmes across nursing. Students are selected on the basis that their individual values align with those presented in the Constitution of the National Health Service. However, there are issues associated with the use of values as selection criteria that have been insufficiently addressed...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
Kelvin Y Kim, Afshin A Anoushiravani, Ameer Elbuluk, Kevin Chen, Roy Davidovitch, Ran Schwarzkopf
As the emphasis on value-based care within total joint arthroplasty increases, this procedure is becoming more prevalent in the outpatient setting. The goals of this study were to report on the authors' early experiences with same-day discharge and to identify patient characteristics that are associated with failure to discharge after total hip arthroplasty within this program. All patients who were enrolled in the same-day discharge total hip arthroplasty program at the study institution between January 2015 and July 2016 were included...
November 30, 2017: Orthopedics
Zahra Fatahi, Abbas Haghparast, Abbas Khani, Mojtaba Kermani
There is a growing body of evidence showing that the anterior cingulate (ACC) and the orbitofrontal (OFC) cortex are both essential for reinforcement-guided decision making. Focusing on functional connectivity approach through coherence, we studied whether communication between the ACC and OFC through neural synchronization is a necessary stage for performing value-based decision making. We used a T-maze task with a differential reward (Large vs. small reward) and cost (long vs. short waiting time) and simultaneously recorded local field potentials (LFP) from the ACC and OFC...
November 27, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Lennart Wittkuhn, Ben Eppinger, Lea M Bartsch, Franka Thurm, Franziska M Korb, Shu-Chen Li
Adaptive behavior in daily life often requires the ability to acquire and represent sequential contingencies between actions and the associated outcomes. Although accumulating evidence implicates the role of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in complex value-based learning and decision-making, direct evidence for involvements of this region in integrating information across sequential decision states is still scarce. Using a 3-stage deterministic Markov decision task, here we applied offline, inhibitory low-frequency 1-Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the left dlPFC in young male adults (n = 31, mean age = 23...
November 27, 2017: NeuroImage
Hongpyo Lee, Yoonho Nam, Ho-Joon Lee, Jung-Jiin Hsu, Roland G Henry, Dong-Hyun Kim
Myelin water fraction (MWF) mapping with a multi-echo gradient echo (mGRE) sequence using complex-value based model fitting approach was recently described, in which the phase of the data plays an important role in the accuracy of the fitting results. Thus, influences coming from the undesirable phase components need to be reduced. Targeted for improved MWF mapping, methods to combat these phase related issues which include offset correction, main magnetic field (B0) inhomogeneity related correction, and flow compensation have been developed...
November 27, 2017: NeuroImage
Britt Øvrebø Haugland, Rasmus M Lassen, Tove Giske
Formation is an important part of nursing education, and it is the responsibility of nurse educators to facilitate learning situations that provide students with opportunities for personal discovery. Studies have shown that awareness of one's own vulnerability can be a source of professional maturation and courageous action. The study setting is a Christian university that emphasises its value base through the perspective of diakonia in the nursing programme. Diakonia is understood as the provision of caring...
November 22, 2017: Nurse Education in Practice
R Achury, A V Suarez
Tropical rainforests are characterized by having high structural complexity, stratification, and species diversity. In Colombia, tropical rainforests are critically endangered with only 24% of their area remaining. Forest fragments are often valued based on the presence of vertebrate taxa despite that small habitat remnants may still harbor diverse invertebrate communities. We surveyed the ant fauna associated with rainforest fragments and their surrounding landscape elements (including mature forests, flooded forests, gallery forests, live fences, and pastures) in the Magdalena River watershed...
November 30, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
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