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endocrine and pituitary

Haleh Saadat, Zeev N Kain
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The review examines the different preventive measures that have been found to be useful to abolish or decrease the negative effects of burnout and increase resilience in anesthesiologists. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies in anesthesiology cite autonomy, control of the work environment, professional relationships, leadership, and organizational justice as the most important factors in job satisfaction. Factors such as difficulty in balancing personal and professional life, poor attention to wellness, work alcoholism, and genetic factors increase an individual's susceptibility to burnout...
March 19, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Víctor Hugo Del Río-Araiza, Karen Elizabeth Nava-Castro, Fernando Alba-Hurtado, Andrés Quintanar-Stephano, Marco Antonio Muñoz-Guzmán, Olga CUenca-Micò, Jorge Morales-Montor
Toxocara canis is the helminth causing Toxocariasis, a parasitic disease with medical and veterinary implications. Their final host are members of the family Canidae and as paratenic hosts, most of the mammals are sensitive (man, rat, mouse, among others). It has been reported that a pituitary hormone, prolactin, it is responsible for reactivation and migration of larvae to the uterus and mammary gland during the last third of gestation in bitches. In addition, this hormone has been shown to play an important role in the regulation of the immune response...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Haroon Latif Khan, Shahzad Bhatti, Sana Abbas, Yousaf Latif Khan, Rosa Maria Marquez Gonzalez, Muhammad Aslamkhan, Gerardo Rodriguez Gonzalez, Hikmet Hakan Aydin
Background: Despite its worldwide high occurrence, the obscurity regarding the description, epidemiology and management of premature ejaculation remains provocative. It is well established that male premature ejaculatory dysfunction is an increasing problem due to spontaneous ejaculation across a variety of general and clinical subjects. The main goal of this study was to determine the relationships between trinucleotide repeats of the androgen receptor (AR), sex steroids, and pituitary hormones with sexual function in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and reported with acquired premature ejaculation (PE)...
2018: Basic and Clinical Andrology
Mone Zaidi, Maria New, Harry C Blair, Alberta Zallone, Ramkumarie Baliram, Terry F Davies, Christopher Cardozo, James Iqbal, Li Sun, Cliff Rosen, Tony Yuen
It has become increasingly clear that pituitary hormones that have traditionally been seen as regulators of single bodily processes, including endocrine functions, have additional roles in physiology. The global deletion of these hormones or their receptors in mice has yielded unexpected skeletal and metabolic phenotypes, which have been confirmed through traditional pharmacologic approaches. Initial reports showed that thyroid-stimulating hormone receptors were expressed on bone cells and that their haploinsufficiency in Tshr+/- mice caused osteopenia without affecting the thyroid function...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Jinhua Jiang, Yan Shi, Ruixian Yu, Liping Chen, Xueping Zhao
Azoxystrobin (AZ) is a broad-spectrum systemic fungicide that widely used in the world. The present study investigated the toxicity effects on zebrafish after short-term exposure of AZ. Results demonstrated that the larval stage was most susceptible to AZ in the multiple life stages of zebrafish, with 96 h-LC50 value of 0.777 mg/L. Zebrafish larvae were exposed to different AZ concentrations (0, 0.1, 1, 10, 100 μg/L) and examined on 24, 48 and 72 h. It was found that AZ induced ROS accumulation, increased GST, GPX and POD activity and the transcriptions of antioxidant and stress response related genes, while the opposite trend occurred for SOD and CAT activity in 24-h or 48-h exposure period...
March 8, 2018: Chemosphere
Ülkü Gül Şiraz, Deniz Okdemir, Gül Direk, Leyla Akın, Nihal Hatipoğlu, Mustafa Kendırcı, Selim Kurtoğlu
Rapid-onset obesity with hypoventilation, hypothalamic dysfunction and autonomic dysregulation (ROHHAD) syndrome is a rare disease that is difficult to diagnosis and distinguish from genetic obesity syndromes. The underlying causes of the disease has not been fully explained. Hypothalamic dysfunction causes endocrine problems, respiratory dysfunction and autonomic alterations. There are around 80 reported patients due to lack of recognition. We present two female patient suspected of ROHHAD due to weight gain since early childhood...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Maya Laura König, Diana Henke, Katja Adamik, Cristina Pérez Vera
Case summary: A 3-month-old intact male Somali cat was evaluated for a history of seizures, hypoglycaemia and mental dullness 4 weeks after being bitten in the head by a dog. The cat's body size and weight were approximately half that of his littermates and its haircoat was woolly, with fewer guard hairs. Multiple hypoglycaemic episodes were documented over a period of 4 weeks, which resolved rapidly after correction of the hypoglycaemia. Juvenile hyposomatotropism was presumptively diagnosed by demonstrating low circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 and after exclusion of other endocrine and non-endocrine causes of small stature and hypoglycaemia...
January 2018: JFMS Open Reports
Xiao-Hong Liu, Bi-Wen Xie, Zhi-Jian Wang, Yao-Guang Zhang
Using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends), somatolactin-α (rmSLα) and -β (rmSLβ) were identified from the pituitary gland of rare minnows (Gobiocypris rarus). The full-length cDNAs of these two genes were 1288 and 801 bp, encoding prepeptides of 250 and 228 amino acids residues, respectively. rmSLβ can be detected in the brain (including the pituitary), ovary, testis, and gill, while rmSLα was mainly expressed in the brain. On the other hand, rmSLα was expressed in all the fetal developmental stages; however, rmSLβ can just be detected in the stages since from 14 h post-fertilization (hpf)...
March 17, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
Nabeel Alshafai, Rodolfo Maduri, Mrigank Shail, Domenico Chirchiglia, David Meyronet, Francesco Signorelli
Hemangioblastomas (HBLs) are challenging vascular tumours with rare suprasellar location Surgery is recommended in patients with visual impairment, endocrine disorders or hydrocephalus. Surgical removal of pituitary stalk HBLs is challenging due to their location and high vascularity. Our narrative review was guided by the question: "what is the more suitable surgical approach to excise a suprasellar HBL?". Pertinent English literature was scrutinized from database inception to October 2016. Eighteen articles matched our selection criteria...
March 10, 2018: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
Ana Molina, Nieves Abril, Noelia Morales-Prieto, José Monterde, Nahúm Ayala, Antonio Lora, Rosario Moyano
Thousands of safety-related studies have been published on bisphenol A (BPA), an ubiquitous environmental pollutant with estrogenic activity and many other potential biological effects. In recent years, BPA exposure has been shown to cause anovulation and infertility through irreversible alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in several organisms, including fish and mammals. Recently, the European Chemical Agency classified BPA as a "substance of very high concern" because of its endocrine-disrupting properties, which have serious effects on human health...
March 14, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Maria Eugenia Sabatino, Ezequiel Grondona, Liliana D V Sosa, Bethania Mongi Bragato, Lucia Carreño, Virginia Juarez, Rodrigo A da Silva, Aline Remor, Lucila de Bortoli, Roberta de Paula Martins, Pablo A Pérez, Juan Pablo Petiti, Silvina Gutiérrez, Alicia I Torres, Alexandra Latini, Ana L De Paul
The cellular transformation of normal functional cells to neoplastic ones implies alterations in the cellular metabolism and mitochondrial function in order to provide the bioenergetics and growth requirements for tumour growth progression. Currently, the mitochondrial physiology and dynamic shift during pituitary tumour development are not well understood. Pituitary tumors present endocrine neoplastic benign growth which, in previous reports, we had shown that in addition to increased proliferation, these tumours were also characterized by cellular senescence signs with no indication of apoptosis...
March 13, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Przemyslaw M Plonka, Jerzy P Szaflarski, Ralf Paus
The skin, a self-regulating protective barrier organ, is empowered with sensory and computing capabilities to counteract the environmental stressors to maintain/restore disrupted cutaneous homeostasis. These complex functions are coordinated by a cutaneous neuro-endocrine system that also communicates in a bidirectional fashion with the central nervous, endocrine and immune systems, all acting in concert to control body homeostasis. While ultraviolet energy (UV) has played an important role in the origin and evolution of life, UV absorption by the skin not only triggers mechanisms that defend skin integrity and regulate global homeostasis, but also induces skin pathology (e...
March 12, 2018: Endocrinology
Julia Fernandez Puñal de Araújo, Priscila Lang Podratz, Eduardo Merlo, Isabela Valim Sarmento, Charles Santos da Costa, Oscar Mauricio Santamaria Niño, Rodrigo Alves Faria, Leandro Ceotto Freitas Lima, Jones Bernardes Graceli
Organotin (OTs) compounds are organometallic compounds that are widely used in industry, such as in the manufacture of plastics, pesticides, paints, and others. OTs are released into the environment by anthropogenic actions, leading to contact with aquatic and terrestrial organisms that occur in animal feeding. Although OTs are degraded environmentally, reports have shown the effects of this contamination over the years because it can affect organisms of different trophic levels. OTs act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which can lead to several abnormalities in organisms...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
JoAnne S Richards
The "ovarian cycle" is an exquisite and dynamic endocrine system that includes ovarian events, hypothalamic-pituitary interactions, uterine endometrial and myometrial changes during implantation and pregnancy, cervical alterations in structure, and breast development. The ovarian cycle and the steroid hormones produced by the ovary also impact epithelial cancer development in the ovary, uterus, cervix, and breast. This chapter provides a personal view of recent developments that occur in this complex endocrine environment...
2018: Vitamins and Hormones
B A Kadashev, A N Konovalov, L I Astaf'eva, P L Kalinin, M A Kutin, I S Klochkova, D V Fomichev, O I Sharipov, D N Andreev
The pituitary stalk (PS) is a relatively thin bundle connecting the hypophyseal stalk to the pituitary gland; it consists of both axons of the hypothalamic nuclei (terminating in the neurohypophysis) and the system of portal vessels. Compression of the PS by a space-occupying lesion or its transection (forced or intended) during surgery may lead to the development of endocrine disorders: hypopituitarism, diabetes insipidus, and hyperprolactinemia. The modern literature lacks studies evaluating the severity of endocrine disorders depending on the PS condition before and after surgery...
2018: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
Jie Tong, Ying Yu, Linlin Zheng, Chong Zhang, Yabin Tu, Yonggang Liu, Jianan Wu, Hai Li, Shujie Wang, Chenggang Jiang, En-Min Zhou, Gang Wang, Xuehui Cai
BACKGROUND: The highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) has been responsible for several viral attacks in the Asian porcine industry, since the first outbreak in China in 2006. During the early stages of the HP-PRRSV infection, high levels of proinflammatory cytokines are noted in the host peripheral blood, which are accompanied by severe lesions in the lungs and immune system organs; these are considered as the greatest contributors to the overall disease burden...
March 14, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
John Russell, Emily Lodge, Cynthia Andoniadou
<br>As a central regulator of major physiological processes, the pituitary gland is a highly dynamic organ, capable of responding to hormonal demand and hypothalamic influence, through adapting secretion as well as remodelling cell numbers among its seven populations of differentiated cells. Stem cells of the pituitary have been shown to actively generate new cells during postnatal development but remain mostly quiescent during adulthood, where they persist as a long-lived population. Despite a significant body of research characterising attributes of anterior pituitary stem cells, the regulation of this population is poorly understood...
March 14, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Selin Elmaoğulları, Zeyra Aycan
Abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is the major gynecologic complaint of adolescents admitting to hospital. Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is the most common clinical presentation of AUB. Anovulatory cycles owing to immature hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis is the leading etiology of HMB and there is an accompanying bleeding disorder in almost %20 of patients with HMB. Additionally, endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, hyperprolactinemia and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are possible causes of AUB...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Philippa Melamed, Majd Haj, Yahav Yosefzon, Sergei Rudnizky, Andrea Wijeweera, Lilach Pnueli, Ariel Kaplan
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) stimulates the expression of multiple genes in the pituitary gonadotropes, most notably to induce synthesis of the gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), but also to ensure the appropriate functioning of these cells at the center of the mammalian reproductive endocrine axis. Aside from the activation of gene-specific transcription factors, GnRH stimulates through its membrane-bound receptor, alterations in the chromatin that facilitate transcription of its target genes...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Adrian F Daly, Emily Castermans, Lindsey Oudijk, Mirtha A Guitelman, Pablo Beckers, Iulia Potorac, Sebastian J C M M Neggers, Nathalie Sacre, Aj Van der Lely, Vincent Bours, Wouter W de Herder, Albert Beckers
Copy number variations (CNV), an important genetic mechanism in inherited tumor genetics, can affect large genetic regions or can be limited to smaller regions within genes, such deletions of single exons. Such exon deletions can be challenging to identify and sequencing can be normal in these cases. Multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) can identify CNV of individual exons. Mutations in the MAX gene are associated with a risk of sporadic and hereditary pheochromocytoma. As mutations in other pheochromocytoma related genes can also cause pituitary tumors (3P-Association), we studied whether MAX exon deletions were involved in the etiology of patients with an unexplained association of multiple endocrine neoplasia including pituitary adenoma and pheochromocytoma...
March 13, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
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