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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648620/iron-overload-induces-hypogonadism-in-male-mice-via-extrahypothalamic-mechanisms
#1
Chiara Macchi, Liliana Steffani, Roberto Oleari, Antonella Lettieri, Luca Valenti, Paola Dongiovanni, Antonio Romero-Ruiz, Manuel Tena-Sempere, Anna Cariboni, Paolo Magni, Massimiliano Ruscica
INTRODUCTION: Iron overload leads to multiple organ damage including endocrine organ dysfunctions. Hypogonadism is the most common non-diabetic endocrinopathy in primary and secondary iron overload syndromes. AIM: To explore the molecular determinants of iron overload-induced hypogonadism with specific focus on hypothalamic derangements. A dysmetabolic male murine model fed iron-enriched diet (IED) and cell-based models of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons were used...
June 22, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642733/a-case-of-pulmonary-carcinoid-tumor-with-a-superimposed-aspergilloma-presenting-as-a-covert-ectopic-adrenocorticotropic-hormone-syndrome
#2
Kyoung Jin Kim, Ji Hee Yu, Nan Hee Kim, Young Hye Kim, Young Sik Kim, Ji A Seo
Ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) syndrome is a challenging diagnosis only responsible for approximately 10% of Cushing syndrome cases. It has been associated with a variety of benign and malignant tumors including a carcinoid tumor accompanied by aspergilloma in our case that was significantly difficult to be detected. We report a patient over 70 years old with uncontrolled hypertension and hypokalemia presenting with generalized edema. Laboratory results revealed ACTH-dependent Cushing syndrome, but imaging studies did not show any discrete lesions secreting ACTH...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641706/delayed-onset-of-puberty-in-male-offspring-from-bisphenol-a-treated-dams-is-followed-by-the-modulation-of-gene-expression-in-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-testis-axis-in-adulthood
#3
Isabela M Oliveira, Renata M Romano, Patricia de Campos, Monica D Cavallin, Claudio A Oliveira, Marco A Romano
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a synthetic endocrine-disrupting chemical of high prevalence in the environment, which may affect the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-testis (HPT) axis in adult rats. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether exposure to BPA during hypothalamic sexual differentiation at doses below the reproductive no observable adverse effect level of the World Health Organization causes changes in the regulation of the HPT axis. For this, 0.5 or 5mgkg-1 BPA was injected subcutaneously to the mothers from gestational day 18 to postnatal day (PND) 5...
June 23, 2017: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634910/the-complex-biology-of-the-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-and-its-role-in-the-pituitary-gland
#4
REVIEW
Robert Formosa, Josanne Vassallo
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor best known for its ability to mediate the effects of environmental toxins such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD or dioxin), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through the initiation of transcription of a number of metabolically active enzymes. Therefore, the AHR has been studied mostly in the context of xenobiotic signaling. However, several studies have shown that the AHR is constitutively active and plays an important role in general cell physiology, independently of its activity as a xenobiotic receptor and in the absence of exogenous ligands...
June 20, 2017: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631110/expression-of-hsp27-and-hsp70-and-vacuolization-in-the-pituitary-glands-in-cases-of-fatal-hypothermia
#5
Elke Doberentz, Philipp Markwerth, Rebecca Wagner, Burkhard Madea
Hypothermia causes systemic cellular stress. The pituitary gland is an endocrine gland and plays an important role in thermoregulation. When the core body temperature drops, the pituitary gland is activated by stimulation of hypothalamic hormones. In this study, we investigated morphological alterations of the pituitary gland in cases of fatal hypothermia. Several morphological alterations of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, such as hemorrhage, vacuolization, and hyperemia, have been previously described in fatal hypothermia...
June 19, 2017: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615294/pituitary-stem-cell-regulation-who-is-pulling-the-strings
#6
Benoit Cox, Heleen Roose, Annelies Vennekens, Hugo Vankelecom
The pituitary gland plays a pivotal role in the endocrine system, steering fundamental processes of growth, metabolism, reproduction and coping with stress. The adult pituitary contains resident stem cells which are highly quiescent in homeostatic conditions. However, the cells show marked signs of activation during processes of increased cell remodeling in the gland, including maturation at neonatal age, adaptation to physiological demands, regeneration upon injury, and growth of local tumors. Although functions of pituitary stem cells are slowly but gradually uncovered, their regulation largely remains virgin territory...
June 14, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611948/van-wyk-grumbach-syndrome-with-kocher-debr%C3%A3-s%C3%A3-m%C3%A3-laigne-syndrome-case-report-of-a-rare-association
#7
Syed Mohd Razi, Abhinav Kumar Gupta, Deepak Chand Gupta, Manish Gutch, Keshav Kumar Gupta, Syeda Iqra Usman
BACKGROUND: Van Wyk-Grumbach syndrome (VWGS) is a rare presentation of juvenile hypothyroidism which manifests in females as chronic autoimmune hypothyroidism, isosexual pseudoprecocious puberty, and multicystic ovaries. It uniquely presents with short stature and delayed bone age unlike other causes of precocious puberty. Kocher-Debré-Sémélaigne (KDSS) is a rare presentation of juvenile hypothyroidism manifesting as calf muscle pseudohypertrophy, delayed contraction and relaxation of reflexes, and percussion myxedema...
February 2017: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601571/intrasellar-dermoid-cyst-mimicking-pituitary-apoplexy-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#8
Yuan-Bo Pan, Zhao-Liang Sun, Dong-Fu Feng
Intrasellar dermoid cysts are extremely unusual lesions, with only four cases reported to date, and have not been previously reported in association with sudden-onset symptoms. Here, we present the case of an intrasellar dermoid cyst with sudden-onset symptoms mimicking pituitary apoplexy in an elderly woman. A 69year-old woman presented with sudden onset of headache, dizziness, and decreased visual acuity. Magnetic resonance imaging of the sellar region showed an intrasellar lesion, which showed mixed hyper- and hypointense signal on T1-weighted and T2-weighted images and enhanced peripherally...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601516/exposure-to-e2-and-ee2-environmental-concentrations-affect-different-components-of-the-brain-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-pejerrey-fish-odontesthes-bonariensis
#9
Ángela Gárriz, Pamela S Del Fresno, Leandro A Miranda
The present study focuses on the effects of E2 and EE2 environmental concentrations on different components of the reproductive axis of pejerrey (Odontesthes bonariensis), a native fish species from Pampas lakes of Argentina. The results obtained demonstrated that E2 and EE2 separate or mixed, could disrupt key pathways of the pejerrey Brain-Pituitary-Gonadal axis. First, it was observed that at the brain level, gnrh-III and cyp19a1b mRNA expression increased significantly in the exposed fish. Secondly, in the pituitary fshb and lhb mRNA expression levels, the study did not show any differences between treated and control groups...
June 8, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596131/control-of-anterior-pituitary-cell-excitability-by-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#10
REVIEW
Michael J Shipston
In anterior pituitary endocrine cells, large (BK), small (SK) and intermediate (IK) conductance calcium activated potassium channels are key determinants in shaping cellular excitability in a cell type- and context-specific manner. Indeed, these channels are targeted by multiple signaling pathways that stimulate or inhibit cellular excitability. BK channels can, paradoxically, both promote electrical bursting as well as terminate bursting and spiking dependent upon intrinsic BK channel properties and proximity to voltage gated calcium channels in somatotrophs, lactotrophs and corticotrophs...
June 5, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591485/medical-management-and-antiepileptic-drugs-in-hypothalamic-hamartoma
#11
J Helen Cross, Helen Spoudeas
Hypothalamic hamartoma may present with epilepsy, specifically gelastic or dacrystic seizures, or endocrine dysfunction, commonly precocious puberty. The epilepsy in many patients is drug resistant, and has a high association with progressive cognitive, learning and behavioral difficulty. Medical treatment of seizures remains problematic, with many resistant to drug treatment. Surgical resection, or disconnection of the hamartoma provides the optimal chance of seizure control but with a relatively high risk of endocrine dysfunction, the result of interference with the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in many...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591475/gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-hypothalamic-hamartoma-preserves-endocrine-functions
#12
Frederic Castinetti, Thierry Brue, Isabelle Morange, Romain Carron, Jean Régis
Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GK) is an effective treatment for hypothalamic hamartoma. No precise data are available on the risk of endocrine side effects of this treatment. In this study, 34 patients with hypothalamic hamartoma (HH) were followed prospectively at the Department of Endocrinology, La Timone Hospital, Marseille, France, for a mean follow-up of >2 years (mean ± standard deviation [SD] 3.6 ± 2 years). Initial pre- and post-GK radiosurgery evaluations were performed, including weight, body mass index (BMI), and a complete endocrinological workup...
June 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587668/alterations-of-hair-cortisol-and-dehydroepiandrosterone-in-mother-infant-dyads-with-maternal-childhood-maltreatment
#13
K Schury, A M Koenig, D Isele, A L Hulbert, S Krause, M Umlauft, S Kolassa, U Ziegenhain, A Karabatsiakis, F Reister, H Guendel, J M Fegert, I-T Kolassa
BACKGROUND: Child maltreatment (CM) has severe effects on psychological and physical health. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the major stress system of the body, is dysregulated after CM. The analysis of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in scalp hair presents a new and promising methodological approach to assess chronic HPA axis activity. This study investigated the effects of CM on HPA axis activity in the last trimester of pregnancy by measuring the two important signaling molecules, cortisol and DHEA in hair, shortly after parturition...
June 6, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586151/a-heterozygous-microdeletion-of-20p12-2-3-encompassing-prokr2-and-bmp2-in-a-patient-with-congenital-hypopituitarism-and-growth-hormone-deficiency
#14
Samuel J H Parsons, Neville B Wright, Emma Burkitt-Wright, Mars S Skae, Phillip G Murray
Congenital growth hormone deficiency is a rare disorder with an incidence of approximately 1 in 4,000 live births. Pituitary development is under the control of a multitude of spatiotemporally regulated signaling molecules and transcription factors. Mutations in the genes encoding these molecules can result in hypopituitarism but for the majority of children with congenital hypopituitarism, the aetiology of their disease remains unknown. The proband is a 5-year-old girl who presented with neonatal hypoglycaemia and prolonged jaundice...
June 6, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585593/incidentaloma-from-general-practice-to-specific-endocrine-frame
#15
Ancuta Augustina Gheorghisan-Galateanu, Mara Carsote, Ana Valea
Incidentaloma, a modern concept connected to technology progress, represents an accidentally discovered tumour, usually used for hypophysis and adrenals, and rarely for thyroid, parathyroids, and ovaries. This is a narrative review based on PubMed research, between 2012 and 2016 focusing on general and endocrine approach and current controversies. Main dilemma is the terminology itself: randomly imagery finding is enough or non-functioning profile and low-growth rate (not requiring surgery) should be mandatory? The controversies refers to best time framing of re-scanning pituitary and adrenal incidentaloma and setting of clear criteria for subclinical Cushing's syndrome...
June 2017: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570439/cortisol-awakening-response-as-a-prospective-risk-factor-for-depressive-symptoms-in-women-after-treatment-for-breast-cancer
#16
Kate Ryan Kuhlman, Michael R Irwin, Patricia A Ganz, Catherine M Crespi, Laura Petersen, Arash Asher, Julienne E Bower
OBJECTIVE: To investigate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis) functioning as a neurobiological risk factor for depressive symptoms in an ongoing longitudinal, observational study of women undergoing treatment and recovery from breast cancer. Many women with breast cancer experience depressive symptoms that interfere with their treatment, recovery, and quality of life. Psychosocial risk factors for depression among cancer patients and survivors have been identified, yet neurobiological risk factors in this population remain largely unexamined...
May 31, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570329/endocrine-emergencies-with-neurologic-manifestations
#17
Makoto Ishii
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article provides an overview of endocrine emergencies with potentially devastating neurologic manifestations that may be fatal if left untreated. Pituitary apoplexy, adrenal crisis, myxedema coma, thyroid storm, acute hypercalcemia and hypocalcemia, hyperglycemic emergencies (diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state), and acute hypoglycemia are discussed, with an emphasis on identifying the signs and symptoms as well as diagnosing and managing these clinical entities...
June 2017: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566440/diagnosis-of-endocrine-disease-diagnostic-approach-to-tsh-producing-pituitary-adenoma
#18
Axel Tjörnstrand, Helena Filipsson Nyström
Thyrotropin (TSH) secreting adenomas (TSHomas) are the rarest form of pituitary adenomas and most endocrinologists will see few cases in a lifetime, if any. In most cases, the diagnostic approach is complicated and cases may be referred after being presented as a syndrome of inappropriate TSH secretion or as a pituitary mass. This review aims to cover the past, present and possible future diagnostic approaches to TSHomas, including different clinical presentations, laboratory assessment and imaging advances...
May 31, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28556585/a-practical-approach-to-diagnosing-endocrine-hypertension
#19
REVIEW
Jun Yang, Jimmy Shen, Peter J Fuller
Hypertension is a leading cardiovascular risk factor that remains difficult to manage in a large segment of the population. Secondary causes of hypertension, which are amenable to targeted treatment or even cure, may contribute to poor blood pressure control. The most common endocrine cause, primary aldosteronism, requires biochemical screening as there are often no symptoms or signs other than hypertension. Screening tests should be done after adequate preparation to optimise the results and minimise the confounding effects of diet and medications...
May 27, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545014/paracetamol-causes-endocrine-disruption-and-hepatotoxicity-in-male-fish-rhamdia-quelen-after-subchronic-exposure
#20
Izonete Cristina Guiloski, João Luiz Coelho Ribas, Laercio Dante Stein Piancini, Ana Carolina Dagostim, Silvana Maris Cirio, Luis Fernando Fávaro, Suelen Lúcio Boschen, Marta Margarete Cestari, Cláudio da Cunha, Helena Cristina Silva de Assis
Paracetamol is one of the most widely sold non-prescription drugs. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of the paracetamol on reproductive, biochemical, genetic, histopathological and hematogical biomarkers by waterborne exposure. Male fish of Rhamdia quelen were exposed to environmental concentrations of paracetamol (0, 0.25, 2.5μg/L) in a semi-static bioassay for 21days. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were reduced upon exposure to 0.25μg/L of paracetamol. Leukocytes and thrombocytes increased after paracetamol exposure...
May 8, 2017: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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