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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150304/are-the-estrogenic-hormonal-effects-of-environmental-toxins-affecting-small-intestinal-bacterial-and-microfilaria-overgrowth
#1
Edward Lichten
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149074/central-cns-and-peripheral-gastric-tissue-selective-monitoring-of-somatostatin-srif-with-micro-sensor-and-voltammetry-in-rats-influence-of-growth-factors-gh-egf
#2
Francesco Crespi
Somatostatin (SRIF) is widely distributed throughout the body, and regulates the endocrine system via interactions with various hormones, including the pituitary growth hormone, the thyroid stimulating hormone and the majority of the hormones of the gastrointestinal tract. SRIF is present in the central nervous system (CNS), where it affects rates of neurotransmission, and is also reported to be active in the intestinal tract, with evidence that stressed rats present a significant decrease in antral somatostatin-like immunoreactivity (SLI)...
November 17, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139221/evaluation-of-hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid-axis-function-by-chronic-perchlorate-exposure-in-male-rats
#3
Caroline Serrano-Nascimento, Jamile Calil-Silveira, Rafael Dalbosco, Telma Tenorio Zorn, Maria Tereza Nunes
Perchlorate is a widespread endocrine disruptor that was previously correlated with increased serum TSH levels and decreased thyroid hormones production both in animals and humans. Even so, the regulation of gene/protein expression in the hypothalamus, pituitary and thyroid by chronic perchlorate exposure was not completely elucidated. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in the disruption of hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis by chronic perchlorate exposure. Male Wistar rats were treated or not with NaClO4 in the drinking water (35 mg/Kg/day) for 60 days...
November 15, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135108/addressing-the-post-irradiation-hypothalamic-pituitary-endocrine-abnormalities-of-brain-tumors-in-pediatric-patients
#4
Louloudenia Velentza, Maria Tolia, Charikleia Christakou, Michail Nikolaou, Ioannis Zerdes, Nikolaos Tsoukalas, Jiannis Hajiioannou, Konstantinos Tsanadis, Georgios Rigas, Michail Mitsis, Kyriaki Theodorou, Kyriaki Pistevou-Gombaki, Periklis Tsekeris, George Kyrgias
PURPOSE: Hypothalamic-pituitary axis is susceptible to radiotherapy, causing endocrine disorders to childhood cancer survivors. We conducted a systematic review in order to assess the radiation-induced toxicity that leads to hormone secretion abnormalities and their severity in children with brain tumors. METHODS: The data were collected by relevant studies on PubMed and EMBASE. Articles up to December 2016 were included. We selected studies which focused on children patients (<18 yr old) with brain tumors treated with radiotherapy and the consequences for their endocrine system...
September 2017: Journal of B.U.ON.: Official Journal of the Balkan Union of Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132721/endocrine-pathology-past-present-and-future
#5
REVIEW
Sylvia L Asa, Ozgur Mete
Endocrine pathology is the subspecialty of diagnostic pathology which deals with the diagnosis and characterisation of neoplastic and non-neoplastic diseases of the endocrine system. This relatively young subspecialty was initially focused mainly on thyroid and parathyroid pathology, with some participants also involved in studies of the pituitary, the endocrine pancreas, and the adrenal glands. However, the endocrine system involves much more than these traditional endocrine organs and the discipline has grown to encompass lesions of the dispersed neuroendocrine cells, including neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, thymus, breast and prostate, as well as paraganglia throughout the body, not just in the adrenals...
November 10, 2017: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128250/sex-specific-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-sensitivity-in-migrating-songbirds
#6
Kristen M Covino, Jodie M Jawor, Sara R Morris, Frank R Moore
In seasonally migratory species, the overlap between the migratory and breeding life history stages is a balance between the physiological and behavioral requirements of each stage. Previous studies investigating the degree to which songbirds prepare for breeding during spring migration have focused on either circulating hormone levels or direct measures of gonadal recrudescence. In this study, we evaluated the phenology of breeding preparation in a long-distance migratory songbird, the Swainson's Thrush (Catharus ustulatus), by assessing hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis sensitivity with gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) bioassays throughout the migratory period...
November 14, 2017: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125115/roles-of-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-and-hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary-axis-in-the-abnormal-endocrine-functions-in-patients-with-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#7
Fan Wang, Zheng-Hong Zhang, Kai-Zhuan Xiao, Zheng-Chao Wang
Polycystic ovary syndrome(PCOS) is a common reproductive endocrine disease in women of childbearing age. While it can be affected by a variety of factors,its pathophysiology remains unclear. Its clinical features mainly include anovulation,hyperandrogenism,and hyperinsulinemia,which are closely related with abnormal neuroendocrine system. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis(HPG) plays a crucial regulatory role in various life activities in mammals. In particular,hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal(HPA) axis and hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary(HPO) axis can be abnormal in PCOS patients...
October 30, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118985/acute-development-of-cushing-syndrome-in-an-hiv-infected-child-on-atazanavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy
#8
Gueorgui Dubrocq, Andrea Estrada, Shannon Kelly, Natella Rakhmanina
An 11-year-old male with perinatally acquired human immune deficiency virus (HIV) infection on antiretroviral regimen, which included abacavir plus lamivudine (Epzicom), didanosine, ritonavir and atazanavir presented with bilateral axillary striae, increased appetite, fatigue, facial swelling and acute weight gain. Two months prior to presentation, the patient had received a diagnostic and therapeutic intra-articular triamcinolone injection in the knee for pain relief and subsequently became progressively swollen in the face, developed striae bilaterally at the axillae, experienced increased appetite, fatigue and an 8 pound weight gain...
2017: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112878/reproductive-and-endocrine-disrupting-toxicity-of-microcystis-aeruginosa-in-female-zebrafish
#9
Guangfu Liu, Mingjing Ke, Xiaoji Fan, Meng Zhang, Youchao Zhu, Tao Lu, Liwei Sun, Haifeng Qian
Microcystis aeruginosa, a primary species in cyanobacterial blooms, is ubiquitously distributed in water. Microcystins (MCs) purified from M. aeruginosa can exert reproductive toxicity in fish. However, the effects of M. aeruginosa at environmentally relevant levels on the reproductive and endocrine systems of zebrafish are still unknown. The present study investigated the reproductive and endocrine-disrupting toxicity of M. aeruginosa on female zebrafish (Danio rerio) by short-term exposure (96 h). After exposure, marked histological lesions in the liver or gonads, such as nuclear pyknosis and deformation, were observed, and the fertilization rate and hatchability of eggs spawned from treated females were both significantly lower than they were in females in the control group, suggesting the possibility of transgenerational effects of M...
November 1, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111305/landmark-discoveries-in-elucidating-the-origins-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-system-from-the-perspective-of-a-basal-vertebrate-sea-lamprey
#10
REVIEW
Stacia A Sower
The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) system, which is specific to vertebrates, is considered to be an evolutionary innovation that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral jawless vertebrates (agnathans) leading to the neuroendocrine control of many complex functions. Along with hagfish, lampreys represent the oldest lineage of vertebrates, agnathans (jawless fish). This review will highlight our discoveries of the major components of the lamprey HP axis. Generally, gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates) have one or two hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH) while lampreys have three hypothalamic GnRHs...
October 27, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106072/regulation-of-continuous-but-complex-expression-pattern-of-six1-during-early-sensory-development
#11
Shigeru Sato, Yasuhide Furuta, Kiyoshi Kawakami
BACKGROUND: In vertebrates, cranial sensory placodes give rise to neurosensory and endocrine structures such as the olfactory epithelium, inner ear and anterior pituitary. We report here the establishment of a transgenic mouse line that expresses Cre recombinase under the control of Six1-21, a major placodal enhancer of the homeobox gene Six1. RESULTS: In the new Cre-expressing line, mSix1-21-NLSCre, the earliest Cre-mediated recombination was induced at embryonic day 8...
November 6, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105398/oral-quercetin-supplementation-enhances-adiponectin-receptor-transcript-expression-in-polycystic-ovary-syndrome-patients-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-double-blind-clinical-trial
#12
Neda Rezvan, Ashraf Moini, Sattar Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar
OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), an ovarian-pituitary axis androgen disorder, is a common endocrine disease in women. Obesity-induced androgenesis and imbalance of adipokine secretion may lead to some metabolic features of PCOS. The beneficial effects of polyphenolic compounds such as quercetin have been reported, however, the underlying molecular mechanism is not entirely understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of quercetin supplementation on the expression of adiponectin receptors at the transcript level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) samples of PCOS patients...
January 2018: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104246/relation-among-aromatase-p450-and-tumoral-growth-in-human-prolactinomas
#13
REVIEW
María José García-Barrado, Enrique J Blanco, María Carmen Iglesias-Osma, Marta Carretero-Hernández, Leonardo Catalano-Iniesta, Virginia Sanchez-Robledo, Manuel Carretero, Julio Joaquín Herrero, Sixto Carrero, José Carretero
The pituitary gland is part of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, which controls development, reproduction, and aging in humans and animals. In addition, the pituitary gland is regulated mainly by hormones and neurotransmitters released from the hypothalamus and by systemic hormones secreted by target glands. Aromatase P450, the enzyme responsible for the catabolization of aromatizable androgens to estrogens, is expressed in different parts of body, including the pituitary gland. Moreover, aromatase P450 is involved in sexual dimorphism where alteration in the level of aromatase can initiate a number of diseases in both genders...
November 1, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104061/post-weaning-social-isolation-of-rats-leads-to-long-term-disruption-of-the-gut-microbiota-immune-brain-axis
#14
Fionn Dunphy Doherty, Siobhain M O'Mahony, Veronica L Peterson, Orla O'Sullivan, Fiona Crispie, Paul D Cotter, Peter Wigmore, Madeleine V King, John F Cryan, Kevin C F Fone
Early-life stress is an established risk for the development of psychiatric disorders. Post-weaning isolation rearing of rats produces lasting developmental changes in behavior and brain function that may have translational pathophysiological relevance to alterations seen in schizophrenia, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Accumulating evidence supports the premise that gut microbiota influence brain development and function by affecting inflammatory mediators, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and neurotransmission, but there is little knowledge of whether the microbiota-gut-brain axis might contribute to the development of schizophrenia-related behaviors...
November 2, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103386/pituitary-adenoma-associated-with-rathke-s-cleft-cyst-report-of-15-cases
#15
Wenhao Wu, Guijun Jia, Wang Jia, Guilin Li, Junting Zhang, Liwei Zhang
OBJECTIVE: The concomitant presence of pituitary adenoma (PA) with Rathke's cleft cyst (RCC) is rare, and most of the literature published is case reports. RCC's clinicopathological features have not been well described. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 15 patients with PA associated with RCC. We also provide a systematic review of the literature. RESULTS: The patients included males and seven females. The transsphenoidal approach was adopted for all patients except one, who underwent right frontal craniotomy...
November 6, 2017: Canadian Journal of Neurological Sciences. le Journal Canadien des Sciences Neurologiques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100688/bisphenol-a-and-reproductive-hormones-and-cortisol-in-peripubertal-boys-the-inma-granada-cohort
#16
Vicente Mustieles, Olga Ocón-Hernandez, Lidia Mínguez-Alarcón, Cristina Dávila-Arias, Rocío Pérez-Lobato, Irene Calvente, Juan P Arrebola, Fernando Vela-Soria, Soledad Rubio, Russ Hauser, Nicolás Olea, Mariana F Fernández
INTRODUCTION: Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known endocrine disrupting compound. Although several studies have investigated the effect of BPA exposure and reproductive hormones in humans, results have been inconsistent. OBJECTIVE: To explore the cross-sectional relationship between bisphenol A (BPA) exposure and reproductive hormones/cortisol among peripubertal boys. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Urinary BPA and serum hormones were assessed in 172 boys belonging to the INMA "Environment and Childhood" Granada birth cohort in their follow-up at 9-11years of age...
October 31, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096293/effects-of-the-bioconcentration-and-parental-transfer-of-environmentally-relevant-concentrations-of-difenoconazole-on-endocrine-disruption-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio
#17
Miaomiao Teng, Suzhen Qi, Wentao Zhu, Yao Wang, Dezhen Wang, Kai Dong, Chengju Wang
Difenoconazole, a typical triazole fungicide, inhibits lanosterol-14R-demethylase (CYP51) to prevent fungal sterol synthesis and its residues are frequently detected in the environment due to its wide application. Previous studies have demonstrated that difenoconazole altered the triglyceride levels, and gene expression relevant to cholesterol biosynthesis in zebrafish. However, endocrine-disruption in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal-liver (HPGL) axis, the effects of transferring to offspring, and the underlying mechanisms of difenoconazole in aquatic organisms are still unknown...
October 26, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095280/primary-hypothyroidism-and-isolated-acth-deficiency-induced-by-nivolumab-therapy-case-report-and-review
#18
REVIEW
Mei Fang Zeng, Li Chen, Hong Ying Ye, Wei Gong, Li Nuo Zhou, Yi Ming Li, Xiao Long Zhao
RATIONALE: Nivolumab is a monoclonal IgG antibody blocking programmed death receptor-1 (PD1), leading to restoration of the natural T-cell-mediated immune response against the cancer cells. However, it also causes plenty of autoimmune-related adverse events, which often involves endocrine system. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 54-year-old male with renal clear cell carcinoma was treated with nivolumab intravenously. Routine monitoring showed elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone and low free thyroxine after the 6th administration of nivolumab...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29095270/pituitary-insufficiency-following-traumatic-thoracic-injury-in-an-adolescent-male-patient-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Aleksandra Gilis-Januszewska, Łukasz Kluczyński, Małgorzata Wilusz, Jacek Pantofliński, Renata Turek-Jabrocka, Dorota Pach, Alicja Hubalewska-Dydejczyk
RATIONALE: Traumatic thoracic injuries in adolescents are rare but could be connected with traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and development of chronic hypopituitarism. Early recognition of these endocrine problems is a significant challenge to clinicians. We present difficulties in diagnosis of hypothalamic-pituitary insufficiency following traumatic thoracic injury in adolescence. We also review the literature of similar cases. PATIENT CONCERNS: We present a case of a 24-years-old male...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093374/-molecular-mechanism-whereby-maternal-exposure-to-dioxin-suppresses-sexual-maturation-of-the-offspring-after-growing-up
#20
Tomoki Takeda
 Dioxins, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), are responsible for producing serious toxic effects in the next generation, such as sexual immaturity. Our laboratory found that treating pregnant rats on gestational day 15 with TCDD (1 μg/kg orally) targets pituitary luteinizing hormone (LH) to attenuate testicular steroidogenesis in fetuses. Because sex steroids during a short window ("the critical period") in the perinatal stage stimulate brain differentiation closely linked to sexual maturation, it is likely that TCDD imprints sexual immaturity on the offspring due to the lowered expression of LH during the fetal period...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
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