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endocrine and pituitary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331929/sex-related-differential-response-to-dexamethasone-in-endocrine-and-immune-measures-in-depressed-in-patients-and-healthy-controls
#1
Carina Rampp, Andreas Eichelkraut, Johanna Best, Darina Czamara, Monika Rex-Haffner, Manfred Uhr, Elisabeth B Binder, Andreas Menke
Although sex differences in major depression have been reported repeatedly, the underlying mechanisms are still disputed. The rapidly changing gonadal steroid concentrations of the postpartum period or during menopause have been shown to be associated with depressive symptoms and to modulate the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis, which is implicated in depression. The sample comprised of 128 depressed in-patients (36.7% women) and 166 healthy controls (30.0% women). Blood was collected at baseline (at 6pm) and then 3 h as well as 21 h after ingestion of 1...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330195/dicer1-gene-mutations-in-endocrine-tumors
#2
Michael Solarski, Fabio Rotondo, William Foulkes, John R Priest, Luis V Syro, Henriett Butz, Michael Cusimano, Kalman Kovacs
In this review, the importance of the DICER1 gene in the function of endocrine cells is discussed. There is conclusive evidence that DICER1 mutations play a crucial role in the development, progression, cell proliferation, therapeutic responsiveness and behavior of several endocrine tumors. We review the literature of DICER1 gene mutations in thyroid, parathyroid, pituitary, pineal gland, endocrine pancreas, paragangliomas, medullary, adrenocortical, ovarian, and testicular tumors. Although significant progress has been made during the last few years, much more work is needed to fully understand the significance of DICER1 mutations...
January 12, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327300/cant%C3%A3%C2%BA-syndrome-with-coexisting-familial-pituitary-adenoma
#3
Pedro Marques, Rupert Spencer, Patrick J Morrison, Ian M Carr, Mary N Dang, David T Bonthron, Steven Hunter, Márta Korbonits
CONTEXT: Pseudoacromegaly describes conditions with an acromegaly related physical appearance without abnormalities in the growth hormone (GH) axis. Acromegaloid facies, together with hypertrichosis, are typical manifestations of Cantú syndrome. CASE DESCRIPTION: We present a three-generation family with 5 affected members, with marked acromegaloid facies and prominent hypertrichosis, due to a novel missense variant in the ABCC9 gene. The proband, a 2-year-old girl, was referred due to marked hypertrichosis, noticed soon after birth, associated with coarsening of her facial appearance...
January 11, 2018: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316515/the-body-burden-and-thyroid-disruption-in-lizards-eremias-argus-living-in-benzoylurea-pesticides-contaminated-soil
#4
Jing Chang, Jitong Li, Weiyu Hao, Huili Wang, Wei Li, Baoyuan Guo, Jianzhong Li, Yinghuan Wang, Peng Xu
Dermal exposure is regarded as a potentially significant but understudied route for pesticides uptake in terrestrial reptiles. In this study, a native Chinese lizard was exposed to control, diflubenzuron or flufenoxuron contaminated soil (1.5 mg kg-1) for 35 days. Tissue distribution, liver lesions, thyroid hormone levels and transcription of most target genes were examined. The half-lives of diflubenzuron and flufenoxuron in the soil were 118.9 and 231.8 days, respectively. The accumulation of flufenoxuron in the liver, brain, kidney, heart, plasma and skin (1...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315384/induction-of-stress-signaling-in-vitro-and-suppression-of-gonadotropin-secretion-by-free-fatty-acids-in-female-mouse-gonadotropes
#5
Song Li, Ekaette F Mbong, Denise T John, Tomohiro Terasaka, Danmei Li, Mark A Lawson
An emerging body of evidence supports the concept that the pituitary is a site for integration of multiple physiological and metabolic signals that inform and modulate endocrine pathways. Multiple endocrine mediators of energy balance and adiposity are known to impinge on the neuroendocrine axis regulating reproduction. Observations in humans show that obesity is correlated with decreased gonadotropin secretion, and studies have also suggested that pituitary sensitivity to stimulation by gonadotropin-releasing hormone is decreased in obese individuals...
January 5, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313284/endocrinological-aspects-of-hiv-infection
#6
REVIEW
F S Mirza, P Luthra, L Chirch
PURPOSE: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are living longer with effective antiretroviral therapies and are enjoying near normal life span. Therefore, they are encountering endocrine issues faced by the general population along with those specific to HIV infection. The purpose of this article is to review the common endocrine aspects of HIV infection, and the early detection and management strategies for these complications. METHODS: Recent literature on HIV and endocrine disease was reviewed...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29312650/nanoparticles-and-female-reproductive-system-how-do-nanoparticles-affect-oogenesis-and-embryonic-development
#7
REVIEW
Cong-Cong Hou, Jun-Quan Zhu
Along with the increasing application of nanoparticles (NPs) in many walks of life, environmental exposure to NPs has raised considerable health concerns. When NPs enter a pregnant woman's body through inhalation, venous injection, ingestion or skin permeation, maternal toxic stress reactions such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), inflammation, apoptosis and endocrine dyscrasia are induced in different organs, particularly in the reproductive organs. Recent studies have shown that NPs disturb the developing oocyte by invading the protective barrier of theca cells, granulosa cell layers and zona pellucida...
December 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306026/differential-regulation-of-tefluthrin-and-telmisartan-on-the-gating-charges-of-ina-activation-and-inactivation-as-well-as-on-resurgent-and-persistent-ina-in-a-pituitary-cell-line-gh3
#8
Edmund Cheung So, Sheng-Nan Wu, Yi-Ching Lo, Kevin Su
Voltage-gated Na+ currents (INa), known to contain many components (e.g., transient, resurgent and persistent INa) with unique gating properties, are involved in the generation and propagation of action potentials in excitable cells. In this study, how tefluthrin (Tef), a synthetic pyrethoid, and telmisartan (TEL), blocker of angiotensin II receptors can perturb those components of INa was investigated. The presence of either Tef or TEL increased the values of the gating charges of INa involved in the activation (za) and inactivation (za)...
January 3, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299127/adverse-stimulation-of-4-nonylphenol-in-abnormal-reproductive-organs-of-female-chickens
#9
Fenghua Zhang, Peng Yang, Lei Qin, Jie Zhang
4-Nonylphenol (4-NP) is a known endocrine disrupting chemical and a persistent environmental contaminant. However, the 4-NP caused mechanism of reproductive toxicity still remains largely unknown in birds. In this study, female chickens (Hy-Line Variety White) were dosed via oral gavage in the early laying period with 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg 4-NP/kg/d for 60 days. Food intake and weight increase were monitored in this organism to investigate chicken growth and development. Moreover, pathological changes of reproductive organs, serum hormone, and mRNA changes on the HPOA were detected...
December 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286362/dissection-and-coronal-slice-preparation-of-developing-mouse-pituitary-gland
#10
Dongmei Cao, Xianhua Ma, Weiping J Zhang, Zhifang Xie
The pituitary gland or hypophysis is an important endocrine organ secreting hormones essential for homeostasis. It consists of two glands with separate embryonic origins and functions - the neurohypophysis and the adenohypophysis. The developing mouse pituitary gland is tiny and delicate with an elongated oval shape. A coronal section is preferred to display both the adenohypophysis and neurohypophysis in a single slice of the mouse pituitary. The goal of this protocol is to achieve proper pituitary coronal sections with well-preserved tissue architectures from developing mice...
November 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285439/incidence-of-endocrine-disorders-in-indian-adult-male-population
#11
K V S H Kumar, S K Patnaik
Background: The comprehensive epidemiology of endocrine disorders is lacking from our country. Most of the available data pertain to the prevalence of diabetes and thyroid disorders only. We studied the incidence of endocrine disorders in a cohort of service personnel followed for a long duration. Materials and Methods: The data for this descriptive epidemiologic study were derived from the electronic medical records of the male service personnel enrolled between 1990 and 2015...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284809/evaluation-of-endocrine-parameters-as-predictor-of-major-depressive-disorder
#12
Soma Gupta, Amrita Mukherjee, Sangita Biswas, Smarajit Bose, Saswati Nath, Harendra Nath Das
Background: The diagnosis of the disease, major depressive disorder (MDD), entirely depends on the presence of some symptoms without any biochemical parameter to support it. Depletion of dopamine though is an established feature, is not the sole causative factor of MDD. Moreover, it has very little diagnostic value due to a short half-life. Other chemical messengers like hormones have also been found to get altered due to significant over activity of hypothalamo-pituitary axis. Literature review suggests that cortisol, thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin (PRL) are mostly altered in MDD, which can be utilized to diagnose the condition...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281094/impaired-processing-of-prohormones-in-secretogranin-iii-null-mice-causes-maladaptation-to-an-inadequate-diet-and-stress
#13
Maeda Yoshinori, Saki Kudo, Ken Tsushima, Eri Sato, Chisato Kubota, Aika Kayamori, Hiroki Bochimoto, Daisuke Kouga, Seiji Torii, Hiroshi Gomi, Tsuyoshi Watanabe, Masahiro Hosaka
Secretogranin III (SgIII), a member of the granin family, binds both to another granin, chromogranin A (CgA), and to a cholesterol-rich membrane that is destined for secretory granules (SGs). The knockdown of SgIII in ACTH-producing AtT-20 cells largely impairs the regulated secretion of CgA and ACTH. To clarify the physiological roles of SgIII in vivo, we analyzed hormone secretion and SG biogenesis in newly established SgIII-knockout (KO) mice. Although the SgIII-KO mice were viable and fertile and exhibited no overt abnormalities under ordinary rearing conditions, a high-fat/high-sucrose diet caused pronounced obesity in the mice...
December 21, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280026/management-of-non-functioning-pituitary-adenomas-surgery
#14
REVIEW
David L Penn, William T Burke, Edward R Laws
Non-functional pituitary adenomas (NFPAs) are benign tumors of the pituitary gland that do not over-secrete hormonal products, therefore, they are generally detected through symptoms of mass effect, including headache, vision loss, or hypopituitarism. There are multiple pathological subtypes of NFPAs, such as null cell adenomas, silent gonadotrophs, silent somatotrophs, silent corticotrophs, and silent subtype 3, all of which can be classified based on immunohistochemical studies and electron microscopy. Despite these numerous pathological subtypes, surgical resection remains the first-line treatment for NFPAs...
December 26, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280025/management-of-nonfunctioning-pituitary-adenomas-nfas-observation
#15
REVIEW
Wenyu Huang, Mark E Molitch
Clinically nonfunctioning pituitary adenomas (NFAs) range from those causing significant hypothalamic/pituitary dysfunction and visual field compromise due to their large size to those being completely asymptomatic. In the absence of hypersecretion, hypopituitarism or visual field defects, patients with NFAs may be followed by periodic surveillance using MRI to detect tumor enlargement. In some cases, endocrine tests are also needed during observation to discover new pituitary dysfunction. Enlargement of NFAs without treatment occurs in about 10% of microadenomas and 23% of macroadenomas...
December 26, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276994/transcriptomic-analysis-reveals-transgenerational-effect-of-hypoxia-on-the-neural-control-of-testicular-functions
#16
Keng Po Lai, Jing Woei Li, Simon Yuan Wang, Miles Teng Wan, Ting Fung Chan, Wing Yee Lui, Doris Wai-Ting Au, Rudolf Shiu-Sun Wu, Richard Yuen-Chong Kong
There are over 400 hypoxic zones in the ocean worldwide. Both laboratory and field studies have shown that hypoxia causes endocrine disruption and reproductive impairments in vertebrates. More importantly, our recent study discovered that parental (F0) hypoxia exposure resulted in the transgenerational impairment of sperm quality in the F2 generation through the epigenetic regulation of germ cells. In the present study, we aim to test the hypothesis that the brain, as the major regulator of the brain-pituitary-gonad (BPG) axis, is also involved in the observed transgenerational effect...
December 16, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275530/histopathological-classification-of-non-functioning-pituitary-neuroendocrine-tumors
#17
REVIEW
Emilija Manojlovic-Gacic, Britt Edén Engström, Olivera Casar-Borota
Non-functioning pituitary neuroendocrine tumors do not cause endocrine symptoms related to hypersecretion of adenohypophyseal hormones and are clinically characterized by symptoms due to growing sellar tumor mass. Histopathological classification of this tumor group has always been challenging due to their heterogeneity, limited knowledge on their biology, and diverse methodological problems. We have searched PubMed database for data related to the histopathological classification of non-functioning pituitary tumors and methods for its application...
December 23, 2017: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274061/tgf%C3%AE-signaling-reinforces-pericyte-properties-of-the-non-endocrine-mouse-pituitary-cell-line-ttt-gf
#18
Takehiro Tsukada, Saishu Yoshida, Keiji Kito, Ken Fujiwara, Hideji Yako, Kotaro Horiguchi, Yukinobu Isowa, Takashi Yashiro, Takako Kato, Yukio Kato
The non-endocrine TtT/GF mouse pituitary cell line was derived from radiothyroidectomy-induced pituitary adenoma. In addition to morphological characteristics, because the cells are S100β-positive, they have been accepted as a model of folliculostellate cells. However, our recent microarray analysis indicated that, in contrast to folliculostellate cells, TtT/GF cells might not be terminally differentiated, as they share some properties with stem/progenitor cells, vascular endothelial cells and pericytes. The present study investigates whether transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) can elicit further differentiation of these cells...
December 22, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250490/microbiota-modulate-anxiety-like-behavior-and-endocrine-abnormalities-in-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis
#19
Ran Huo, Benhua Zeng, Li Zeng, Ke Cheng, Bo Li, Yuanyuan Luo, Haiyang Wang, Chanjuan Zhou, Liang Fang, Wenxia Li, Rong Niu, Hong Wei, Peng Xie
Intestinal microbes are an important system in the human body, with significant effects on behavior. An increasing body of research indicates that intestinal microbes affect brain function and neurogenesis, including sensitivity to stress. To investigate the effects of microbial colonization on behavior, we examined behavioral changes associated with hormones and hormone receptors in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis under stress. We tested germ-free (GF) mice and specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice, divided into four groups...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236469/synthetic-phenolic-antioxidants-cause-perturbation-in-steroidogenesis-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#20
Xiaoxi Yang, Wenting Song, Na Liu, Zhendong Sun, Ruirui Liu, Qian S Liu, Qunfang Zhou, Guibin Jiang
Synthetic phenolic antioxidants (SPAs) are closely correlated with human life due to their extensive usages, and increasing concerns have been raised on their biosafety. The previous controversial findings caused continuous debates on their potential endocrine disrupting effects. In the present study, four commonly used SPAs, including butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), tert-butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) and 2,2'-methylenebis(6-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol) (AO2246), were investigated for their estrogenic effects, and the results from in vitro screening assays showed SPAs themselves had negligible estrogen receptor binding affinities...
December 13, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
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