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endocrine and pituitary

Zhen Huo, Tao Lu, Zhiyong Liang, Fan Ping, Jie Shen, Jingjing Lu, Wenbing Ma, Dachun Zhao, Dingrong Zhong
BACKGROUND: Isolated hypothalamic-pituitary Langerhans cell histiocytosis (HPLCH) is very rare. We investigated the clinicopathological characteristics, endocrine function changes, BRAF(V600E) mutations and treatments of isolated HPLCH. METHODS: We identified seven patients with isolated HPLCH by reviewing the clinical and pathological files in our hospital from 2007 to 2015. The clinical characteristics of the seven patients were retrospectively reviewed, especially the endocrine function changes...
October 19, 2016: Diagnostic Pathology
C Yding Andersen
The aim of the present paper is to expand the concept on how follicular selection takes place in the follicular phase of the natural menstrual cycle. It is suggested that inhibin-B exerts a more intimate role in this process than previously understood. Inhibin-B shows a peak in the circulation around cycle day 7, simultaneous with selection of the dominant follicle, whereas levels of estradiol and inhibin-A only start to increase a few days later suggesting that inhibin-B is mainly responsible for down-regulating pituitary FSH release...
October 18, 2016: Molecular Human Reproduction
L Maïmoun, F Paris, O Coste, C Sultan
Participation in recreational physical activity is widely acknowledged to provide significant health benefits. Conversely, intense training imposes several constraints, such as intermittent or chronic metabolic and psychogenic training stressors and maintenance of very low body fat to maximize performance. Adolescent and adult athletic women are therefore at risk of overtraining and/or poor dietary intake, which may have several consequences for endocrine function particularly on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
October 14, 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
S Noe, A von Werder, R Iakoubov, H Schneider, M Thaler, P Luppa, B Neu
Purpose: To investigate the kinetics of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) following oral metyrapone administration and describe differences between ACTH-deficient and non-ACTH-deficient subjects. Methods: Patients from a tertiary endocrine center at a University Hospital in Munich, Germany, were tested for secondary adrenal insufficiency in a regular patient care setting. Metyrapone (Metopirone, HRA Pharma, France) was administered with a dosage of 40 mg/kg bodyweight at 8 a.m. Consecutive levels of ACTH were determined at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min...
October 17, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Patrizio Caturegli, Giulia Di Dalmazi, Martina Lombardi, Federica Grosso, H Benjamin Larman, Tatianna Larman, Giacomo Taverna, Mirco Cosottini, Isabella Lupi
Hypophysitis that develops in cancer patients treated with monoclonal antibodies blocking cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4; an inhibitory molecule classically expressed on T cells) is now reported at an incidence of approximately 10%. Its pathogenesis is unknown, in part because no pathological examination of the pituitary gland has been reported to date. We analyzed at autopsy the pituitary glands of six cancer patients treated with CTLA-4 blockade, one with clinical and pathological evidence of hypophysitis, one with mild lymphocytic infiltration in the pituitary gland but no clinical signs of hypophysitis, and four with normal pituitary structure and function...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Alisha M Truman, Jonathan L Tilly, Dori C Woods
The endocrine function of the ovary is dependent upon the ovarian follicle, which on a cellular basis consists of an oocyte surrounded by adjacent somatic cells responsible for generating sex steroid hormones and maintenance of hormonal stasis with the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. As females age, both fertility and the endocrine function of the ovary decline due to waning follicle numbers as well as aging-related cellular dysfunction. Although there is currently no cure for ovarian failure and endocrine disruption, recent advances in ovarian biology centered on ovarian stem cell and progenitor cell populations have brought the prospects of cell- or tissue-based therapeutic strategies closer to fruition...
October 12, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Francisca Caimari, Márta Korbonits
Recently, a number of novel genetic alterations have been identified that predispose individuals to pituitary adenomas. Clinically relevant pituitary adenomas are relatively common, present in 0.1% of the general population. They are mostly benign monoclonal neoplasms that arise from any of the five hormone-secreting cell types of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, and cause disease due to hormonal alterations and local space-occupying effects. The pathomechanism of pituitary adenomas includes alterations in cell-cycle regulation and growth factor signaling, which are mostly due to epigenetic changes; somatic and especially germline mutations occur more rarely...
October 15, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Maria Fleseriu, Ibrahim A Hashim, Niki Karavitaki, Shlomo Melmed, M Hassan Murad, Roberto Salvatori, Mary H Samuels
OBJECTIVE: To formulate clinical practice guidelines for hormonal replacement in hypopituitarism in adults. PARTICIPANTS: The participants include an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of six experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. The American Association for Clinical Chemistry, the Pituitary Society, and the European Society of Endocrinology co-sponsored this guideline. EVIDENCE: The Task Force developed this evidence-based guideline using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system to describe the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Karolína Drbalová, Kateřina Herdová, Petr Krejčí, Monika Nývltová, Svatopluk Solař, Lenka Vedralová, Pavel Záruba, David Netuka, Petr Bavor
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) is a condition in which several endocrine organs of an individual are affected by adenoma, hyperplasia and less often carcinoma, either simultaneously or at different stages of life. Two existing syndromes, MEN1 and MEN2 (2A, 2B), in literature is also mentioned MEN4, are associated also with other non-endocrine disorders. MEN1 (Wermer syndrome) affects the pituitary, parathyroid, and pancreatic area. 95 % of patients show very early manifestation of hyperparathyroidism, often before 40 years of age...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Teresa A Burns
Endocrine diseases, such as equine metabolic syndrome and pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction, are common in domesticated horse populations, and the frequency with which these diseases are encountered and managed by equine veterinary practitioners is expected to increase as the population ages. As clinicians learn more about the effects of these diseases on equine reproductive physiology and efficiency (including effects on reproductive seasonality, ovulation efficiency, implantation, early pregnancy loss, duration of pregnancy, and lactation), strategies and guidelines for improving fertility in affected animals continue to evolve...
October 8, 2016: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Rebecca Milsk, Jenna E Cavallin, Elizabeth J Durhan, Kathleen M Jensen, Michael D Kahl, Elizabeth A Makynen, Dalma Martinović-Weigelt, Nathan Mueller, Anthony Schroeder, Daniel L Villeneuve, Gerald T Ankley
The aim of this study was to investigate temporal changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) treated with the model androgen receptor (AR) antagonist flutamide. Reproductively-mature fish were exposed in a flow-through test to analytically-confirmed concentrations of either 50 or 500μg flutamide/L for 8 d, followed by an 8-d recovery period in clean water. Fish were sampled at 1, 2, 4 and 8days during each phase of the experiment. Flutamide (500μg/L) caused significant reductions in relative gonad size of the females on day 8 of the exposure and day 1 of the recovery, and reduced expression of secondary sex characteristics in males during the exposure phase of the experiment...
October 1, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Jun Fan, Cui Zhang, Qi Chen, Jin Zhou, Jean-Louis Franc, Qing Chen, Yunguang Tong
Isolated hormone deficiency might be caused by loss of a specific type of endocrine cells, and regenerating these missing cells may provide a new option for future treatment. It is known that POU1F1 lineage cells can differentiate into thyrotroph, somatotroph, and lactotroph. However, there is no effective way of controlling pituitary stem/progenitor cells to differentiate into a specific type of endocrine cell. We thereby analyzed multiple genomic publications related to POU1F1 and pituitary development in this study to identify genes and agents regulating POU1F1 lineage cell differentiation...
October 5, 2016: Functional & Integrative Genomics
Frederike Gröner, Christin Höhne, Wibke Kleiner, Werner Kloas
Oreochromis niloticus has been exposed to diclofenac (DCF), a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug prevalent in the aquatic environment, for 80 days post-hatch (dph). Concentrations ranged from environmentally relevant (0.1 μg L(-1) and 1 μg L(-1) DCF) up to 100-fold thereof. Population relevant endpoints (hatching, survival, growth) as well as gill histopathology were analyzed. On this level of examination only gills exhibited mild to moderate alterations. On the contrary, biomarkers associated with reproduction were affected due to DCF exposure, indicating the potential to affect sexual differentiation and gametogenesis by acting as an estrogenic endocrine disrupting compound (EDC) in tilapia...
January 2017: Chemosphere
N Taku, M Gurnell, N Burnet, R Jena
AIMS: Hypothalamic-pituitary axis (HPA) dysfunction is a sequela of cranial radiotherapy. The purpose of this study was to use endocrine data from existing publications to characterise the baseline endocrine status, the effects of radiotherapy on the HPA during the first follow-up year and the time dependence of radiation-induced HPA dysfunction in patients treated with radiotherapy for non-pituitary intracranial neoplasms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A systematic search of databases was carried out for articles that reported the results of endocrine testing for patients aged 16 years and older who were treated with neurosurgery for non-pituitary intracranial neoplasms or radiotherapy for nasopharyngeal neoplasms...
September 30, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
A Ulloa-Aguirre, S Lira-Albarrán
The pituitary gonadotropins, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) play a pivotal role in reproduction. The synthesis and secretion of gonadotropins are regulated by complex interactions among several endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine factors of diverse chemical structure. In men, LH regulates the synthesis of androgens by the Leydig cells, whereas FSH promotes Sertoli cell function and thereby influences spermatogenesis. Gonadotropins are complex molecules composed of two subunits, the α- and β-subunit, that are noncovalently associated...
2016: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Kotaro Horiguchi, Hideji Yako, Saishu Yoshida, Ken Fujiwara, Takehiro Tsukada, Naoko Kanno, Hiroki Ueharu, Hiroto Nishihara, Takako Kato, Takashi Yashiro, Yukio Kato
The anterior and intermediate lobes of the pituitary gland develop through invagination of the oral ectoderm and as they are endocrine tissues, they participate in the maintenance of vital functions via the synthesis and secretion of numerous hormones. We recently observed that several extrapituitary cells invade the anterior lobe of the developing pituitary gland. This raised the question of the origin(s) of these S100β-positive cells, which are not classic endocrine cells but instead comprise a heterogeneous cell population with plural roles, especially as stem/progenitor cells...
2016: PloS One
Emily A Southmayd, Mary Jane De Souza
Bone growth, development, and remodeling are modulated by numerous circulating hormones. Throughout the lifespan, the extent to which each of the hormones impacts bone differs. Understanding the independent and combined impact of these hormones on controlling bone remodeling allows for the development of more informed decision making regarding pharmacology, specifically the use of hormonal medication, at all ages. Endocrine control of bone health in women is largely dictated by the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis...
September 13, 2016: Growth Hormone & IGF Research
Pablo J Enriori, Weiyi Chen, Maria C Garcia-Rudaz, Bernadette E Grayson, Anne E Evans, Sarah M Comstock, Ursel Gebhardt, Hermann L Müller, Thomas Reinehr, Belinda A Henry, Russell D Brown, Clinton R Bruce, Stephanie E Simonds, Sara A Litwak, Sean L McGee, Serge Luquet, Sarah Martinez, Martin Jastroch, Matthias H Tschöp, Matthew J Watt, Iain J Clarke, Christian L Roth, Kevin L Grove, Michael A Cowley
OBJECTIVE: Central melanocortin pathways are well-established regulators of energy balance. However, scant data exist about the role of systemic melanocortin peptides. We set out to determine if peripheral α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) plays a role in glucose homeostasis and tested the hypothesis that the pituitary is able to sense a physiological increase in circulating glucose and responds by secreting α-MSH. METHODS: We established glucose-stimulated α-MSH secretion using humans, non-human primates, and mouse models...
October 2016: Molecular Metabolism
Caroline Wilson, Hannah Brown, Ingunn Holen
Multiple factors influence the survival of disseminated breast tumour cells (DTCs) in bone. Whilst gene signature studies have identified genes that predict a propensity of tumours to metastasise to bone, the bone environment is key in determining the fate of these tumour cells. Breast cancer cells locate to specific niches within the bone that support their survival, regulated by host factors within the bone microenvironment including bone cells, cells of the bone micro vasculature, immune cells and the extracellular matrix...
September 29, 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Amanda H Mortensen, Sally A Camper
Cocaine-and Amphetamine Regulated Transcript (CART) peptide is expressed in the brain, endocrine and neuroendocrine systems and secreted into the serum. It is thought to play a role in regulation of hypothalamic pituitary functions. Here we report a spatial and temporal analysis of Cart expression in the pituitaries of adult and developing normal and mutant mice with hypopituitarism. We found that Prop1 is not necessary for initiation of Cart expression in the fetal pituitary at e14.5, but it is required indirectly for maintenance of Cart expression in the postnatal anterior pituitary gland...
2016: PloS One
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