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probiotics in neonates

M-J Butel, A-J Waligora-Dupriet, S Wydau-Dematteis
The developmental origin of health and disease highlights the importance of the period of the first 1000 days (from the conception to the 2 years of life). The process of the gut microbiota establishment is included in this time window. Various perinatal determinants, such as cesarean section delivery, type of feeding, antibiotics treatment, gestational age or environment, can affect the pattern of bacterial colonization and result in dysbiosis. The alteration of the early bacterial gut pattern can persist over several months and may have long-lasting functional effects with an impact on disease risk later in life...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
R M Tribe, P D Taylor, N M Kelly, D Rees, J Sandall, H P Kennedy
Caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates are increasing in many parts of the world due to a range of cultural and medical reasons, with limited consideration as to how 'mode of delivery' may impact on childhood and long-term health. However, babies born particularly by pre-labour caesarean section appear to have a subtly different physiology to those born by normal vaginal delivery, with both acute and chronic complications such as respiratory and other morbidities being apparent. It has been hypothesised that inherent mechanisms within the process of labour and vaginal delivery, far from being a passive mechanical process by which the fetus and placenta are expelled from the birth canal, may trigger certain protective developmental processes permissive for normal immunological and physiological development of the fetus postnatally...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Roy J Hopkins, Robert B Wilson
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacillus that was originally isolated from the stool of a healthy neonate in 1935. In high-income countries, C. difficile is the most common cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalized patients. The incidence of C. difficile infection in the USA has increased markedly since 2000, with hospitalizations for C. difficile infections in non-pregnant adults doubling between 2000 and 2010. Between 20% and 35% of patients with C. difficile infection will fail initial antibiotic treatment and, of these, 40-60% will have a second recurrence...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Report
Chahira Gheziel, Pasquale Russo, Mattia Pia Arena, Giuseppe Spano, Hadda-Imene Ouzari, Omar Kheroua, Djamel Saidi, Daniela Fiocco, Hanane Kaddouri, Vittorio Capozzi
Lactobacilli naturally present in the neonatal gut are believed to be beneficial for the human hosts and are investigated as potential probiotics. In this study, we aimed to characterize six Lactobacillus plantarum strains derived from the feces of a breast-fed infant, for the development of new probiotic cultures. Our attention was focused on L. plantarum in reason of the presence, within such species, of both pro-technological and probiotic strains, i.e., a combination of particular interest to design tailored probiotic starter cultures for developing countries...
February 19, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Caroline Fraga Cabral Gomes Nunes, Jeane S Nogueira, Fábio B Canto, Pedro Henrique Oliveira Vianna, Bianca Torres Ciambarella, Patrícia Machado Rodrigues E Silva, Karla Rodrigues Miranda, Leandro Araújo Lobo, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pillotto Domingues, Mileane Busch, Georgia Correa Atella, André Macedo Vale, Maria Bellio, Alberto Nóbrega, Rita Fucs
The incidence of allergic diseases, which increased to epidemic proportions in developed countries over the last few decades, has been correlated with altered gut microbiota colonization. Although probiotics may play a critical role on the restoration of gut homeostasis, its efficiency on the control of allergy is controversial. Here we aimed to investigate the effects of probiotic treatment initiated at neonatal or adult ages on the suppression of experimental ovalbumin-induced asthma. Neonatal or adult mice were orally treated with probiotic bacteria and subjected to ovalbumin-induced allergy...
February 6, 2018: International Immunology
A U Happel, S L Barnabas, R Froissart, J S Passmore
Probiotics are used in the prophylaxis and treatment of several conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhoea, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and colic in infants. Despite the long history of probiotic use in humans, there is still significant debate about their efficacy and safety, particularly in HIV-infected and immunocompromised individuals. Here, we reviewed the safety and adverse event (AE) reporting from clinical trials that have tested probiotics in at risk populations, including HIV-infected individuals, the terminally ill and elderly, and neonates...
January 18, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
Ioannis N Mammas, Anne Greenough, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Maria Rusan, Angeliki Melidou, Paraskevi Korovessi, Georgia Papaioannou, Alexia Papatheodoropoulou, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Maria Liston, George Sourvinos, Demetrios A Spandidos
The 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on October 7th, 2017 in Athens, Greece, highlighted the role of breast feeding in the prevention of viral infections during the first years of life. Moreover, it focused on the long-term outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections in prematurely born infants and emphasised the necessity for the development of relevant preventative strategies. Other topics that were covered included the vaccination policy in relation to the migration crisis, mother‑to‑child transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, vaccination against human papilloma viruses in boys and advances on intranasal live‑attenuated vaccination against influenza...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Ewa Laskowska, Łukasz Jarosz, Zbigniew Grądzki
The use of probiotics in sows during pregnancy and lactation and their impact on the quality of colostrum and milk, as well as the health conditions of their offspring during the rearing period, are currently gaining the attention of researchers. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Bokashi formulation on the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of sows during pregnancy, in their colostrum and milk, and in a culture of Con-A-stimulated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) isolated from the colostrum...
January 5, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
Deping Song, Qi Peng, Yanjun Chen, Xinrong Zhou, Fanfan Zhang, Anqi Li, Dongyan Huang, Qiong Wu, Yu Ye, Houjun He, Leyi Wang, Yuxin Tang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a devastating cause of diarrhea in pigs worldwide. Most of studies have focused on molecular and pathogenic characterization of PEDV, whereas there were limited studies in understanding the role of gut microbiota (GM) in viral-associated diarrhea. Here, using the Illumina MiSeq platform, we examined and compared the impact of PEDV infection on the GM of sows and their piglets less than 10 days old. Our results showed that PEDV caused alternations in the structure and abundance of GM from levels of phylum to genus, and even species...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Tessa Nikov, Sean Hall
Immune defence against pathogenic agents comprises the basic premise for the administration of vaccines. Vaccinations have hence prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality. Acquired immunity comprises antibody and cell mediated responses and is characterized by its specificity and memory. Along a similar congruent yet diverse mode of disease prevention, the human host has negotiated from in utero and at birth with the intestinal commensal bacterial cohort to maintain local homeostasis in order to achieve immunological tolerance in the new born...
December 11, 2017: Vaccines
Girish Deshpande, Gayatri Jape, Shripada Rao, Sanjay Patole
OBJECTIVE: Although there is an overall reduction in underfive mortality rate, the progress in reducing neonatal mortality rate has been very slow. Over the last 20 years, preterm births have steadily increased in low-income and medium-income countries (LMICs) particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, particularly in LMICs. Based on systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), many neonatal units in high-income countries have adopted probiotics as standard of care for preterm neonates...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Open
Paolo Manzoni, Ruben García Sánchez, Michael Meyer, Ilaria Stolfi, Lorenza Pugni, Hubert Messner, Silvia Cattani, Pasqua Maria Betta, Luigi Memo, Lidia Decembrino, Lina Bollani, Matteo Rinaldi, Maria Fioretti, Michele Quercia, Milena Maule, Elena Tavella, Alessandro Mussa, Chryssoula Tzialla, Nicola Laforgia, Fabio Mosca, Rosario Magaldi, Michael Mostert, Daniele Farina
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether exposure to inhibitors of gastric acidity, such as H2 blockers or proton pump inhibitors, can independently increase the risk of infections in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm infants in the neonatal intensive care unit. STUDY DESIGN: This is a secondary analysis of prospectively collected data from a multicenter, randomized controlled trial of bovine lactoferrin (BLF) supplementation (with or without the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG) vs placebo in prevention of late-onset sepsis (LOS) and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants...
February 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
T T Yohe, B D Enger, L Wang, H L M Tucker, C A Ceh, C L M Parsons, Z Yu, K M Daniels
Megasphaera elsdenii is a bacterial species of the rumen that can utilize lactate to produce butyrate, a key volatile fatty acid often implicated in driving calf rumen development. Because lactate is abundant in the rumen of young calves, administration of M. elsdenii to increase butyrate production and thus promote calf rumen development is an appealing possibility. The main objective of this study was to determine whether M. elsdenii administration to calves via oral drench at 14 d of age affected its long-term establishment at 70 d postadministration...
February 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Mary W Lenfestey, Josef Neu
Microbes and humans have been closely associated throughout evolution; this symbiotic and/or commensal relationship is crucial for normal development and health. The use of probiotics has been the topic of intense investigation in the past couple of decades because they have the capability to promote health. Based on these studies, it can be debated whether they are being used to promote overall health or to treat and prevent diseases. This review provides an overview and analysis of evidence about what is currently known about the health benefits of these agents that are marketed for use in children and neonates...
December 2017: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Nitin Rajput, Julia Filipovska, Michael Hewson
Rajput N, Filipovska J, Hewson M. The effects of routine administration of probiotics on the length of central venous line usage in extremely premature infants. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 20-27. The objective of this study was to determine whether the routine use of probiotics was associated with earlier removal of peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) lines in extremely premature infants born ≤28 weeks' gestation. This study was a retrospective, observational, cohort study in infants born ≤28 weeks gestation in the 2 years before [No Probiotic Group (NPG)] and after [Probiotic Group (PG)] the commencement of the routine use of probiotics (lnfloran®) in a large tertiary neonatal intensive care unit in the North Island of New Zealand...
2017: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
İpek Güney-Varal, Nilgün Köksal, Hilal Özkan, Onur Bağcı, Pelin Doğan
Güney-Varal İ, Köksal N, Özkan H, Bağcı O, Doğan P. The effect of early administration of combined multi-strain and multi-species probiotics on gastrointestinal morbidities and mortality in preterm infants: A randomized controlled trial in a tertiary care unit. Turk J Pediatr 2017; 59: 13-19. Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a gastrointestinal emergency of the neonatal period. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of multistrain and multispecies probiotic on gastrointestinal morbidities and mortality...
2017: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Katarina Veljović, Miroslav Dinić, Jovanka Lukić, Sanja Mihajlović, Maja Tolinački, Milica Živković, Jelena Begović, Igor Mrvaljević, Nataša Golić, Amarela Terzić-Vidojević
The aim of this work was to design a novel mixed probiotic culture for piglets and to evaluate its beneficial effect on the piglets' gut health. The possible mechanisms of probiotic activity, such as adhesion, competitive pathogen exclusion and influence on gut microbiota diversity were determined. Mixed probiotic starter culture is composed of three thermophilic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains: Lactobacillus helveticus BGRA43, Lactobacillus fermentum BGHI14 and Streptococcus thermophilus BGVLJ1-44. The strains BGVLJ1-44 and BGRA43 showed good technological properties (fast milk curdling, strong proteolytic activity)...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
Y Yang, J D Latorre, B Khatri, Y M Kown, B W Kong, K D Teague, L E Graham, A D Wolfenden, B D Mahaffey, M Baxter, X Hernandez-Velasco, R Merino-Guzman, B M Hargis, G Tellez
The present study evaluated the microbiological properties of three probiotic candidate strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) (128; 131; CE11_2), their effect on intestinal epithelial permeability, and their ability to reduce intestinal colonization of Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) individually or as a batch culture in neonatal turkey poults. Isolates were characterized morphologically and identified using 16S rRNA sequence analyses. Each isolate was evaluated for tolerance and resistance to acidic pH, high osmotic NaCl concentrations, and bile salts in broth medium...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
Xiaona Wang, Li Wang, Xuewei Huang, Sunting Ma, Meiling Yu, Wen Shi, Xinyuan Qiao, Lijie Tang, Yigang Xu, Yijing Li
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), an enteric coronavirus, is the causative agent of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) that damages intestinal epithelial cells and results in severe diarrhea and dehydration in neonatal suckling pigs with up to 100% mortality. The oral vaccine route is reported as a promising approach for inducing protective immunity against PEDV invasion. Furthermore, dendritic cells (DCs), professional antigen-presenting cells, link humoral and cellular immune responses for homeostasis of the intestinal immune environment...
October 25, 2017: Viruses
Nazarii Kobyliak, Tetyana Falalyeyeva, Tetyana Beregova, Mykola Spivak
INTRODUCTION: a comparative animal study of the efficacy of intermittent short-course administration of lyophilised single-, three-, and live multistrain probiotic on obesity. METHODS: We included 70 rats divided into seven groups (n = 10 in each). Rats of group I were intact. Newborn rats of groups II-VII were injected with monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g). Rats of group II (MSG-obesity group) were untreated. The group III-V received lyophilised monoprobiotics B...
October 12, 2017: Endokrynologia Polska
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