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probiotics in neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638850/probiotic-lactobacillus-species-strengthen-intestinal-barrier-function-and-tight-junction-integrity-in-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#1
Brian P Blackwood, Carrie Y Yuan, Douglas R Wood, Joseph D Nicolas, Justyna S Grothaus, Catherine J Hunter
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious intestinal disease that occurs in newborn infants. It is associated with major morbidity and affects 5% of all infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. Probiotics have variable efficacy in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis. Tight junctions (TJ) are protein complexes that maintain epithelial barrier integrity. We hypothesized that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus plantarum strengthen intestinal barrier function, promote TJ integrity, and protect against experimental NEC...
April 2017: J Probiotics Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#2
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587570/effect-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gr-1-supernatant-on-cytokine-and-chemokine-output-from-human-amnion-cells-treated-with-lipoteichoic-acid-and-lipopolysaccharide
#3
Rebecca J E Koscik, Gregor Reid, Sung O Kim, Wei Li, John R G Challis, Alan D Bocking
Preterm birth occurs in 9% to 13% of all human pregnancies and accounts for 80% of all neonatal morbidities and mortalities. Approximately 40% of all preterm births are idiopathic and about half are associated with infection and/or an activated inflammatory process. Further to studies showing anti-inflammatory effects of supernatant from the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (GR-1), we tested its ability to modulate cytokine and chemokine production from amnion cells in response to stimulation by bacterial wall components, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587329/mosapride-combined-with-probiotics-on-gastrointestinal-function-and-growth-in-premature-infants
#4
Ai-Mei Zhang, Zhi-Qun Sun, Li-Ming Zhang
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mosapride combined with probiotics on gastrointestinal function and growth and development in premature infants. A total of 240 premature infants treated at Weifang People's Hospital between June 2012 and May 2015 who matched our criteria were randomly divided into three groups of 80 cases each. Group A received routine treatment, group B received routine treatment combined with live B. subtilis and E. faecium granules with multivitamins (Medilac-Vita), and group C received routine treatment and Saccharomyces boulardii sachets (Bioflor)...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561758/lactobacillus-reuteri-i5007-modulates-intestinal-host-defense-peptide-expression-in-the-model-of-ipec-j2-cells-and-neonatal-piglets
#5
Hongbin Liu, Chengli Hou, Gang Wang, Hongmin Jia, Haitao Yu, Xiangfang Zeng, Philip A Thacker, Guolong Zhang, Shiyan Qiao
Modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) by probiotics represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections in human and animals. However, the extent of HDP modulation by probiotics is species dependent and strain specific. In the present study, The porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) cells and neonatal piglets were used as in-vitro and in-vivo models to test whether Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression...
May 31, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538366/preventing-necrotizing-enterocolitis-by-food-additives-in-neonates-a-network-meta-analysis-revealing-the-efficacy-and-safety
#6
Wentao Yu, Wu Sui, Linsong Mu, Wenying Yi, Haijuan Li, Liqin Wei, Weihong Yin
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious multifactorial gastrointestinal disease which is often discovered in premature infants. Various additives have been used to prevent NEC; yet, their relative efficacy and safety remain disputed. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives, namely, probiotics, probiotics + fructo-oligosaccharides, pentoxifylline, arginine, and lactoferrin in preventing NEC in neonates. METHODS: Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library had been searched for all eligible randomized control trials...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514886/physiological-effects-of-prebiotics-and-its-role-in-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-neonates
#7
Bhawan Deep Garg, Haribalakrishna Balasubramanian, Nandkishor S Kabra
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most serious gastrointestinal emergencies in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates, affecting 7-14% of these neonates. Due to the seriousness of the disease, prevention of NEC is the most important goal. Current evidence from systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that probiotics are the most promising intervention in reduction of the incidence of NEC in VLBW neonates. As per the evidence, prebiotics modulate the composition of human intestine microflora to the benefit of the host by suppression of colonization of harmful microorganism and/or the stimulation of bifidobacterial growth, decreased stool viscosity, reduced gastrointestinal transit time, and better feed tolerance...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484432/rice-bran-and-probiotics-alter-the-porcine-large-intestine-and-serum-metabolomes-for-protection-against-human-rotavirus-diarrhea
#8
Nora Jean Nealon, Lijuan Yuan, Xingdong Yang, Elizabeth P Ryan
Human rotavirus (HRV) is a leading cause of severe childhood diarrhea, and there is limited vaccine efficacy in the developing world. Neonatal gnotobiotic pigs consuming a prophylactic synbiotic combination of probiotics and rice bran (Pro+RB) did not exhibit HRV diarrhea after challenge. Multiple immune, gut barrier protective, and anti-diarrheal mechanisms contributed to the prophylactic efficacy of Pro+RB when compared to probiotics (Pro) alone. In order to understand the molecular signature associated with diarrheal protection by Pro+RB, a global non-targeted metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the large intestinal contents and serum of neonatal gnotobiotic pigs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475161/effect-of-probiotics-on-metabolic-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#9
REVIEW
Bonnie L Taylor, Georgia E Woodfall, Katherine E Sheedy, Meggan L O'Riley, Kelsie A Rainbow, Elsa L Bramwell, Nicole J Kellow
The metabolic effects of probiotic administration in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. The objective of this review was to investigate the effect of probiotics on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and LDL-cholesterol levels in pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. Seven electronic databases were searched for RCTs published in English between 2001 and 2017 investigating the metabolic effects of a 6-8 week dietary probiotic intervention in pregnant women following diagnosis with GDM...
May 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443531/probiotics-to-prevent-necrotising-enterocolitis-and-nosocomial-infection-in-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants
#10
J Uberos, E Aguilera-Rodríguez, A Jerez-Calero, M Molina-Oya, A Molina-Carballo, E Narbona-López
The aim of the study was to determine whether routine probiotic supplementation (RPS) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or Lactobacillus acidophilus +Lactobacillus bifidum is associated with reduced risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC)≥Stage II in preterm neonates born at ≤32 weeks' gestation. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on the effect of probiotic supplementation in very low birth weight infants in our neonatal unit by comparing two periods: before and after supplementation. The incidence of NEC≥Stage II, late-onset sepsis and all-cause mortality was compared for an equal period 'before' (Period I) and 'after' (Period II) RPS with LGG or L...
April 26, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396664/unraveling-the-differences-between-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-probiotics-in-modulating-protective-immunity-to-enteric-infections
#11
REVIEW
Sukumar Kandasamy, Anastasia N Vlasova, David D Fischer, Kuldeep S Chattha, Lulu Shao, Anand Kumar, Stephanie N Langel, Abdul Rauf, Huang-Chi Huang, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif
The role of intestinal microbiota and probiotics in prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, including diarrheal diseases in children and animal models, is increasingly recognized. Intestinal commensals play a major role in development of the immune system in neonates and in shaping host immune responses to pathogens. Lactobacilli spp. and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 are two probiotics that are commonly used in children to treat various medical conditions including human rotavirus diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391755/probiotic-supplementation-in-neonates-with-major-gastrointestinal-surgical-conditions-a-systematic-review
#12
Shripada Rao, Karen Simmer, Sanjay Patole
OBJECTIVES: Neonates with major gastrointestinal surgical conditions frequently suffer from prolonged feed intolerance, infections, and need multiple courses of antibiotics. All these put them at risk of gut dysbiosis. Probiotic supplementation has the potential to minimise dysbiosis and improve clinical outcomes in such infants. Hence, we aimed to conduct a systematic review of probiotics in neonates with major surgical conditions of the gut. METHODS: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and other databases were searched in September 2016...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390574/airway-microbial-dysbiosis-in-asthmatic-patients-a%C3%A2-target-for-prevention-and-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Kian Fan Chung
There has been long-standing interest in the role of bacterial communities in the complex and heterogeneous disease of asthma. With the advent of 16s rRNA sequencing replacing traditional culture methods, a strong association between the presence of bacterial communities with asthma has emerged. These microbiota can be modulated by various environmental factors, including diet, antibiotics, and early-life microbial exposures. Microbiota in the gut and lungs can influence both the inception and progress of asthma...
April 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368269/probiotics-for-promoting-feed-tolerance-in-very-low-birth-weight-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
A Shashidhar, P N Suman Rao, Saudamini Nesargi, Swarnarekha Bhat, B S Chandrakala
OBJECTIVE: To measure the efficacy of a probiotic formulation on time to reach full enteral feeds in VLBW (very low birth weight) newborns. DESIGN: Blinded randomized control trial. SETTING: A tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Southern India between August 2012 to November 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 104 newborns with a birth weight of 750-1499 g on enteral feeds. INTERVENTION: Probiotic group (n=52) received a multicomponent probiotic formulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces boulardii once a day at a dose of 1...
May 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355995/new-advances-in-infant-feeding-new-products-and-novel-technologies
#15
M C Pina-Pérez, A Martínez, D Rodrigo
BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is the best way to provide ideal food for infants. However, there are many situations in which breastfeeding is unviable (maternal illness, hygiene problems, intravenous feeding requirement, storage). Safe, efficient, and nutritious products should be offered by the industry to mothers and healthcare professionals as an alternative. OBJECTIVE: The present review aims to update the state of the art regarding the most innovative developments in infant feeding formulation and, the promising novel technologies that are being investigated to achieve a balance between the microbiological stability, organoleptic and nutritional value of babyfood...
March 28, 2017: Recent Patents on Food, Nutrition & Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346920/microbial-composition-of-the-initial-colonization-of-newborns
#16
Samuli Rautava
Early-life interaction with indigenous intestinal microbes is a prerequisite for healthy immune and metabolic maturation. Human infants acquire their gut microbiota predominantly from the mother. A considerable inoculum of microbes is received by the neonate during vaginal delivery. Recent observations suggest that human gut colonization may be initiated prenatally by microbes in amniotic fluid, but the significance of this phenomenon remains unknown. After birth, neonatal gut colonization is guided by human milk factors, which selectively promote the growth of specific microbes, as well as by live microbes present in human milk...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322134/reproductive-microbiomes
#17
Michael L Power, Caroline Quaglieri, Jay Schulkin
Almost every part of our body has a coevolved microbial community. The expressed microbial genes comprise the various microbiomes that play important roles in normal physiology and development. The various microbiomes are separate, yet often connected, with the species composition of one affecting others. The female reproductive system microbiomes (eg, vaginal, placental, and mammary/milk) remain less well explored than the gut microbiome although they comprise a large proportion of the female microbial network...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318108/neonatal-mono-colonization-of-germ-free-mice-with-lactobacillus-casei-enhances-casein-immunogenicity-after-oral-sensitization-to-cow-s-milk
#18
Matieny Aicha Maiga, Stéphanie Morin, Hervé Bernard, Sylvie Rabot, Karine Adel-Patient, Stéphane Hazebrouck
SCOPE: Food allergy is an increasing global health problem and perinatal administration of probiotic bacteria is currently under investigation in order to prevent the development of allergic diseases. Here, we investigated the impact of neonatal mono-colonization of mice with Lactobacillus casei BL23 on an oral sensitization to cow's milk. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mono-colonized (LC) mice were obtained by inoculating L. casei to germ-free (GF) parents. Nine-week-old GF, LC, and conventional (CV) mice were orally sensitized to cow's milk with cholera toxin as adjuvant...
March 20, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28271213/the-influence-of-probiotics-for-preterm-neonates-on-the-incidence-of-atopic-dermatitis-results-from-a-historically-controlled-cohort-study
#19
Julie A Damm, Birgitte Smith, Gorm Greisen, Karen A Krogfelt, Maja-Lisa Clausen, Tove Agner
Probiotic supplementation is a promising preventive strategy for atopic dermatitis (AD). To help clarifying the significance of timing with respect to prevention of AD, we here evaluate the benefit of prophylactic use of probiotic supplementation in neonates younger than 30 weeks of gestation. Preterm children from the Department of Neonatology, Rigshospitalet, Denmark from two different admission periods were included in a historically controlled cohort study. Neonates from January 2007 to February 2010, not treated with and neonates from March 2010 to February 2013 treated with probiotic were enrolled...
May 2017: Archives of Dermatological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239318/maternal-and-fetal-outcomes-in-pregnant-japanese-women-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-our-experience-with-a-series-of-23-cases
#20
Naoki Minami, Minoru Matsuura, Yorimitsu Koshikawa, Satoshi Yamada, Yusuke Honzawa, Shuji Yamamoto, Hiroshi Nakase
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Our physicians work to expand the possibilities to treat female patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who wish to become pregnant. Although many drugs, including 5-aminosalicylate (5-ASA), corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and biologics, are used safely during pregnancy, few reports have described the therapeutic regimen throughout pregnancy and the management of patients who relapse during pregnancy precisely. The aim of this study was to assess the management of patients with IBD during pregnancy...
January 2017: Intestinal Research
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