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probiotics in neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29727446/development-of-experimental-gbs-vaccine-for-mucosal-immunization
#1
T Gupalova, G Leontieva, T Kramskaya, K Grabovskaya, E Bormotova, D Korjevski, A Suvorov
Streptococcus agalactiae, or group B streptococcus (GBS), is an important pathogen as it is the leading cause of neonatal deaths due to sepsis, meningitis or bacterial pneumonia. Although the development of an effective and safe GBS vaccine is on the agenda of many research labs, there is no GBS vaccine on the market yet. In the present study we attempted to engineer a live vaccine strain based on Bac, a surface protein of GBS, incorporated into a surface fimbrial protein of probiotic Enterococcus. The resulting strain induced specific systemic and local immune responses in mice and provided protection against GBS when administered via the intranasal, oral or intravaginal immunization routes...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713493/prophylaxis-of-acute-respiratory-infections-via-improving-the-immune-system-in-late-preterm-newborns-with-e-coli-strain-nissle-1917-a-controlled-pilot-trial
#2
Mykola L Aryayev, Liudmyla I Senkivska, Nataliya K Bredeleva, Irina V Talashova
Background: Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), caused by the high level of immaturity of the immune system, are a major cause of morbidity in preterm newborns. The probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) is well known for its immuno-modulatory properties and may therefore enhance the immune competence. Thus, EcN administration may provide a promising possibility to decrease the risk of ARIs in this vulnerable group of children. However, clinical data supporting or refuting this hypothesis are, to our knowledge, not available...
2018: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29695310/effectiveness-of-probiotic-for-primary-prevention-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-a-single-center-before-and-after-quality-improvement-intervention-at-a-tertiary-care-medical-center
#3
William E Trick, Stephen J Sokalski, Stuart Johnson, Kristen L Bunnell, Joseph Levato, Michael J Ray, Robert A Weinstein
OBJECTIVETo evaluate probiotics for the primary prevention of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among hospital inpatients.DESIGNA before-and-after quality improvement intervention comparing 12-month baseline and intervention periods.SETTINGA 694-bed teaching hospital.INTERVENTIONWe administered a multispecies probiotic comprising L. acidophilus (CL1285), L. casei (LBC80R), and L. rhamnosus (CLR2) to eligible antibiotic recipients within 12 hours of initial antibiotic receipt through 5 days after final dose...
April 26, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694997/role-of-lactoferrin-in-neonates-and-infants-an-update
#4
Paolo Manzoni, Alberto Dall'Agnola, Daniel Tomé, David A Kaufman, Elena Tavella, Marta Pieretto, Alessandro Messina, Daniele De Luca, Marc Bellaiche, Alexis Mosca, Hugues Piloquet, Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Charles Picaud, Antonio Del Vecchio
Lactoferrin is one of the most represented and important bioactive proteins in human and mammal milk. In humans, lactoferrin is responsible for several actions targeting anti-infective, immunological, and gastrointestinal domains in neonates, infants, and young children. Evidence-based data vouch for the ability of supplemented lactoferrin to prevent sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm infants and to reduce the burden of morbidity related to gastrointestinal and respiratory pathogens in young children...
May 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689748/probiotic-lactococcus-lactis-decreases-incidence-and-severity-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-a-preterm-animal-model
#5
L A Gurien, K Stallings-Archer, S D Smith
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) persists as the most common and serious gastrointestinal disorder among premature infants. Lactococcus lactis (LL), a lactic acid producing bacteria commonly found in buttermilk and cheese products, has several unique properties making it an ideal probiotic for neonates. We evaluated if the probiotic LL prevents development of NEC in a preterm rabbit model with Cronobacter sakazakii (CS). METHODS: Two-day preterm New Zealand white rabbit pups were randomly assigned to three diets: control (no additives), CS, and CS+LL...
2018: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687082/probiotics-and-the-development-of-very-low-birthweight-infants-follow-up-study-of-a-randomised-trial
#6
Satsuki Totsu, Masaki Terahara, Satoshi Kusuda
Abstract: <AbstractText Label="Objective" NlmCategory="UNASSIGNED">To investigate the effect of Bifidobacterium bifidum OLB6378 on the development of very low birthweight (VLBW) infants at 18 months of corrected age. Design: Long-term follow-up study of a cluster-randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Patients: VLBW infants (birth weight <1500 g) born between January 2010 and March 2011 and managed at 19 neonatal intensive care unit facilities assigned to two groups to account for the effect of probiotic cross-contamination within facilities...
2018: BMJ Paediatrics Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648878/protective-effect-of-lactobacillus-reuteri-dsm-17938-against-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis-is-mediated-by-toll-like-receptor-2
#7
Thomas K Hoang, Baokun He, Ting Wang, Dat Q Tran, Jon Marc Rhoads, Yuying Liu
Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 (LR 17938) has been shown to reduce the incidence and severity of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). It is unclear if preventing NEC by LR 17938 is mediated by toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), which is known to mediate pro-inflammatory responses to bacterial cell wall components. NEC was induced in newborn TLR2-/- or WT mice by the combination of gavage-feeding cow milk-based formula and exposure to hypoxia and cold stress. Treatment groups were administered formula supplemented with LR 17938 or placebo (MRS media)...
April 12, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614774/the-brain-intestinal-mucosa-appendix-microbiome-brain-loop
#8
Luis Vitetta, Gemma Vitetta, Sean Hall
The brain and the gut are connected from early fetal life. The mother's exposure to microbial molecules is thought to exert in utero developmental effects on the fetus. These effects could importantly underpin the groundwork for subsequent pathophysiological mechanisms for achieving immunological tolerance and metabolic equilibrium post birth, events that continue through to 3-4 years of age. Furthermore, it is understood that the microbiome promotes cues that instruct the neonate's mucosal tissues and skin in the language of molecular and cellular biology...
April 1, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601338/evolving-understanding-of-neonatal-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#9
Mubina A Isani, Patrick T Delaplain, Anatoly Grishin, Henri R Ford
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating disease that predominately affects premature neonates. The pathogenesis of NEC is multifactorial and poorly understood. Risk factors include low birth weight, formula-feeding, hypoxic/ischemic insults, and microbial dysbiosis. This review focuses on our current understanding of the diagnosis, management, and pathogenesis of NEC. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent findings identify specific mucosal cell types as potential therapeutic targets in NEC...
June 2018: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562949/the-developing-gut-microbiota-and-its-consequences-for-health
#10
M-J Butel, A-J Waligora-Dupriet, S Wydau-Dematteis
The developmental origin of health and disease highlights the importance of the period of the first 1000 days (from the conception to the 2 years of life). The process of the gut microbiota establishment is included in this time window. Various perinatal determinants, such as cesarean section delivery, type of feeding, antibiotics treatment, gestational age or environment, can affect the pattern of bacterial colonization and result in dysbiosis. The alteration of the early bacterial gut pattern can persist over several months and may have long-lasting functional effects with an impact on disease risk later in life...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533463/parturition-and-the-perinatal-period-can-mode-of-delivery-impact-on-the-future-health-of-the-neonate
#11
R M Tribe, P D Taylor, N M Kelly, D Rees, J Sandall, H P Kennedy
Caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates are increasing in many parts of the world for a range of cultural and medical reasons, with limited consideration as to how 'mode of delivery' may impact on childhood and long-term health. However, babies born particularly by pre-labour caesarean section appear to have a subtly different physiology from those born by normal vaginal delivery, with both acute and chronic complications such as respiratory and cardio-metabolic morbidities being apparent. It has been hypothesized that inherent mechanisms within the process of labour and vaginal delivery, far from being a passive mechanical process by which the fetus and placenta are expelled from the birth canal, may trigger certain protective developmental processes permissive for normal immunological and physiological development of the fetus postnatally...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479439/treatment-of-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-colitis-a-narrative-review
#12
REVIEW
Roy J Hopkins, Robert B Wilson
Clostridium difficile is a gram-positive, spore-forming, obligate anaerobic bacillus that was originally isolated from the stool of a healthy neonate in 1935. In high-income countries, C. difficile is the most common cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalized patients. The incidence of C. difficile infection in the USA has increased markedly since 2000, with hospitalizations for C. difficile infections in non-pregnant adults doubling between 2000 and 2010. Between 20% and 35% of patients with C. difficile infection will fail initial antibiotic treatment and, of these, 40-60% will have a second recurrence...
February 2018: Gastroenterology Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460213/evaluating-the-probiotic-potential-of-lactobacillus-plantarum-strains-from-algerian-infant-feces-towards-the-design-of-probiotic-starter-cultures-tailored-for-developing-countries
#13
Chahira Gheziel, Pasquale Russo, Mattia Pia Arena, Giuseppe Spano, Hadda-Imene Ouzari, Omar Kheroua, Djamel Saidi, Daniela Fiocco, Hanane Kaddouri, Vittorio Capozzi
Lactobacilli naturally present in the neonatal gut are believed to be beneficial for the human hosts and are investigated as potential probiotics. In this study, we aimed to characterize six Lactobacillus plantarum strains derived from the feces of a breast-fed infant, for the development of new probiotic cultures. Our attention was focused on L. plantarum in reason of the presence, within such species, of both pro-technological and probiotic strains, i.e., a combination of particular interest to design tailored probiotic starter cultures for developing countries...
February 19, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420746/probiotic-treatment-during-neonatal-age-provides-optimal-protection-against-experimental-asthma-through-the-modulation-of-microbiota-and-t-cells
#14
Caroline Fraga Nunes, Jeane S Nogueira, Pedro Henrique Oliveira Vianna, Bianca Torres Ciambarella, Patrícia Machado Rodrigues, Karla Rodrigues Miranda, Leandro Araújo Lobo, Regina Maria Cavalcanti Pillotto Domingues, Mileane Busch, Georgia Correa Atella, André Macedo Vale, Maria Bellio, Alberto Nóbrega, Fábio B Canto, Rita Fucs
The incidence of allergic diseases, which increased to epidemic proportions in developed countries over the last few decades, has been correlated with altered gut microbiota colonization. Although probiotics may play a critical role in the restoration of gut homeostasis, their efficiency in the control of allergy is controversial. Here, we aimed to investigate the effects of probiotic treatment initiated at neonatal or adult ages on the suppression of experimental ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. Neonatal or adult mice were orally treated with probiotic bacteria and subjected to OVA-induced allergy...
April 3, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345159/weighing-in-on-the-risks-and-benefits-of-probiotic-use-in-hiv-infected-and-immunocompromised-populations
#15
A U Happel, S L Barnabas, R Froissart, J S Passmore
Probiotics are used in the prophylaxis and treatment of several conditions, including irritable bowel syndrome, diarrhoea, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and colic in infants. Despite the long history of probiotic use in humans, there is still significant debate about their efficacy and safety, particularly in HIV-infected and immunocompromised individuals. Here, we reviewed the safety and adverse event (AE) reporting from clinical trials that have tested probiotics in at risk populations, including HIV-infected individuals, the terminally ill and elderly, and neonates...
January 18, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328393/paediatric-virology-and-its-interaction-between-basic-science-and-clinical-practice-review
#16
Ioannis N Mammas, Anne Greenough, Maria Theodoridou, Anna Kramvis, Maria Rusan, Angeliki Melidou, Paraskevi Korovessi, Georgia Papaioannou, Alexia Papatheodoropoulou, Chryssie Koutsaftiki, Maria Liston, George Sourvinos, Demetrios A Spandidos
The 3rd Workshop on Paediatric Virology, which took place on October 7th, 2017 in Athens, Greece, highlighted the role of breast feeding in the prevention of viral infections during the first years of life. Moreover, it focused on the long-term outcomes of respiratory syncytial virus and rhinovirus infections in prematurely born infants and emphasised the necessity for the development of relevant preventative strategies. Other topics that were covered included the vaccination policy in relation to the migration crisis, mother‑to‑child transmission of hepatitis B and C viruses, vaccination against human papilloma viruses in boys and advances on intranasal live‑attenuated vaccination against influenza...
March 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305686/effect-of-multi-microbial-probiotic-formulation-bokashi-on-pro-and-anti-inflammatory-cytokines-profile-in-the-serum-colostrum-and-milk-of-sows-and-in-a-culture-of-polymorphonuclear-cells-isolated-from-colostrum
#17
Ewa Laskowska, Łukasz Jarosz, Zbigniew Grądzki
The use of probiotics in sows during pregnancy and lactation and their impact on the quality of colostrum and milk, as well as the health conditions of their offspring during the rearing period, are currently gaining the attention of researchers. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of Bokashi formulation on the concentrations of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the serum of sows during pregnancy, in their colostrum and milk, and in a culture of Con-A-stimulated polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs) isolated from the colostrum...
January 5, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234140/altered-gut-microbiota-profiles-in-sows-and-neonatal-piglets-associated-with-porcine-epidemic-diarrhea-virus-infection
#18
Deping Song, Qi Peng, Yanjun Chen, Xinrong Zhou, Fanfan Zhang, Anqi Li, Dongyan Huang, Qiong Wu, Yu Ye, Houjun He, Leyi Wang, Yuxin Tang
Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a devastating cause of diarrhea in pigs worldwide. Most of studies have focused on molecular and pathogenic characterization of PEDV, whereas there were limited studies in understanding the role of gut microbiota (GM) in viral-associated diarrhea. Here, using the Illumina MiSeq platform, we examined and compared the impact of PEDV infection on the GM of sows and their piglets less than 10 days old. Our results showed that PEDV caused alternations in the structure and abundance of GM from levels of phylum to genus, and even species...
December 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232932/adjuvant-probiotics-and-the-intestinal-microbiome-enhancing-vaccines-and-immunotherapy-outcomes
#19
REVIEW
Luis Vitetta, Emma Tali Saltzman, Michael Thomsen, Tessa Nikov, Sean Hall
Immune defence against pathogenic agents comprises the basic premise for the administration of vaccines. Vaccinations have hence prevented millions of infectious illnesses, hospitalizations and mortality. Acquired immunity comprises antibody and cell mediated responses and is characterized by its specificity and memory. Along a similar congruent yet diverse mode of disease prevention, the human host has negotiated from in utero and at birth with the intestinal commensal bacterial cohort to maintain local homeostasis in order to achieve immunological tolerance in the new born...
December 11, 2017: Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222137/benefits-of-probiotics-in-preterm-neonates-in-low-income-and-medium-income-countries-a-systematic-review-of-randomised-controlled-trials
#20
Girish Deshpande, Gayatri Jape, Shripada Rao, Sanjay Patole
OBJECTIVE: Although there is an overall reduction in underfive mortality rate, the progress in reducing neonatal mortality rate has been very slow. Over the last 20 years, preterm births have steadily increased in low-income and medium-income countries (LMICs) particularly in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Preterm birth is associated with increased mortality and morbidity, particularly in LMICs. Based on systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs), many neonatal units in high-income countries have adopted probiotics as standard of care for preterm neonates...
December 7, 2017: BMJ Open
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