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probiotics in neonates

Sonja C Sawh, Santosh Deshpande, Sandy Jansen, Christopher J Reynaert, Philip M Jones
CONTEXT: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the most frequent gastrointestinal emergency in neonates. The microbiome of the preterm gut may regulate the integrity of the intestinal mucosa. Probiotics may positively contribute to mucosal integrity, potentially reducing the risk of NEC in neonates. OBJECTIVE: To perform an updated systematic review and meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of probiotics for the prevention of NEC in premature infants. DATA SOURCES: Structured searches were performed in: Medline, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (all via Ovid, from 2013 to January 2015)...
2016: PeerJ
George J Daskalakis, Alexis K Karambelas
OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of vaginal probiotic administration as an adjunct to standard antibiotic treatment on perinatal outcome in women with preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective randomized trial of cases with PPROM (24-34 weeks) that were admitted to our department between 2011 and 2015. Forty-nine cases received vaginal probiotics for 10 days in combination with antibiotic prophylaxis and were compared to 57 others that received only antibiotics for the same time period...
October 15, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Manuela Molinaro, Massimo Aiazzi, Antonio La Torre, Elisabetta Cini, Roberto Banfi
Preterm infants are at high risk of neonatal sepsis. We report a case of a preterm infant under prophylaxis with Lactobacillus Rhamnosus for necrotizing enterocolitis; the child develops neonatal sepsis by Lactobacillus Rhamnosus. The infection is improved after probiotic withdrawal and had complete remission after 20 days of specific antibiotic therapy.
September 2016: Recenti Progressi in Medicina
Sofie Ingdam Halkjaer, Lisbeth Nilas, Emma Malchau Carlsen, Dina Cortes, Thórhallur Ingi Halldórsson, Sjúrdur Frodi Olsen, Anders Elm Pedersen, Karen Angeliki Krogfelt, Andreas Munk Petersen
BACKGROUND: Maternal obesity is associated with increased risks of adverse pregnancy-related complications and outcomes for both mothers and infants. Overweight and obese women have an increased risk of pregnancy-induced hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Infant Body Mass index (BMI) and the risk of obesity in adulthood are related to maternal gestational weight gain (GWG). Preventive lifestyle and dietary interventions are time-consuming and do not always reduce GWG or the risk of maternal pregnancy complications...
October 11, 2016: Trials
Tanjina Chowdhury, Muhammad Manajjir Ali, Muhammad Monir Hossain, Jugindra Singh, Abu Noyeem Muhammad Yousuf, Fatema Yasmin, Fazle Rabbi Chowdhury
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of orally administered probiotics in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. STUDY DESIGN: Arandomized double blind controlled trial. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: The Paediatrics Department of Sylhet M.A.G. Osmani Medical College Hospital, Sylhet Bangladesh, from July 2012 to June 2015. METHODOLOGY: Preterm (28 - 33 weeks gestation) VLBW (birth weight 1000 - 1499 g) neonates were enrolled...
September 2016: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
M Camilleri, S-Y Park, E Scarpato, A Staiano
BACKGROUND: Infantile colic is a frequent problem in neonates and infants. This review addresses current management including the results for nutrient modifications; soy-based formulas; and prebiotics, probiotics, and synbiotics. PURPOSE: Given the evidence that there is still an unmet clinical need, as current treatments are incompletely efficacious, we have examined the evidence around three hypothetical mechanisms that could potentially be involved in etiopathogenesis of infantile colic: immaturity of bile acid mechanisms that alter intraluminal and absorptive mechanisms, immaturity in motility and alterations in the microbiome...
September 20, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Kathene C Johnson-Henry, Thomas R Abrahamsson, Richard You Wu, Philip M Sherman
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease in preterm infants characterized by barrier disruption, intestinal microbial dysbiosis, and persistent inflammation of the colon, which results in high mortality rates. Current strategies used to manage this disease are not sufficient, although the use of human breast milk reduces the risk of NEC. Mother's milk is regarded as a fundamental nutritional source for neonates, but pasteurization of donor breast milk affects the composition of bioactive compounds...
September 2016: Advances in Nutrition
S Viswanathan, C Lau, H Akbari, C Hoyen, M C Walsh
OBJECTIVE: Data from multiple clinical trials, mostly conducted outside the US, indicate that probiotic prophylaxis is an effective intervention for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. Probiotics are routinely used in many countries. However, in the US, probiotic use in preterm infants is limited (6.7% of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants in the US were exposed to probiotics in 2014, Vermont Oxford Network (VON)). Probiotic products are often considered in 'generic' terms, but considerable variation exists between commercially available probiotics in terms of their quantity and quality...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
C S Rosenfeld
Abundant evidence exists linking maternal and paternal environments from pericopconception through the postnatal period to later risk to offspring diseases. This concept was first articulated by the late Sir David Barker and as such coined the Barker Hypothesis. The term was then mutated to Fetal Origins of Adult Disease and finally broadened to developmental origins of adult health and disease (DOHaD) in recognition that the perinatal environment can shape both health and disease in resulting offspring. Developmental exposure to various factors, including stress, obesity, caloric-rich diets and environmental chemicals can lead to detrimental offspring health outcomes...
August 31, 2016: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Carlo Caffarelli, Francesca Santamaria, Dora Di Mauro, Carla Mastrorilli, Virginia Mirra, Sergio Bernasconi
This review focuses key advances in different pediatric fields that were published in Italian Journal of Pediatrics and in international journals in 2015. Weaning studies continue to show promise for preventing food allergy. New diagnostic tools are available for identifying the allergic origin of allergic-like symptoms. Advances have been reported in obesity, short stature and autoimmune endocrine disorders. New molecules are offered to reduce weight gain and insulin-resistance in obese children. Regional investigations may provide suggestions for preventing short stature...
August 27, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Qi Lu, Shupeng Cheng, Min Zhou, Jialin Yu
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in neonates is devastating, and risk-factor identification is crucial. This study aimed to evaluate risk factors for NEC in different gestational age (GA) groups. METHODS: Risk factors associated with NEC were investigated using a retrospective case-control design. Patients with Bell's Stage NEC≥II were divided into three groups based on GA: I, <34 weeks; II, ≥34 weeks but <37 weeks; III, ≥37 weeks. Each case was paired with two GA- and weight-matched controls...
June 22, 2016: Pediatrics and Neonatology
S Fouladgar, A D Foroozandeh Shahraki, G R Ghalamkari, M Khani, F Ahmadi, P S Erickson
A growing body of evidence suggests health-promoting effects of kefir consumption on different nonruminant species, leading to the speculation that kefir may act as a probiotic and benefit calf performance and health. Our objectives were to determine effects of feeding kefir on performance and health of calves in the first 70d of life. Thirty 3-d-old female Holstein calves (body weight=38.2±3.1kg) were blocked by initial body weight and assigned randomly to 1 of 3 treatments (1 calf per pen; 10 pens per treatment)...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
John E Butler, Kristina Santiago-Mateo, Nancy Wertz, Xiuzhu Sun, Marek Sinkora, David L Francis
The ileal Peyers patches (IPP) of newborn germfree (GF) piglets were isolated into blind loops and the piglets colonized with a defined probiotic microflora. After 5 weeks, IgA levels in the intestinal lavage (IL) of loop piglets remained at GF levels and IgM comprised ∼70% while in controls, IgA levels were elevated 5-fold and comprised ∼70% of total Igs. Loop piglets also had reduced serum IgA levels suggesting the source of serum IgA had been interrupted. The isotype profile for loop contents was intermediate between that in the IL of GF and probiotic controls...
December 2016: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
Anastasia N Vlasova, Lulu Shao, Sukumar Kandasamy, David D Fischer, Abdul Rauf, Stephanie N Langel, Kuldeep S Chattha, Anand Kumar, Huang-Chi Huang, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif
Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), a gram-positive lactic acid bacterium, is one of the most widely used probiotics; while fewer gram-negative probiotics including Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) are characterized. A mechanistic understanding of their individual and interactive effects on human rotavirus (HRV) and immunity is lacking. In this study, noncolonized, EcN-, LGG-, and EcN + LGG-colonized neonatal gnotobiotic (Gn) pigs were challenged with HRV. EcN colonization is associated with a greater protection against HRV, and induces the highest frequencies of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), significantly increased NK-cell function and decreased frequencies of apoptotic and TLR4(+) mononuclear cells (MNCs)...
October 2016: European Journal of Immunology
Christian Gille, Bettina Böer, Matthias Marschal, Michael S Urschitz, Volker Heinecke, Verena Hund, Sarah Speidel, Inge Tarnow, Ioannis Mylonas, Axel Franz, Corinna Engel, Christian F Poets
BACKGROUND: Preterm delivery is a leading cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. It often results from chorioamnionitis, a complication of bacterial vaginosis. Probiotics are effective in treating bacterial vaginosis in non-pregnant women, studies in pregnant woman are missing. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether an oral probiotic food supplement supports the maintenance or restoration of a normal vaginal microbiota during pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, triple-blind, parallel group trial...
June 21, 2016: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Luisa A Denkel, Frank Schwab, Lars Garten, Christine Geffers, Petra Gastmeier, Brar Piening
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of dual-strain probiotics on the development of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), mortality and nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSI) in preterm infants in German neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). DESIGN: A multi-center interrupted time series analysis. SETTING: 44 German NICUs with routine use of dual-strain probiotics on neonatal ward level. PATIENTS: Preterm infants documented by NEO-KISS, the German surveillance system for nosocomial infections in preterm infants with birth weights below 1,500 g, between 2004 and 2014...
2016: PloS One
Haifeng Wang, Kan Gao, Ke Wen, Irving Coy Allen, Guohua Li, Wenming Zhang, Jacob Kocher, Xingdong Yang, Ernawati Giri-Rachman, Guan-Hong Li, Sherrie Clark-Deener, Lijuan Yuan
BACKGROUND: A better understanding of mechanisms underlying dose-effects of probiotics in their applications as treatments of intestinal infectious or inflammatory diseases and as vaccine adjuvant is needed. In this study, we evaluated the modulatory effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on transplanted human gut microbiota (HGM) and on small intestinal immune cell signaling pathways in gnotobiotic pigs vaccinated with an oral attenuated human rotavirus (AttHRV) vaccine. RESULTS: Neonatal HGM transplanted pigs were given two doses of AttHRV on 5 and 15 days of age and were divided into three groups: none-LGG (AttHRV), 9-doses LGG (AttHRV + LGG9X), and 14-doses LGG (AttHRV + LGG14X) (n = 3-4)...
2016: BMC Microbiology
Nicole G Grady, Elaine O Petrof, Erika C Claud
The microbiome comprises all the microbes living in and on the human body. Human cells are greatly outnumbered by bacterial cells; thus human health depends on the health of the microbial ecosystem. For the immature preterm infant, the microbiome also influences intestinal and immune system development. This has implications for short term morbidities such as neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, but also long term health outcomes. Optimization of the preterm infant microbiome is a growing topic of interest...
April 25, 2016: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Paul Turner, Sreymom Pol, Sona Soeng, Poda Sar, Leakhena Neou, Phal Chea, Nicholas Pj Day, Ben S Cooper, Claudia Turner
BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial-resistant Gram-negative infections are a significant cause of mortality in young infants. We aimed to determine characteristics of, and risk factors for, colonization and invasive infection caused by 3rd generation cephalosporin (3GC) or carbapenem-resistant organisms in outborn infants admitted to a neonatal unit (NU) in Cambodia. METHODS: During the first year of operation, patients admitted to the Angkor Hospital for Children NU, Siem Reap, Cambodia, underwent rectal swabbing on admission and twice weekly until discharge...
August 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
F Yan, L Liu, H Cao, D J Moore, M K Washington, B Wang, R M Peek, S A Acra, D B Polk
Development of the intestinal microbiota during early life serves as a key regulatory stage in establishing the host-microbial relationship. This symbiotic relationship contributes to developing host immunity and maintaining health throughout the life span. This study was to develop an approach to colonize conventionally raised mice with a model probiotic bacterium, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), and to determine the effects of LGG colonization on intestinal development and prevention of colitis in adulthood...
April 20, 2016: Mucosal Immunology
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