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probiotics in neonates

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720399/prenatal-and-postnatal-administration-of-prebiotics-and-probiotics
#1
REVIEW
Kristin Sohn, Mark A Underwood
Colonization of the neonatal gut by beneficial bacteria is important for the establishment and maintenance of the mucosal barrier, thus protecting the neonate from enteric pathogens and local and systemic inflammation. The neonatal microbiome is influenced by infant diet, environment, and the maternal microbiome. Dysbiosis in pregnancy increases the risk of pre-eclampsia, diabetes, infection, preterm labor, and later childhood atopy. Dysbiosis of the neonatal gut plays an important role in colic in the term infant, in the disease processes which plague preterm infants, including necrotizing enterocolitis and sepsis, and in the long-term outcomes of neonates...
July 15, 2017: Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720151/supplementation-with-lactobacillus-paracasei-or-pediococcus-pentosaceus-does-not-prevent-diarrhoea-in-neonatal-pigs-infected-with-escherichia-coli-f18
#2
Anders D Andersen, Malene S Cilieborg, Charlotte Lauridsen, Anne Louise Mørkbak, Per Torp Sangild
Infectious diarrhoea is a worldwide problem in newborns. Optimal bacterial colonisation may enhance gut maturation and protect against pathogenic bacteria after birth. We hypothesised that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administration prevents pathogen-induced diarrhoea in formula-fed newborns. Newborn caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6×108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus pentosaceus (PEP, 1·3×1010 CFU/kg per d), were administered for 5 d with or without inoculation of the porcine pathogen, Escherichia coli F18 (F18, 1010 CFU/d)...
July 19, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717131/lactobacillus-acidophilus-bifidobacterium-infantis-probiotics-are-associated-with-increased-growth-of-vlbwi-among-those-exposed-to-antibiotics
#3
Christoph Härtel, Julia Pagel, Juliane Spiegler, Janne Buma, Philipp Henneke, Michael Zemlin, Dorothee Viemann, Christian Gille, Stephan Gehring, David Frommhold, Jan Rupp, Egbert Herting, Wolfgang Göpel
We performed an observational study with very-low-birth weight infants (VLBWI) ≤33 weeks of gestation born in centers of the German Neonatal Network (GNN; (total n = 8534, n = 6229 received probiotics). The primary objectives of our study were (a) to assess the effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus/Bifidobacterium infantis probiotics on growth in VLBWI during primary stay in hospital and (b) to determine whether this effect is modified by antibiotic exposure. In linear regression models the administration of probiotics was independently associated with improved weight gain [g/d; effect size B = 0...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713275/probiotics-supplementation-therapy-for-pathological-neonatal-jaundice-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
REVIEW
Zhe Chen, Lingli Zhang, Linan Zeng, Xiaoyan Yang, Lucan Jiang, Ge Gui, Zuojie Zhang
Background: Neonatal jaundice is a relatively prevalent disease and affects approximately 2.4-15% newborns. Probiotics supplementation therapy could assist to improve the recovery of neonatal jaundice, through enhancing immunity mainly by regulating bacterial colonies. However, there is limited evidence regarding the effect of probiotics on bilirubin level in neonates. Therefore, this study aims at systematically evaluating the efficacy and safety of probiotics supplement therapy for pathological neonatal jaundice...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659929/involvement-of-micrornas-in-probiotics-induced-reduction-of-the-cecal-inflammation-by-salmonella-typhimurium
#5
Qiaoling Chen, Chao Tong, Shaoyang Ma, Luoxiong Zhou, Lili Zhao, Xin Zhao
The microRNAs (miRNAs) have been shown to play important roles in the development of the immune system and in regulation of host inflammation responses. Probiotics can effectively alleviate the inflammation caused by Salmonella in chickens. However, whether and how miRNAs are involved in modulation of the inflammation response in the gut of chickens have not been reported. In this study, the impact of a probiotics, Lactobacillus plantarum Z01 (LPZ01), was investigated on the cecal miRNAs and cytokine secretions in Salmonella Typhimurium (S...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658720/enteral-lactoferrin-supplementation-for-prevention-of-sepsis-and-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-infants
#6
REVIEW
Mohan Pammi, Gautham Suresh
BACKGROUND: Lactoferrin, a normal component of human colostrum and milk, can enhance host defenses and may be effective for prevention of sepsis and necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm neonates. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective 1. To assess the safety and effectiveness of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds for prevention of sepsis and NEC in preterm neonates Secondary objectives 1. To determine the effects of lactoferrin supplementation to enteral feeds to prevent neonatal sepsis and/or NEC on duration of positive-pressure ventilation, development of chronic lung disease (CLD) or periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), length of hospital stay to discharge among survivors, and adverse neurological outcomes at two years of age or later2...
June 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638850/probiotic-lactobacillus-species-strengthen-intestinal-barrier-function-and-tight-junction-integrity-in-experimental-necrotizing-enterocolitis
#7
Brian P Blackwood, Carrie Y Yuan, Douglas R Wood, Joseph D Nicolas, Justyna S Grothaus, Catherine J Hunter
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious intestinal disease that occurs in newborn infants. It is associated with major morbidity and affects 5% of all infants admitted to neonatal intensive care units. Probiotics have variable efficacy in preventing necrotizing enterocolitis. Tight junctions (TJ) are protein complexes that maintain epithelial barrier integrity. We hypothesized that the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus plantarum strengthen intestinal barrier function, promote TJ integrity, and protect against experimental NEC...
April 2017: J Probiotics Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634574/reducing-viability-bias-in-analysis-of-gut-microbiota-in-preterm-infants-at-risk-of-nec-and-sepsis
#8
Gregory R Young, Darren L Smith, Nicholas D Embleton, Janet E Berrington, Edward C Schwalbe, Stephen P Cummings, Christopher J van der Gast, Clare Lanyon
Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis are serious diseases of preterm infants that can result in feeding intolerance, the need for bowel resection, impaired physiological and neurological development, and high mortality rates. Neonatal healthcare improvements have allowed greater survival rates in preterm infants leading to increased numbers at risk of developing NEC and sepsis. Gut bacteria play a role in protection from or propensity to these conditions and have therefore, been studied extensively using targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing methods...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587570/effect-of-lactobacillus-rhamnosus-gr-1-supernatant-on-cytokine-and-chemokine-output-from-human-amnion-cells-treated-with-lipoteichoic-acid-and-lipopolysaccharide
#9
Rebecca J E Koscik, Gregor Reid, Sung O Kim, Wei Li, John R G Challis, Alan D Bocking
Preterm birth occurs in 9% to 13% of all human pregnancies and accounts for 80% of all neonatal morbidities and mortalities. Approximately 40% of all preterm births are idiopathic and about half are associated with infection and/or an activated inflammatory process. Further to studies showing anti-inflammatory effects of supernatant from the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (GR-1), we tested its ability to modulate cytokine and chemokine production from amnion cells in response to stimulation by bacterial wall components, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and lipoteichoic acid (LTA)...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587329/mosapride-combined-with-probiotics-on-gastrointestinal-function-and-growth-in-premature-infants
#10
Ai-Mei Zhang, Zhi-Qun Sun, Li-Ming Zhang
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mosapride combined with probiotics on gastrointestinal function and growth and development in premature infants. A total of 240 premature infants treated at Weifang People's Hospital between June 2012 and May 2015 who matched our criteria were randomly divided into three groups of 80 cases each. Group A received routine treatment, group B received routine treatment combined with live B. subtilis and E. faecium granules with multivitamins (Medilac-Vita), and group C received routine treatment and Saccharomyces boulardii sachets (Bioflor)...
June 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561758/lactobacillus-reuteri-i5007-modulates-intestinal-host-defense-peptide-expression-in-the-model-of-ipec-j2-cells-and-neonatal-piglets
#11
Hongbin Liu, Chengli Hou, Gang Wang, Hongmin Jia, Haitao Yu, Xiangfang Zeng, Philip A Thacker, Guolong Zhang, Shiyan Qiao
Modulation of the synthesis of endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) by probiotics represents a novel antimicrobial approach for disease control and prevention, particularly against antibiotic-resistant infections in human and animals. However, the extent of HDP modulation by probiotics is species dependent and strain specific. In the present study, The porcine small intestinal epithelial cell line (IPEC-J2) cells and neonatal piglets were used as in-vitro and in-vivo models to test whether Lactobacillus reuteri I5007 could modulate intestinal HDP expression...
May 31, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538366/preventing-necrotizing-enterocolitis-by-food-additives-in-neonates-a-network-meta-analysis-revealing-the-efficacy-and-safety
#12
REVIEW
Wentao Yu, Wu Sui, Linsong Mu, Wenying Yi, Haijuan Li, Liqin Wei, Weihong Yin
BACKGROUND: Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious multifactorial gastrointestinal disease which is often discovered in premature infants. Various additives have been used to prevent NEC; yet, their relative efficacy and safety remain disputed. This study aims to compare the efficacy and safety of 5 food additives, namely, probiotics, probiotics + fructo-oligosaccharides, pentoxifylline, arginine, and lactoferrin in preventing NEC in neonates. METHODS: Embase, PubMed, and Cochrane Library had been searched for all eligible randomized control trials...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514886/physiological-effects-of-prebiotics-and-its-role-in-prevention-of-necrotizing-enterocolitis-in-preterm-neonates
#13
Bhawan Deep Garg, Haribalakrishna Balasubramanian, Nandkishor S Kabra
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is one of the most serious gastrointestinal emergencies in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates, affecting 7-14% of these neonates. Due to the seriousness of the disease, prevention of NEC is the most important goal. Current evidence from systematic review and meta-analysis revealed that probiotics are the most promising intervention in reduction of the incidence of NEC in VLBW neonates. As per the evidence, prebiotics modulate the composition of human intestine microflora to the benefit of the host by suppression of colonization of harmful microorganism and/or the stimulation of bifidobacterial growth, decreased stool viscosity, reduced gastrointestinal transit time, and better feed tolerance...
May 31, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484432/rice-bran-and-probiotics-alter-the-porcine-large-intestine-and-serum-metabolomes-for-protection-against-human-rotavirus-diarrhea
#14
Nora Jean Nealon, Lijuan Yuan, Xingdong Yang, Elizabeth P Ryan
Human rotavirus (HRV) is a leading cause of severe childhood diarrhea, and there is limited vaccine efficacy in the developing world. Neonatal gnotobiotic pigs consuming a prophylactic synbiotic combination of probiotics and rice bran (Pro+RB) did not exhibit HRV diarrhea after challenge. Multiple immune, gut barrier protective, and anti-diarrheal mechanisms contributed to the prophylactic efficacy of Pro+RB when compared to probiotics (Pro) alone. In order to understand the molecular signature associated with diarrheal protection by Pro+RB, a global non-targeted metabolomics approach was applied to investigate the large intestinal contents and serum of neonatal gnotobiotic pigs...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475161/effect-of-probiotics-on-metabolic-outcomes-in-pregnant-women-with-gestational-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#15
REVIEW
Bonnie L Taylor, Georgia E Woodfall, Katherine E Sheedy, Meggan L O'Riley, Kelsie A Rainbow, Elsa L Bramwell, Nicole J Kellow
The metabolic effects of probiotic administration in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is unknown. The objective of this review was to investigate the effect of probiotics on fasting plasma glucose (FPG), insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and LDL-cholesterol levels in pregnant women diagnosed with GDM. Seven electronic databases were searched for RCTs published in English between 2001 and 2017 investigating the metabolic effects of a 6-8 week dietary probiotic intervention in pregnant women following diagnosis with GDM...
May 5, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443531/probiotics-to-prevent-necrotising-enterocolitis-and-nosocomial-infection-in-very-low-birth-weight-preterm-infants
#16
COMPARATIVE STUDY
J Uberos, E Aguilera-Rodríguez, A Jerez-Calero, M Molina-Oya, A Molina-Carballo, E Narbona-López
The aim of the study was to determine whether routine probiotic supplementation (RPS) with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or Lactobacillus acidophilus +Lactobacillus bifidum is associated with reduced risk of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC)≥Stage II in preterm neonates born at ≤32 weeks' gestation. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on the effect of probiotic supplementation in very low birth weight infants in our neonatal unit by comparing two periods: before and after supplementation. The incidence of NEC≥Stage II, late-onset sepsis and all-cause mortality was compared for an equal period 'before' (Period I) and 'after' (Period II) RPS with LGG or L...
April 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396664/unraveling-the-differences-between-gram-positive-and-gram-negative-probiotics-in-modulating-protective-immunity-to-enteric-infections
#17
REVIEW
Sukumar Kandasamy, Anastasia N Vlasova, David D Fischer, Kuldeep S Chattha, Lulu Shao, Anand Kumar, Stephanie N Langel, Abdul Rauf, Huang-Chi Huang, Gireesh Rajashekara, Linda J Saif
The role of intestinal microbiota and probiotics in prevention and treatment of infectious diseases, including diarrheal diseases in children and animal models, is increasingly recognized. Intestinal commensals play a major role in development of the immune system in neonates and in shaping host immune responses to pathogens. Lactobacilli spp. and Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 are two probiotics that are commonly used in children to treat various medical conditions including human rotavirus diarrhea and inflammatory bowel disease...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391755/probiotic-supplementation-in-neonates-with-major-gastrointestinal-surgical-conditions-a-systematic-review
#18
Shripada Rao, Karen Simmer, Sanjay Patole
OBJECTIVES: Neonates with major gastrointestinal surgical conditions frequently suffer from prolonged feed intolerance, infections, and need multiple courses of antibiotics. All these put them at risk of gut dysbiosis. Probiotic supplementation has the potential to minimise dysbiosis and improve clinical outcomes in such infants. Hence, we aimed to conduct a systematic review of probiotics in neonates with major surgical conditions of the gut. METHODS: Medline, Embase, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and other databases were searched in September 2016...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390574/airway-microbial-dysbiosis-in-asthmatic-patients-a%C3%A2-target-for-prevention-and-treatment
#19
REVIEW
Kian Fan Chung
There has been long-standing interest in the role of bacterial communities in the complex and heterogeneous disease of asthma. With the advent of 16s rRNA sequencing replacing traditional culture methods, a strong association between the presence of bacterial communities with asthma has emerged. These microbiota can be modulated by various environmental factors, including diet, antibiotics, and early-life microbial exposures. Microbiota in the gut and lungs can influence both the inception and progress of asthma...
April 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368269/probiotics-for-promoting-feed-tolerance-in-very-low-birth-weight-neonates-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
A Shashidhar, P N Suman Rao, Saudamini Nesargi, Swarnarekha Bhat, B S Chandrakala
OBJECTIVE: To measure the efficacy of a probiotic formulation on time to reach full enteral feeds in VLBW (very low birth weight) newborns. DESIGN: Blinded randomized control trial. SETTING: A tertiary care neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Southern India between August 2012 to November 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 104 newborns with a birth weight of 750-1499 g on enteral feeds. INTERVENTION: Probiotic group (n=52) received a multicomponent probiotic formulation of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Bifidobacterium longum and Saccharomyces boulardii once a day at a dose of 1...
May 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
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