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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711296/anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste-a-review-focusing-on-process-stability
#1
REVIEW
Lei Li, Xuya Peng, Xiaoming Wang, Di Wu
Food waste (FW) is rich in biomass energy, and increasing numbers of national programs are being established to recover energy from FW using anaerobic digestion (AD). However process instability is a common operational issue for AD of FW. Process monitoring and control as well as microbial management can be used to control instability and increase the energy conversion efficiency of anaerobic digesters. Here, we review research progress related to these methods and identify existing limitations to efficient AD; recommendations for future research are also discussed...
July 6, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704674/urban-growth-and-water-access-in-sub-saharan-africa-progress-challenges-and-emerging-research-directions
#2
REVIEW
S Dos Santos, E A Adams, G Neville, Y Wada, A de Sherbinin, E Mullin Bernhardt, S B Adamo
For the next decade, the global water crisis remains the risk of highest concern, and ranks ahead of climate change, extreme weather events, food crises and social instability. Across the globe, nearly one in ten people is without access to an improved drinking water source. Least Developed Countries (LDCs) especially in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) are the most affected, having disproportionately more of the global population without access to clean water than other major regions. Population growth, changing lifestyles, increasing pollution and accelerating urbanization will continue to widen the gap between the demand for water and available supply especially in urban areas, and disproportionately affect informal settlements, where the majority of SSA's urban population resides...
July 10, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699761/comparison-of-intermolecular-forces-in-anhydrous-sorbitol-and-solvent-cocrystals
#3
Teresa Mildred Dierks, Timothy Michael Korter
The hygroscopicity of solid sorbitol is important for its utilization as a sweetener in the pharmaceutical and food industries. The molecular foundations of sorbitol hydration characteristics are explored here using two solvated cocrystals, sorbitol-water and sorbitol-pyridine. In this work, solid-state density functional theory and terahertz time-domain spectroscopy were used to evaluate the relative stabilities of these cocrystals as compared to anhydrous sorbitol in terms of conformational and cohesive energies...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698541/ataxia-telangiectasia-in-siblings-oral-motor-and-swallowing-characterization
#4
Silmara Rondon-Melo, Isabel Junqueira de Almeida, Claudia Regina Furquim de Andrade, Fernanda Chiarion Sassi, Daniela Regina Molini-Avejonas
BACKGROUND The body of literature on oral motor and swallowing disorders in patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT) is limited. CASE REPORT The purpose of this study was to characterize oral motor and swallowing disorders in two siblings with AT, based on oral motor and swallowing assessments. Specific procedures were applied for oral motor and swallowing assessments and both patients underwent videofluoroscopy (VFS). Case 1 presented vocal instability, change in postural control during feeding; food retention in oral cavity; slower oral transit time; and multiple swallowing (signs for solid and liquid)...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28672063/low-weight-gain-at-the-start-of-a-family-based-intervention-for-adolescent-girls-with-restrictive-eating-disorders-predicted-emergency-hospital-admission
#5
Ingemar Swenne, Helena Salonen Ros
AIM: This study examined predictors of emergency hospitalisation of adolescent girls with restrictive eating disorders and weight loss treated by a family-based intervention programme. METHODS: We studied 339 girls aged 10-17 years treated in a specialist unit at Uppsala University Children's Hospital, Sweden, from August 2010 to December 2015. Historical weight data were obtained from school health services and other weight data were determined at presentation...
July 3, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665949/possible-mechanisms-of-pollination-failure-in-hybrid-carrot-seed-and-implications-for-industry-in-a-changing-climate
#6
Melissa Ann Broussard, Flore Mas, Brad Howlett, David Pattemore, Jason M Tylianakis
Approximately one-third of our food globally comes from insect-pollinated crops. The dependence on pollinators has been linked to yield instability, which could potentially become worse in a changing climate. Insect-pollinated crops produced via hybrid breeding (20% of fruit and vegetable production globally) are especially at risk as they are even more reliant on pollinators than open-pollinated plants. We already observe a wide range of fruit and seed yields between different cultivars of the same crop species, and it is unknown how existing variation will be affected in a changing climate...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646407/associations-of-red-and-processed-meat-intake-with-major-molecular-pathological-features-of-colorectal-cancer
#7
Prudence R Carr, Lina Jansen, Stefanie Bienert, Wilfried Roth, Esther Herpel, Matthias Kloor, Hendrik Bläker, Jenny Chang-Claude, Hermann Brenner, Michael Hoffmeister
Red and processed meat is an established risk factor for colorectal cancer (CRC). However, exact mechanisms to explain the associations remain unclear. Few studies have investigated the association with CRC by molecular tumor features, which could provide relevant information on associated molecular pathways. In this population-based case-control study from Germany (DACHS), 2449 cases and 2479 controls provided information on risk factors of CRC and completed a food frequency questionnaire. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the associations between meat intake and risk of CRC by molecular pathologic features and specific subtypes...
May 2017: European Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633456/feeding-during-dialysis-risks-and-uncertainties
#8
Rajiv Agarwal, Panagiotis Georgianos
Allowing dialysis patients to eat during the treatment is controversial. It is, therefore, no surprise that practices and policies with respect to intradialytic food consumption vary considerably from unit to unit and from country to country. Those who defend the position of feeding during dialysis reason that intradialytic meals offer a supervised and effective therapy for protein-energy wasting. Those who take the opposite view argue that intradialytic food intake should be avoided for the following three reasons...
June 19, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601663/temporal-patterns-of-phyto-and-bacterioplankton-and-their-relationships-with-environmental-factors-in-lake-taihu-china
#9
Xiaomei Su, Alan D Steinman, Qingju Xue, Yanyan Zhao, Xiangming Tang, Liqiang Xie
Phytoplankton and bacterioplankton are integral components of aquatic food webs and play essential roles in the structure and function of freshwater ecosystems. However, little is known about how phyto- and bacterioplankton may respond synchronously to changing environmental conditions. Thus, we analyzed simultaneously the composition and structure of phyto- and bacterioplankton on a monthly basis over 12 months in cyanobacteria-dominated areas of Lake Taihu and compared their responses to changes in environmental factors...
October 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596014/designing-food-structure-and-composition-to-enhance-nutraceutical-bioactivity-to-support-cancer-inhibition
#10
REVIEW
David Julian McClements, Hang Xiao
Many types of bioactive molecules found in foods ("nutraceuticals") have been shown to exert anticancer activities, including curcumin, resveratrol, polyphenols, sulforaphane, anthocyanins, genistein, quercetin and lycopene. The potential health benefits of nutraceuticals are often not realized because of their poor water solubility, chemical instability, adverse taste profile, and low oral bioavailability. Carefully designed food matrices are being developed to overcome these problems. Nutraceuticals can be isolated from their natural environment, and then incorporated into functional foods, often with the help of delivery systems (such as emulsions, nanoemulsions, liposomes, biopolymer nanoparticles, and microgels)...
June 5, 2017: Seminars in Cancer Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573728/substitution-of-modified-starch-with-hydrogen-peroxide-modified-rice-bran-in-salad-dressing-formulation-physicochemical-texture-rheological-and-sensory-properties
#11
Bahareh Maani, Mazdak Alimi, Shirin Shokoohi, Fatemeh Fazeli
Rice bran samples were treated under different conditions including hydrogen peroxide content (1, 4, and 7 wt%) and media pH (10.5, 11.5, and 12.5). Water holding capacity and color measurement results showed acceptable improvements compared with the untreated native bran confirmed by Fourier transform infrared analysis. Optimization of modification conditions upon characterization results suggested the introduction of 7% hydrogen peroxide at pH = 12.5. Accordingly, 1, 2 and 3 wt% of the rice bran treated under the optimized conditions, was used in salad dressing formulation; as for ...
June 2017: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533563/why-do-the-boreal-forest-ecosystems-of-northwestern-europe-differ-from-those-of-western-north-america
#12
Rudy Boonstra, Harry P Andreassen, Stan Boutin, Jan Hušek, Rolf A Ims, Charles J Krebs, Christina Skarpe, Petter Wabakken
The boreal forest is one of the largest terrestrial biomes on Earth. Conifers normally dominate the tree layer across the biome, but other aspects of ecosystem structure and dynamics vary geographically. The cause of the conspicuous differences in the understory vegetation and the herbivore-predator cycles between northwestern Europe and western North America presents an enigma. Ericaceous dwarf shrubs and 3- to 4-year vole-mustelid cycles characterize the European boreal forests, whereas tall deciduous shrubs and 10-year snowshoe hare-lynx cycles characterize the North American ones...
September 1, 2016: Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469538/temperature-instability-in-an-infant-treated-with-propranolol-for-infantile-hemangioma
#13
Betsy Walters Burkey, Joshua A Jacobs, Hany Aziz
Infantile hemangiomas are prevalent in the first few months of life and can be associated with risks of scarring, blindness, ulcerations, and airway obstruction depending on the location of lesions. Options for therapy include surgery, laser therapy, or medications. Propranolol is the only US Food and Drug Administration-approved medication option. Propranolol is a nonselective beta-blocker that crosses the blood-brain barrier because of its high lipophilicity, which increases the likelihood of central nervous system effects...
March 2017: Journal of Pediatric Pharmacology and Therapeutics: JPPT: the Official Journal of PPAG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469462/role-of-macronutrients-and-micronutrients-in-dna-damage-results-from-a-food-frequency-questionnaire
#14
Carina Ladeira, Elisabete Carolino, Manuel C Gomes, Miguel Brito
The links between diet and genomic instability have been under investigation for several decades, and evidence suggests a significant causal or preventive role for various dietary factors. This study investigates the influence of macronutrients (calories, protein, and glucides) and micronutrients, such as vitamins and minerals, as assessed by a food frequency questionnaire, on genotoxicity biomarkers measured by cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus assay and comet assay. The results found significant positive and negative correlations...
2017: Nutrition and Metabolic Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465588/improved-analytical-sensitivity-of-lateral-flow-assay-using-sponge-for-hbv-nucleic-acid-detection
#15
Ruihua Tang, Hui Yang, Yan Gong, Zhi Liu, XiuJun Li, Ting Wen, ZhiGuo Qu, Sufeng Zhang, Qibing Mei, Feng Xu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a serious public health problem, which can be transmitted through various routes (e.g., blood donation) and cause hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and liver cancer. Hence, it is necessary to do diagnostic screening for high-risk HBV patients in these transmission routes. Nowadays, protein-based technologies have been used for HBV testing, which however involve the issues of large sample volume, antibody instability and poor specificity. Nucleic acid hybridization-based lateral flow assay (LFA) holds great potential to address these limitations due to its low-cost, rapid, and simple features, but the poor analytical sensitivity of LFA restricts its application...
May 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393575/using-circulating-cell-free-dna-to-monitor-personalized-cancer-therapy
#16
Michael Oellerich, Ekkehard Schütz, Julia Beck, Philipp Kanzow, Piers N Plowman, Glen J Weiss, Philip D Walson
High-quality genomic analysis is critical for personalized pharmacotherapy in patients with cancer. Tumor-specific genomic alterations can be identified in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from patient blood samples and can complement biopsies for real-time molecular monitoring of treatment, detection of recurrence, and tracking resistance. cfDNA can be especially useful when tumor tissue is unavailable or insufficient for testing. For blood-based genomic profiling, next-generation sequencing (NGS) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) have been successfully applied...
May 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358825/nature-s-patchwork-how-water-sources-and-soil-salinity-determine-the-distribution-and-structure-of-halophytic-plant-communities-in-arid-environments-of-the-eastern-pamir
#17
Monika Mętrak, Łukasz Chachulski, Dovutsho Navruzshoev, Paweł Pawlikowski, Elżbieta Rojan, Marcin Sulwiński, Małgorzata Suska-Malawska
The eastern part of the Pamir Mountains, located in Central Asia, is characterized by great climatic continentality and aridity. Wetlands developed in this hostile region are restricted to spring areas, terraces of shallow lakes or floodplains along rivers, and provide diversified ecosystem services e.g. as water reservoirs, refugia for rare species and pastures for domestic cattle. These ecosystems are particularly susceptible to climate changes, that in the Pamir Mountains result in increased temperatures, intense permafrost/glacial melt and alterations of precipitation patterns...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262892/coloring-attributes-of-betalains-a-key-emphasis-on-stability-and-future-applications
#18
REVIEW
Natália Martins, Custódio Lobo Roriz, Patricia Morales, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Organoleptic characteristics largely determine food acceptance, selection, and subsequent consumption. Therefore, food colorants are extremely important in the food industry. However, based on the latest findings related to the side effects and toxicity issues of some synthetic colorants, consumers worldwide have shown increasing interest in natural alternatives. Betalains are good examples of natural colorants and therefore the present study reviews the main sources of these pigments, their structural elucidation and biosynthetic pathways, their chemical instability to different environmental factors, as well as their potential uses at the industrial level and also for pharmaceutical and cosmetic purposes, due to their ability to act as functional ingredients and health enhancers/promoters...
April 19, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250648/the-influence-of-pluronic-f68-and-f127-nanocarrier-on-physicochemical-properties-in-vitro-release-and-antiproliferative-activity-of-thymoquinone-drug
#19
Salwa Shaarani, Shahrul Sahul Hamid, Noor Haida Mohd Kaus
BACKGROUND: This study reports on hydrophobic drug thymoquinone (TQ), an active compound found in the volatile oil of Nigella sativa that exhibits anticancer activities. Nanoformulation of this drug could potentially increase its bioavailability to specific target cells. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to formulate TQ into polymer micelle, Pluronic F127 (5.0 wt %) and Pluronic F68 (0.1 wt %), as a drug carrier to enhance its solubility and instability in aqueous media...
January 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221914/effects-of-inoculation-procedures-on-variability-and-repeatability-of-salmonella-thermal-resistance-in-wheat-flour
#20
Ian M Hildebrandt, Bradley P Marks, Elliot T Ryser, Rossana Villa-Rojas, Juming Tang, Francisco J Garces-Vega, Sarah E Buchholz
Limited prior research has shown that inoculation methods affect thermal resistance of Salmonella in low-moisture foods; however, these effects and their repeatability have not been systematically quantified. Consequently, method variability across studies limits utility of individual data sets and cross-study comparisons. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effects of inoculation methodologies on stability and thermal resistance of Salmonella in a low-moisture food (wheat flour), and the repeatability of those results, based on data generated by two independent laboratories...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
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