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Food instability

Lokesh K Narnoliya, Rajender S Sangwan, Sudhir P Singh
Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) is widely known as aromatic and medicinal herb, accumulating specialized metabolites of high economic importance, such as essential oils, ascorbic acid, and tartaric acid. Ascorbic acid and tartaric acid are multifunctional metabolites of human value to be used as vital antioxidants and flavor enhancing agents in food products. No information is available related to the structural and functional properties of the enzymes involved in ascorbic acid and tartaric acid biosynthesis in rose-scented geranium...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Triparna Sen, Carl M Gay, Lauren Averett Byers
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy that accounts for 14% of all lung cancer diagnoses. Despite decades of active research, treatment options for SCLC are limited and resistance to the few Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapies develops rapidly. With no approved targeted agents to date, new therapeutic strategies are desperately needed. SCLC is characterized by high mutation burden, ubiquitous loss of TP53 and RB1, mutually exclusive amplification of MYC family members, thereby, high genomic instability...
February 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
Patricio Riva-Posse, Collin R Reiff, Johnathan A Edwards, Gregory P Job, Gail C Galendez, Steven J Garlow, Tammy C Saah, Boadie W Dunlop, William M McDonald
BACKGROUND: The dissociative anesthetic agent ketamine is increasingly being utilized to treat depression, despite not having FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approval for this indication. There are many questions about the potential risks of this treatment and hence the proper setting and degree of monitoring required to ensure patient safety. There is limited data about the cardiovascular safety of ketamine when administered at subanesthetic doses to treat depression. METHODS: 66 patients in the Department of Psychiatry at Emory University received a total of 684 ketamine infusions between 2014 and 2016...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Shengfeng Peng, Ziling Li, Liqiang Zou, Wei Liu, Chengmei Liu, David Julian McClements
Curcumin is a bioactive phytochemical that can be utilized as a nutraceutical or pharmaceutical in functional foods, supplements, and medicines. However, the application of curcumin as a nutraceutical in commercial food and beverage products is currently limited by its low water-solubility, chemical instability, and poor oral bioavailability. In this study, all-natural colloidal delivery systems were developed to overcome these challenges, which consisted of saponin-coated curcumin nanoparticles formed using a pH-driven loading method...
March 8, 2018: Food & Function
Teresa Musumeci, Antonio Leonardi, Angela Bonaccorso, Rosario Pignatello, Giovanni Puglisi
BACKGROUND: Purification is a key step for different type of approaches, ranging from food, biotechnology to pharmaceutical fields. In biotechnology tangential flow filtration (TFF) allows to obtain the separation of different components of cells without instability phenomena. In food industry, TFF ensures the removal of contaminants or other substances that negatively affect visual appearance, organoleptic attributes, nutritional value and/or safety of aliments. Purification is an important and necessary step controlling the quality of final product also in the pharmaceutical area...
March 6, 2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
F M Kpodo, J K Agbenorhevi, K Alba, I N Oduro, G A Morris, V Kontogiorgos
The emulsifying characteristics of pectins isolated from six different okra genotypes were investigated and their structure-function relationships have been evaluated. Emulsion formation and stabilization of acidic oil-in-water emulsions (pH 2.0, φ  = 0.1) were studied by means of droplet size distribution, ζ -potential measurements, viscometry, interfacial composition analysis and fluorescence microscopy. Fresh and aged emulsions differed in terms of droplet size distribution, interfacial protein and pectin concentrations (Γ) depending on the molecular properties of pectin that was used...
2018: Food Biophysics
Qiaomei Zhu, Shuang Qiu, Hongwei Zhang, Yongqiang Cheng, Lijun Yin
Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions could be utilized for fat-reduced food formulation and delivery of bioactive nutrients. However, due to thermodynamic instability, it is difficult to prepare stable double emulsions. The purpose of this study was to improve the stability of W/O/W double emulsions containing 2.0 M MgCl2 by adding porcine gelatin in the inner water phase. The impact of gelatin on the physical stability, microstructure and micro-rheological properties of W/O/W emulsions was investigated...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Khalil Saleh, Roland Eid, Fady Gh Haddad, Nadine Khalife-Saleh, Hampig Raphaël Kourie
Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), a heterogeneous group of upper aerodigestive tract malignancies, is the seventh most common cancer worldwide. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption were the most identified risk factors of HNSCC. However, human papilloma virus, a sexually transmitted infection, has been determined as another primary cause of HNSCC. Early-stage disease is treated with surgery or radiotherapy. Recurrent or metastatic HNSCC is associated with poor prognosis with a median overall survival of 10 months...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Judith Martin-Fernandez, Sandrine Lioret, Cécile Vuillermoz, Pierre Chauvin, Stéphanie Vandentorren
The number of families living in shelters in the Paris region (France) has increased by a factor of three in 10 years. In 2013, a survey was performed on homeless families in order to characterize their living conditions, their health needs, and the developmental problems in children. This probability survey was conducted in 17 languages among 801 homeless families sheltered in emergency centers for asylum-seekers, emergency housing centers, social rehabilitation centers, and social hotels in the Paris region...
February 28, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Qianqian Zheng, Deqing Lin, Lei Lei, Xingyi Li, Shuai Shi
Following the US Food and Drug Administration's approval of gene therapy drugs, the great potential of disease gene therapy is once again being taken seriously. However, finding a safe and efficient gene delivery vector remains the biggest challenge to successful gene therapy. To overcome this, engineered non-viral gene delivery vectors are continually being developed, despite their lower efficiencies compared with viral vectors. However, the complex biological barriers and instability caused by charge interactions mean that, no major breakthroughs have been made in the clinical development of these non-viral gene vectors...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Fabrícia M S Silva, Claudio F Mahler, Luciano B Oliveira, João P Bassin
In this study, hydrogen and methane production from co-digestion of food waste (FW), sewage sludge (SS) and raw glycerol (GL) was evaluated in a two-stage acidogenesis-methanogenesis anaerobic system under mesophilic conditions (35 °C). The effect of glycerol addition (1 and 3% v/v) as co-substrate was assessed in ternary mixtures (FW + SS + GL), with the concentration of all substrates kept at 10 g VS/L. Besides contributing to reduce the lag phase of the acidogenic bacterial culture, the presence of GL increased the hydrogen production in all tested conditions and the maximum hydrogen yield was obtained for the FW + SS + 3%GL mixture (179...
February 24, 2018: Waste Management
C Randall Harrell, Valentin Djonov, Crissy Fellabaum, Vladislav Volarevic
The standard sterilization method for most medical devices over the past 40 years involves gamma irradiation. During sterilization, gamma rays efficiently eliminate microorganisms from the medical devices and tissue allografts, but also significantly change molecular structure of irradiated products, particularly fragile biologics such as cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. Accordingly, gamma radiation significantly alters biomechanical properties of bone, tendon, tracheal, skin, amnion tissue grafts and micronized amniotic membrane injectable products...
2018: International Journal of Medical Sciences
K Vikrant, Daniel Cw Tsang, Nadeem Raza, Giri Balendu Shekher, Deepak Kukkar, Ki-Hyun Kim
The progress in modern agricultural practices could not have been realized without the large-scale contribution of assorted pesticides (e.g., organophosphates [OPs] and non-organophosphates [non-OPs]). Precise tracking of these chemicals has become a crucial component for safeguarding the environment and food resources owing to their very high toxicity. Hence, the development of sensitive and convenient sensors for the on-site detection of pesticides is imperative to overcome practical limitations encountered in conventional methodologies which require skilled manpower at the expense of high cost and low portability...
February 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Meng Shi, Yun-Long Shi, Xu-Min Li, Rui Yang, Zhuo-Yu Cai, Qing-Sheng Li, Shi-Cheng Ma, Jian-Hui Ye, Jian-Liang Lu, Yue-Rong Liang, Xin-Qiang Zheng
(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) has attracted significant research interest due to its health-promoting effects such as antioxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-cancer activities. However, its instability and poor bioavailability have largely limited its efficacy and application. Food-grade materials such as proteins, carbohydrates and lipids show biodegradability, biocompatibility and biofunctionality properties. Food-grade encapsulation systems are usually used to improve the bioavailability of EGCG...
February 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anna Maria Mercuri, Rita Fornaciari, Marina Gallinaro, Stefano Vanin, Savino di Lernia
The human selection of food plants cannot always have been aimed exclusively at isolating the traits typical of domesticated species today. Each phase of global change must have obliged plants and humans to cope with and develop innovative adaptive strategies. Hundreds of thousands of wild cereal seeds from the Holocene 'green Sahara' tell a story of cultural trajectories and environmental instability revealing that a complex suite of weediness traits were preferred by both hunter-gatherers and pastoralists...
January 29, 2018: Nature Plants
Jessica Fischer, Christian Laforsch
For future manned long-d uration space missions, the supply of essentials, such as food, water, and oxygen with the least possible material resupply from Earth is vital. This need could be satisfied utilizing aquatic bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS), as they facilitate recycling and autochthonous production. However, few organisms can cope with the instable environmental conditions and organic pollution potentially prevailing in such BLSS. Ostracoda, however, occur in eu- and even hypertrophic waters, tolerate organic and chemical waste, varying temperatures, salinity, and pH ranges...
2018: NPJ Microgravity
Barbara Crivelli, Sara Perteghella, Elia Bari, Milena Sorrenti, Giuseppe Tripodo, Theodora Chlapanidas, Maria Luisa Torre
Silk proteins have been studied and employed for the production of drug delivery (nano)systems. They show excellent biocompatibility, controllable biodegradability and non-immunogenicity and, if needed, their properties can be modulated by blending with other polymers. Silk fibroin (SF), which forms the inner core of silk, is a (bio)material officially recognized by the Food and Drug Administration for human applications. Conversely, the potential of silk sericin (SS), which forms the external shell of silk, could still be considered under evaluation...
January 24, 2018: Soft Matter
Allison L Hopkins, Michelle Yeoman, Cheryl Ritenbaugh
Birth outcomes tend to be better among Hispanics than among other ethnic groups, even when matched for poverty and education, and foreign-born Latinas compared to their US-born counterparts. These patterns suggest that sociocultural factors exhibited by recent immigrants have the potential to protect birth outcomes against the instability of minority and low socioeconomic status. To discover potential sociocultural factors, a pilot qualitative study was carried out in Tucson, Arizona, with 18 Hispanic mothers...
March 2018: Ecology of Food and Nutrition
Jenny M Riley, Ashley W Cross, Chrystal M Paulos, Mark P Rubinstein, John Wrangle, E Ramsay Camp
Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the third most common malignancy and the second-leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the United States. Large multi-omic databases, such as The Cancer Genome Atlas and the International Colorectal Cancer Subtyping Consortium, have identified distinct molecular subtypes related to anatomy. The identification of genomic alterations in CRC is now critical because of the recent success and US Food and Drug Administration approval of pembrolizumab and nivolumab for microsatellite-instable tumors...
January 9, 2018: Cancer
Juan Huang, Qiang Wang, Tong Li, Nan Xia, Qiang Xia
BACKGROUND: Linseed oil and alpha-lipoic acid are bioactive ingredients, which play an important role in human's nutrition and health. However, their application in functional foods is limited because of their instabilities and poor solubilities in hydrophilic matrices. Multilayer emulsions are particularly useful to protect encapsulated bioactive ingredients. The aim of this study was to fabricate multilayer emulsions by high pressure homogenization method to encapsulate linseed oil and alpha-lipoic acid simultaneously...
January 4, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
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