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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773481/comparison-of-thermophilic-anaerobic-and-aerobic-treatment-processes-for-stabilization-of-green-and-food-wastes-and-production-of-soil-amendments
#1
Jesus D Fernandez-Bayo, Ramin Yazdani, Christopher W Simmons, Jean S VanderGheynst
The management of organic wastes is an environmental and social priority. Aerobic digestion (AED) or composting and anaerobic digestion (AD) are two organic waste management practices that produce a value-added final product. Few side-by-side comparisons of both technologies and their digestate products have been performed. The objective of this study was to compare the impact of initial feedstock properties (moisture content and/or C/N ratio) on stabilization rate by AED and AD and soil amendment characteristics of the final products...
May 14, 2018: Waste Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764494/precision-medicine-becomes-reality-tumor-type-agnostic-therapy
#2
REVIEW
Li Yan, Wei Zhang
Precision medicine just witnessed two breakthroughs in oncology in 2017. Pembrolizumab (Keytruda), Merck's anti-programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) monoclonal antibody (mAb), received accelerated approval in May 2017 by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of adult and pediatric patients with unresectable or metastatic solid tumors that have been identified as having microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H) or deficient DNA mismatch repair (dMMR). Shortly after, nivolumab (Opdivo), Bristol-Myers Squibb's anti-PD-1 mAb, gained an accelerated approval in August 2017 for adult and pediatric patients with MSI-H or dMMR metastatic colorectal cancer that has progressed after standard chemotherapy...
March 31, 2018: Cancer communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761051/global-opportunities-for-mariculture-development-to-promote-human-nutrition
#3
Owen R Liu, Renato Molina, Margaret Wilson, Benjamin S Halpern
An estimated two billion people worldwide currently suffer from micronutrient malnutrition, and almost one billion are calorie deficient. Providing adequate nutrition is a growing global challenge. Seafood is one of the most important sources of both protein and micronutrients for many, yet production from wild capture fisheries has stagnated. In contrast, aquaculture is the world's fastest-growing food production sector and now supplies over half of all seafood consumed globally. Mariculture, or the farming of brackish and marine species, accounts for roughly one-third of all aquaculture production and has received increasing attention as a potential supplement for wild-caught marine fisheries...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759905/analysis-of-4063-complications-of-shoulder-arthroplasty-reported-to-the-us-food-and-drug-administration-from-2012-to-2016
#4
Jeremy S Somerson, Jason E Hsu, Moni B Neradilek, Frederick A Matsen
BACKGROUND: Most of the literature on shoulder arthroplasty failure comes from high-volume centers. These reports tend to exclude the experience of community orthopedic surgeons, who perform most of the shoulder joint replacements. METHODS: We analyzed the failure reports mandated by the US Food and Drug Administration for all hospitals. Each reported event from 2012 to 2016 was characterized by implant, failure mode, and year of surgery. RESULTS: For the 1673 anatomic arthroplasties, the most common failure modes were glenoid component failure (20...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741412/parental-socioeconomic-instability-and-child-obesity
#5
Antwan Jones
Using data from the 1986 to 2010 National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY) and the NLSY Child and Young Adult Supplement, this research explores how changes in parental socioeconomic status relate to child obesity over time. Results from linear mixed-effects models indicate that maternal educational gains and maternal employment transitions significantly increased their child's body mass index (BMI). This finding suggests that mothers who work may have less time to devote to monitoring their child's food intake and physical activity, which places their children at higher risks of becoming overweight or obese over time...
January 2018: Biodemography and Social Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739600/gypenosides-as-natural-emulsifiers-for-oil-in-water-nanoemulsions-loaded-with-astaxanthin-insights-of-formulation-stability-and-release-properties
#6
Zhang Chen, Gaofeng Shu, Noamane Taarji, Colin J Barrow, Mitsutoshi Nakajima, Nauman Khalid, Marcos A Neves
The formulation, physicochemical stability and bioaccessibility of astaxanthin (AST) loaded oil-in-water nanoemulsions fabricated using gypenosides (GPs) as natural emulsifiers was investigated and compared with a synthetic emulsifier (Tween 20) that is commonly applied in food industry. GPs were capable of producing nanoemulsions with a small volume mean diameter (d4,3  = 125 ± 2 nm), which was similar to those prepared using Tween 20 (d4,3  = 145 ± 6 nm) under the same high-pressure homogenization conditions...
September 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739175/potent-potassium-competitive-acid-blockers-a-new-era-for-the-treatment-of-acid-related-diseases
#7
REVIEW
Tadayuki Oshima, Hiroto Miwa
Conventional proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are used as a first-line therapy to treat acid-related diseases worldwide. However, they have a number of limitations including slow onset of action, influence by cytochrome P450 polymorphisms, unsatisfactory effects at night, and instability in acidic conditions. Alternative formulations of conventional PPIs have been developed to overcome these problems; however, these drugs have only introduced small advantages for controlling acid secretion compared to conventional PPIs...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732289/an-unusual-case-of-infant-seizures-with-anaphylaxis-to-wheat
#8
Kok Wee Chong, Simon Ling, Wenyin Loh
Wheat allergy is one of the commonest food allergies in childhood and it typically presents with IgE mediated reactions, including anaphylaxis. Seizures are not typically reported to be a direct manifestation of anaphylaxis, though it can occur secondary to hypoxia following significant haemodynamic compromise. We describe a case of a previously well infant, who presented with anaphylactic shock to wheat and responded well to the initial management, but subsequently developed a cluster of brief generalised tonic clonic seizures without any ongoing haemodynamic instability...
April 2018: Asia Pacific Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29704762/long-term-high-solids-anaerobic-digestion-of-food-waste-effects-of-ammonia-on-process-performance-and-microbial-community
#9
Xuya Peng, ShangYi Zhang, Lei Li, Xiaofei Zhao, Yao Ma, Dezhi Shi
A long-term high solids anaerobic digestion of food waste was conducted to identify microbial mechanisms of ammonia inhibition during digestion and to clarify correlations between ammonia accumulation, microbial community dynamics (diversity, composition, and interactions), and process stability. Results show that the effects of ammonia on process performance and microbial community were indirectly caused by volatile fatty acid accumulation. Excess free ammonia blocked acetate metabolism, leading to process instability...
April 22, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703766/immuno-oncology-biomarkers-for-gastric-and-gastroesophageal-junction-adenocarcinoma-why-pd-l1-testing-may-not-be-enough
#10
Benjamin A Weinberg, Joanne Xiu, Jimmy J Hwang, Anthony F Shields, Mohamed E Salem, John L Marshall
PURPOSE: The treatment of patients with advanced gastric and gastroesophageal junction (G/GEJ) adenocarcinomas has been transformed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of pembrolizumab. Tumor and adjacent tissue must stain positively for the programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) protein by companion diagnostic testing. However, some patients with PD-L1-negative tumors also benefit from pembrolizumab. High microsatellite instability (MSI) and tumor mutational load (TML) are positive predictive biomarkers for immune checkpoint inhibition (ICI) in other tumors...
April 27, 2018: Oncologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699685/evaluation-of-the-physicochemical-stability-and-digestibility-of-microencapsulated-esterified-astaxanthins-using-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-models
#11
Qingxin Zhou, Lu Yang, Jie Xu, Xing Qiao, Zhaojie Li, Yuming Wang, Changhu Xue
Esterified astaxanthins are used as functional nutraceuticals in many food products. Unfortunately, their utilization is currently limited owing to their poor water solubility, chemical instability, and low bioavailability. In this study, esterified astaxanthin microcapsules were fabricated through electrostatic complexation of whey protein and gum arabic by adjusting the pH to 4.0. After their encapsulation, the stability of the esterified astaxanthins was effectively better than that of the oleoresin. In vitro tests revealed a 26% rate of astaxanthin release from the microcapsules, which was significantly higher than the 14...
September 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563270/a-natural-adaptive-syndrome-as-a-model-for-the-origins-of-cereal-agriculture
#12
REVIEW
David Wood, Jillian M Lenné
A novel explanation of the origin of cereal agriculture is proposed, based on the ecology and adaptive morphology of wild cereals ancestral to our founder cereals (einkorn, emmer and barley). Wild cereals are unusually large-seeded. A natural evolutionary-ecological syndrome relates l arge seed, a wns and m onodominance (LAM). Awns bury attached seeds in the soil, protecting seed from fire; buried seed needs to be large to emerge on germination; large seeds, growing without competition from small-seeded plants, will produce monodominant vegetation...
March 28, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561644/impact-on-the-nutritional-attributes-of-rice-bran-following-various-stabilization-procedures
#13
Y Q Liu, P Strappe, Z K Zhou, C Blanchard
Rice bran, a valuable byproduct of the rice milling process, has limitations in food industrial applications due to its instability during storage. This review summaries the methodology for stabilization and its impact on the nutritional properties of rice bran. A variety of treatments have been used and these include heat treatment, low-temperature storage, biological and chemical approaches and these will be discussed in terms of their ability to destroy/inhibit enzyme activity and improve storage performance of rice bran...
March 21, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546478/transcriptome-mining-and-in-silico-structural-and-functional-analysis-of-ascorbic-acid-and-tartaric-acid-biosynthesis-pathway-enzymes-in-rose-scanted-geranium
#14
Lokesh K Narnoliya, Rajender S Sangwan, Sudhir P Singh
Rose-scented geranium (Pelargonium sp.) is widely known as aromatic and medicinal herb, accumulating specialized metabolites of high economic importance, such as essential oils, ascorbic acid, and tartaric acid. Ascorbic acid and tartaric acid are multifunctional metabolites of human value to be used as vital antioxidants and flavor enhancing agents in food products. No information is available related to the structural and functional properties of the enzymes involved in ascorbic acid and tartaric acid biosynthesis in rose-scented geranium...
March 15, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535912/targeting-dna-damage-repair-in-small-cell-lung-cancer-and-the-biomarker-landscape
#15
REVIEW
Triparna Sen, Carl M Gay, Lauren Averett Byers
Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is an aggressive malignancy that accounts for 14% of all lung cancer diagnoses. Despite decades of active research, treatment options for SCLC are limited and resistance to the few Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved therapies develops rapidly. With no approved targeted agents to date, new therapeutic strategies are desperately needed. SCLC is characterized by high mutation burden, ubiquitous loss of TP53 and RB1, mutually exclusive amplification of MYC family members, thereby, high genomic instability...
February 2018: Translational Lung Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29525051/blood-pressure-safety-of-subanesthetic-ketamine-for-depression-a-report-on-684-infusions
#16
Patricio Riva-Posse, Collin M Reiff, Johnathan A Edwards, Gregory P Job, Gail C Galendez, Steven J Garlow, Tammy C Saah, Boadie W Dunlop, William M McDonald
BACKGROUND: The dissociative anesthetic agent ketamine is increasingly being utilized to treat depression, despite not having FDA (Food and Drug Administration) approval for this indication. There are many questions about the potential risks of this treatment and hence the proper setting and degree of monitoring required to ensure patient safety. There is limited data about the cardiovascular safety of ketamine when administered at subanesthetic doses to treat depression. METHODS: 66 patients in the Department of Psychiatry at Emory University received a total of 684 ketamine infusions between 2014 and 2016...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517797/improving-curcumin-solubility-and-bioavailability-by-encapsulation-in-saponin-coated-curcumin-nanoparticles-prepared-using-a-simple-ph-driven-loading-method
#17
Shengfeng Peng, Ziling Li, Liqiang Zou, Wei Liu, Chengmei Liu, David Julian McClements
Curcumin is a bioactive phytochemical that can be utilized as a nutraceutical or pharmaceutical in functional foods, supplements, and medicines. However, the application of curcumin as a nutraceutical in commercial food and beverage products is currently limited by its low water-solubility, chemical instability, and poor oral bioavailability. In this study, all-natural colloidal delivery systems were developed to overcome these challenges, which consisted of saponin-coated curcumin nanoparticles formed using a pH-driven loading method...
March 1, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510657/tangential-flow-filtration-technique-an-overview-on-nanomedicine-applications
#18
Teresa Musumeci, Antonio Leonardi, Angela Bonaccorso, Rosario Pignatello, Giovanni Puglisi
Purification is a key step for different types of approaches, ranging from food, biotechnology to pharmaceutical fields. In biotechnology, tangential flow filtration (TFF) allows obtaining the separation of different components of cells without instability phenomena. In the food industry, TFF ensures the removal of contaminants or other substances that negatively affect visual appearance, organoleptic attributes, nutritional value and/or safety of ailments. In the pharmaceutical area, purification is also an important and necessary step controlling the quality of final product...
2018: Pharmaceutical Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503599/structure-function-relationships-in-pectin-emulsification
#19
F M Kpodo, J K Agbenorhevi, K Alba, I N Oduro, G A Morris, V Kontogiorgos
The emulsifying characteristics of pectins isolated from six different okra genotypes were investigated and their structure-function relationships have been evaluated. Emulsion formation and stabilization of acidic oil-in-water emulsions (pH 2.0, φ  = 0.1) were studied by means of droplet size distribution, ζ -potential measurements, viscometry, interfacial composition analysis and fluorescence microscopy. Fresh and aged emulsions differed in terms of droplet size distribution, interfacial protein and pectin concentrations (Γ) depending on the molecular properties of pectin that was used...
2018: Food Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502845/physical-stability-microstructure-and-micro-rheological-properties-of-water-in-oil-in-water-w-o-w-emulsions-stabilized-by-porcine-gelatin
#20
Qiaomei Zhu, Shuang Qiu, Hongwei Zhang, Yongqiang Cheng, Lijun Yin
Water-in-oil-in-water (W/O/W) emulsions could be utilized for fat-reduced food formulation and delivery of bioactive nutrients. However, due to thermodynamic instability, it is difficult to prepare stable double emulsions. The purpose of this study was to improve the stability of W/O/W double emulsions containing 2.0 M MgCl2 by adding porcine gelatin in the inner water phase. The impact of gelatin on the physical stability, microstructure and micro-rheological properties of W/O/W emulsions was investigated...
July 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
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