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Bioethics legislation united states

Sebastián Lavanderos, Juan Pedraza, Moisés Russo N, Sofía P Salas
Since the publication of the Institute of Medicine’s report “To Err is Human: Building a Safer Health System” awareness of the importance of medical errors has increased. These are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and recent studies suggest that they can be the third leading cause of death in the United States. Difficulties have been identified by health personnel to prevent, detect and disclose to patients the occurrence of a medical error, an also to report them to the appropriate authorities. Although human error cannot be eliminated, it is possible to design safety systems to mitigate their frequency and consequences...
September 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
G-M Gkotsi, V Moulin, J Gasser
AIM: In the past few years, spectacular progress in neuroscience has led to the emergence of a new interdisciplinary field, the so-called "neurolaw" whose goal is to explore the effects of neuroscientific discoveries on legal proceedings and legal rules and standards. In the United States, a number of neuroscientific researches are designed specifically to explore legally relevant topics and a case-law has already been developed. In Europe, neuroscientific evidence is increasingly being used in criminal courtrooms, as part of psychiatric testimony, nourishing the debate about the legal implications of brain research in psychiatric-legal settings...
October 2015: L'Encéphale
Amanda C Pustilnik
In legal domains ranging from tort to torture, pain and its degree do important definitional work by delimiting boundaries of lawfulness and of entitlements. Yet, for all the work done by pain as a term in legal texts and practice, it has a confounding lack of external verifiability. Now, neuroimaging is rendering pain and myriad other subjective states at least partly ascertainable. This emerging ability to ascertain and quantify subjective states is prompting a "hedonic" or a "subjectivist" turn in legal scholarship, which has sparked a vigorous debate as to whether the quantification of subjective states might affect legal theory and practice...
May 2012: Cornell Law Review
I Glenn Cohen
A growing literature examines descriptive and normative questions about medical tourism such as: How does it operate? What are its effects? Are home country patients or their governments failing in moral duties by engaging in or permitting medical tourism? By contrast, much less has been written on the regulatory dimension: What might be done about medical tourism if we were convinced that it posed ethical issues and were motivated to act? I shall argue that this kind of regulatory analysis is essential for bioethical analysis of medical tourism...
April 2012: Developing World Bioethics
Jean-Yves Nau
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2011: Revue Médicale Suisse
Charles C Camosy
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2011: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
Patricia B Crawford, Wendi Gosliner, Harvey Kayman
Schools may have an ethical obligation to act in response to the precipitous increase in the incidence of obesity among children. Using a bioethics framework, we present a rationale for school programs to improve the nutritional quality of students' diets. Because children are required to spend half their waking hours in school and because they consume a substantial portion of their daily food there, school is a logical focus for efforts to encourage healthy dietary behaviors to prevent obesity and its consequent individual and collective costs...
September 2011: Preventing Chronic Disease
Yvanie Caillé, Michel Doucin
The goal of the seminar which took place in Paris on April 15th and 16th, 2010, was to understand the reasons which lead, on both side of the Atlantic and from a common basis of values, to different choice about essential rules concerning: consent strategies for after death organ donation: non heart beating donation; anonymity; living donation; paired-exchange donation ("crossed donation"); altruistic donation ("good Samaritan"); donation incentives; the place devoted to patient's representatives in health systems...
February 2011: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
, Robert D Murray, Armand H Matheny Antommaria
Increasingly, children and adolescents with complex chronic conditions are living in the community. Federal legislation and regulations facilitate their participation in school. Some of these children and adolescents and their families may wish to forego life-sustaining medical treatment, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation, because they would be ineffective or because the risks outweigh the benefits. Honoring these requests in the school environment is complex because of the limited availability of school nurses and the frequent lack of supporting state legislation and regulations...
May 2010: Pediatrics
Taiwo A Oriola
A spate of legislations prohibiting cigarette smoking in enclosed public spaces, mainly on grounds of public health protection, recently swept across cities around the world. This is in tandem with a raft of increasingly restrictive national laws that emerged on the back of the ratification of the WHO Framework for Tobacco Control by more than one 168 countries in 2005. The central debate on the increasingly restrictive tobacco laws revolves on the extent to which public health interests justification should ground political intervention in a private right as basic as tobacco smoking, which interestingly is often lumped in the food and beverage category...
2009: Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics: a Journal of the American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics
Richard L Cupp
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2009: American Journal of Bioethics: AJOB
A Elstner, A Damaschun, A Kurtz, G Stacey, B Arán, A Veiga, J Borstlap
Legislation in individual member states of the European Union on human embryonic stem cell (hESC) research is as divergent as the different cultural, ethical, and religious views on the issue. On the occasion of the public launch of the European Human Embryonic Stem Cell Registry (hESCreg:, a two-day symposium was held on 18 and 19 January 2008 in Berlin to offer participants an overview of state-of-the-art hESC research and legislation throughout Europe and in selected regions of the world...
March 2009: Stem Cell Research
Donald C Bross, Richard D Krugman
Advocacy for children is a fundamental pediatric concern and activity. Notwithstanding achievements for children to date, pediatrics can do more in the twenty-first century to advocate for children and promote research on ways in which advocacy for children can be improved. Evidence-based advocacy should take many directions including legislation, system change in local and state agencies such as social services and health departments, financial assistance including Medicaid, evidence provided to courts at trial and on appeal through "friend of the court" participation, family guidance, public education, and the promotion of pediatric law and bioethics...
April 2009: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Andrew Knight
The advanced sensory, psychological and social abilities of chimpanzees confer upon them a profound ability to suffer when born into unnatural captive environments, or captured from the wild--as many older research chimpanzees once were--and when subsequently subjected to confinement, social disruption, and involuntary participation in potentially harmful biomedical research. Justifications for such research depend primarily on the important contributions advocates claim it has made toward medical advancements...
2008: Philosophy, Ethics, and Humanities in Medicine: PEHM
J C Swanson
Polls and surveys conducted within the United States show general agreement that there is public support for the protection of farm livestock and poultry. Concurrent with the growing public sentiment is the recent adoption of socially responsible corporate policies by major food retailers relative to animal welfare. The animal welfare assurance and audit programs developed by the private sector are an attempt to assure consumers that best practice measures and independent oversight result in a reasonable quality of life for food-producing animals...
February 2008: Poultry Science
Henk ten Have
The member states of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) decided in 2002 that ethics is one of the five priority areas of the organization. This article describes three categories of past and current activities in the ethics of science and technology, in particular bioethics. The first category is the global standard setting with the Universal Declaration on Bioethics and Human Rights as the most recently adopted normative instrument. The second category focuses on capacity building in order to enable member states to apply the provisions of the declarations, through, for example, the establishment of national bioethics committees, the introduction of ethics teaching programs, and drafting of legislation and guidelines...
December 2006: Kennedy Institute of Ethics Journal
Christopher R Blagg
Forty-seven years have passed since the first patient started treatment for chronic renal failure by repeated hemodialysis (HD) at the University of Washington Hospital in Seattle in March 1960, and some 34 years have elapsed since the United States Congress passed legislation creating the Medicare End-Stage Renal Disease Program. Many nephrologists practicing today are unfamiliar with the history of the clinical and political developments that occurred during the 13 years between these 2 dates and that led to dialysis as we know it today in this country...
March 2007: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
William B Hurlbut
The present conflict over the moral status of the human embryo reflects deep differences in our basic convictions and is unlikely to be resolved through deliberation or debate. While there are currently no federally legislated constraints on the use of private funds for this research, there is a consensus opinion in the scientific community that without NIH support for newly created embryonic stem cell lines, progress in this important realm of research will be severely constrained. A May, 2005, report by the President's Council on Bioethics, "Alternative Sources of Pluripotent Stem Cells," outlines several proposals for obtaining pluripotent stem cells without the destruction of human embryos...
December 2005: Stem Cell Reviews
George J Annas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2005: Stetson Law Review
Sam Brownback
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2006: National Catholic Bioethics Quarterly
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