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Opioid Epidemic

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324199/high-hiv-prevalence-and-risk-among-male-clients-of-female-sex-workers-in-hanoi-and-ho-chi-minh-city-vietnam
#1
Patrick Nadol, Tran Vu Hoang, Linh-Vi Le, Tuan Anh Nguyen, John Kaldor, Matthew Law
In Vietnam's concentrated HIV epidemic, female sex workers (FSWs) are at increased risk for acquiring and transmitting HIV, largely through their male clients. A high proportion of males in Vietnam report being clients of FSWs. Studying HIV-related risk factors and prevalence among male clients is important, particularly given the potential for male clients to be a 'bridge' of HIV transmission to the more general population or to sex workers. Time-location sampling was used to identify FSW in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam's largest cities, in 2013-2014...
March 21, 2017: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319052/a-tail-of-opioid-receptor-variants
#2
Stephanie Puig, Howard B Gutstein
Opioids are the gold-standard treatment for severe pain. However, potentially life-threatening side effects decrease the safety and effectiveness of these compounds. The addiction liability of these drugs has led to the current epidemic of opioid abuse in the US. Extensive research efforts have focused on trying to dissociate the analgesic properties of opioids from their undesirable side effects. Splice variants of the mu opioid receptor (MOR), which mediates opioid actions, have unique pharmacological properties and anatomic distributions that make them attractive candidates for therapeutic pain relief...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303199/hiv-aids-in-the-south-east-asia-region-progress-and-challenges
#3
EDITORIAL
Razia Pendse, Somya Gupta, Dongbao Yu, Swarup Sarkar
The South-East Asia region, with 11 member states, has an estimated 3.5 million people living with HIV (PLHIV). More than 99% of PLHIV live in five countries where HIV prevalence among the population aged 15-49 remains low but is between 2% and 29% among key populations. Since 2010, the region has made progress to combat the epidemic. Mature condom programmes exist in most countries but opioid substitution therapy, and needle and syringe exchange programmes need to be scaled up. HIV testing is recommended nationwide in four countries and is prioritised in high prevalence areas or for key populations in the rest...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299971/addressing-excess-risk-of-overdose-among-recently-incarcerated-people-in-the-usa-harm-reduction-interventions-in-correctional-settings
#4
Lauren Brinkley-Rubinstein, David H Cloud, Chelsea Davis, Nickolas Zaller, Ayesha Delany-Brumsey, Leah Pope, Sarah Martino, Benjamin Bouvier, Josiah Rich
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to discuss overdose among those with criminal justice experience and recommend harm reduction strategies to lessen overdose risk among this vulnerable population. Design/methodology/approach Strategies are needed to reduce overdose deaths among those with recent incarceration. Jails and prisons are at the epicenter of the opioid epidemic but are a largely untapped setting for implementing overdose education, risk assessment, medication assisted treatment, and naloxone distribution programs...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Prisoner Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296623/medicalizing-the-opioid-epidemic-in-the-u-s-in-the-era-of-health-care-reform
#5
David E Smith
The medicalization of the current opioid epidemic in the era of health care reform and parity, and its possible dismantling, poses many challenges. Between 2002 and 2013, drug overdose rates quadrupled. Parallel to an increase in prescription opioid overdose, heroin overdose deaths are increasing as patients shift to cheaper and more accessible heroin from the prescription opioids which physicians are prescribing less often due to increasing regulatory restrictions, as well as enhanced education and awareness...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292504/pharmacists-perceptions-regarding-the-impact-of-hydrocodone-rescheduling-on-prescription-volume-workflow-management-and-patient-outcomes
#6
Tyler J Varisco, Motolani E Ogunsanya, Jamie C Barner, Marc L Fleming
OBJECTIVES: To determine (1) pharmacists' perceptions of how rescheduling of hydrocodone combination products (HCPs) from Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) Schedule III to DEA Schedule II has influenced prescription volume and revenue, pharmacy workflow management, and patient outcomes; and (2) whether perceptions differed between pharmacists who support versus those who oppose HCP rescheduling. DESIGN: A cross-sectional mail survey. SETTING: Texas community pharmacies from October to December 2015...
March 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292501/indian-health-service-pharmacists-engaged-in-opioid-safety-initiatives-and-expanding-access-to-naloxone
#7
Hillary Duvivier, Samantha Gustafson, Morgan Greutman, Tenzin Jangchup, Ashlee Knapp Harden, Aimee Reinhard, Keith Warshany
OBJECTIVE: To develop effective pharmacy-based interventions to mitigate harm from opioid use disorders. Programs include responsible opioid prescribing, expanded access to medication-assisted treatment (MAT), naloxone, and community interventions. SETTING: Clinical pharmacists practicing at Indian Health Service (IHS) locations in the Southwest, Midwest, and Great Lakes regions. These pharmacists serve culturally diverse American Indian populations throughout the United States and interface with tribal and federal programs to impact the opioid epidemic in Indian Country...
March 2017: Journal of the American Pharmacists Association: JAPhA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288245/addressing-the-opioid-epidemic-in-the-united-states-lessons-from-the-department-of-veterans-affairs
#8
Walid F Gellad, Chester B Good, David J Shulkin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285727/non-medical-opioid-use-and-sources-of-opioids-among-pregnant-and-non-pregnant-reproductive-aged-women
#9
Katy B Kozhimannil, Amy J Graves, Marian Jarlenski, Alene Kennedy-Hendricks, Sarah Gollust, Colleen L Barry
BACKGROUND: The morbidity and mortality burden of the US opioid epidemic falls heavily on reproductive-age women. Information on the patterns of and sources for non-medical use of prescription opioids among reproductive age women, including pregnant women, will inform public health and prevention efforts to mitigate the effects of the opioid epidemic. This study characterized non-medical use of prescription opioids among reproductive-age U.S. women, with a focus on pregnancy status. METHODS: We used nationally-representative data from the National Survey of Drug Use and Health (2005-2014) to examine non-medical use (NMU) of prescription opioids in the past 30days among females ages 18-44 (N=154,179), distinguishing pregnant women (N=8069)...
March 8, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273016/how-aca-repeal-would-worsen-the-opioid-epidemic
#10
Peter D Friedmann, Christina M Andrews, Keith Humphreys
As the U.S. Surgeon General’s recent report on addiction highlights, the United States faces a serious opioid epidemic that shows no signs of abating. In 2015, more than 13 million Americans reported nonmedical use of opioids in the previous year, and about 2.5 million of those people have an..
March 9, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259087/medical-marijuana-policies-and-hospitalizations-related-to-marijuana-and-opioid-pain-reliever
#11
Yuyan Shi
OBJECTIVES: Twenty-eight states in the U.S have legalized medical marijuana, yet its impacts on severe health consequences such as hospitalizations remain unknown. Meanwhile, the prevalence of opioid pain reliever (OPR) use and outcomes has increased dramatically. Recent studies suggested unintended impacts of legalizing medical marijuana on OPR, but the evidence is still limited. This study examined the associations between state medical marijuana policies and hospitalizations related to marijuana and OPR...
February 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257406/overdose-education-and-naloxone-distribution-program-attendees-who-attends-what-do-they-know-and-how-do-they-feel
#12
Sarah Cercone Heavey, Gale Burstein, Cheryll Moore, Gregory G Homish
CONTEXT: The United States is in the midst of an opioid overdose epidemic. Opioids killed more than 28 000 people in 2014, more than any year on record. One approach to addressing this growing epidemic is Opioid Overdose Education and Naloxone Distribution (OEND) training. Little is known about these programs' participants and their effectiveness across different demographic groups. OBJECTIVES: To examine (1) whether knowledge and attitudes improved over the course of the training programs; (2) whether training outcomes differ by demographics; and (3) what overdose experiences do attendees have, and whether those experiences influence their knowledge and attitudes...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242537/primary-healthcare-based-integrated-care-with-opioid-agonist-treatment-first-experience-from-ukraine
#13
Olga Morozova, Sergey Dvoriak, Iryna Pykalo, Frederick L Altice
BACKGROUND: Ukraine's HIV epidemic is concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID), however, coverage with opioid agonist therapies (OATs) available mostly at specialty addiction clinics is extremely low. OAT integrated into primary healthcare clinics (PHCs) provides an opportunity for integrating comprehensive healthcare services and scaling up OAT. METHODS: A pilot study of PHC-based integrated care for drug users conducted in two Ukrainian cities between 2014 and 2016 included three sub-studies: 1) cross-sectional treatment site preference assessment among current OAT patients (N=755); 2) observational cohort of 107 PWID who continued the standard of care versus transition of stabilized and newly enrolled PWID into PHC-based integrated care; and 3) pre/post analysis of attitudes toward PWID and HIV patients by PHC staff (N=26)...
February 21, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241189/history-of-the-joint-commission-s-pain-standards-lessons-for-today-s-prescription-opioid-epidemic
#14
David W Baker
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239510/lidocaine-infusion-a-promising-therapeutic-approach-for-chronic-pain
#15
Enas Kandil, Emily Melikman, Bryon Adinoff
Opioid abuse is a national epidemic in the United States, where it is estimated that a prescription drug overdose death occurs every 19 minutes. While opioids are highly effective in acute and subacute pain control, their use for treatment of chronic pain is controversial. Chronic opioids use is associated with tolerance, dependency, hyperalgesia. Although there are new strategies and practice guidelines to reduce opioid dependence and opioid prescription drug overdose, there has been little focus on development of opioid-sparing therapeutic approaches...
January 2017: Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237052/retention-in-buprenorphine-treatment-is-associated-with-improved-hcv-care-outcomes
#16
B L Norton, A Beitin, M Glenn, J DeLuca, A H Litwin, C O Cunningham
Persons who inject drugs, most of whom are opioid dependent, comprise the majority of the HCV infected in the United States. As the national opioid epidemic unfolds, increasing numbers of people are entering the medical system to access treatment for opioid use disorder, specifically with buprenorphine. Yet little is known about HCV care in patients accessing buprenorphine-based opioid treatment. We sought to determine the HCV prevalence, cascade of care, and the association between patient characteristics and completion of HCV cascade of care milestones for patients initiating buprenorphine treatment...
April 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230448/opioid-use-for-pain-management-after-implementation-of-a-medicaid-short-acting-opioid-quantity-limit
#17
Catherine S Riggs, Sarah J Billups, Samantha Flores, Rachana J Patel, Rachel M F Heilmann, Jessica L Milchak
BACKGROUND: The United States is currently experiencing an opioid abuse epidemic. Many policies and programs have been implemented at local, state, and national levels in an attempt to decrease prescription opioid addiction and overdose. On August 1, 2014, Colorado Medicaid implemented a policy change that limited the quantity of short-acting opioids (SAOs) that could be filled through the Medicaid benefit to no more than 4 tablets per day, or 120 tablets in 30 days. OBJECTIVE: To compare mean total daily dose (TDD) of opioids purchased by Kaiser Permanente Colorado (KPCO) Medicaid patients before and after implementation of the Medicaid SAO quantity limit...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226416/the-contribution-of-the-emergency-department-to-opioid-pain-reliever-misuse-and-diversion-a-critical-review
#18
REVIEW
Tatyana Lyapustina, Renan Castillo, Elise Omaki, Wendy Shields, Eileen McDonald, Richard Rothman, Andrea Gielen
Prescription opioid pain reliever (OPR) misuse and diversion is an important and growing public health problem in the United States that is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality. Emergency physicians are among the top prescribers of OPRs, yet the relative contribution of emergency department (ED) OPR prescriptions to the overall opioid abuse epidemic remains unclear. This study critically reviews seven peer-reviewed studies that specifically identified the ED as a source of OPRs. Of the OPRs prescribed in the ED, approximately 10% are associated with indicators of inappropriate prescribing, and approximately 42% may ultimately be misused; of the OPRs that are diverted, approximately 10% originate from an ED prescription...
February 22, 2017: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226336/educational-outreach-to-opioid-prescribers-the-case-for-academic-detailing
#19
Margot Trotter Davis, Brian Bateman, Jerry Avorn
Nonmedical use of opioid medications constitutes a serious health threat as the rates of addiction, overdoses, and deaths have risen in recent years. Increasingly, inappropriate and excessively liberal prescribing of opioids by physicians is understood to be a central part of the crisis. Public health officials, hospital systems, and legislators are developing programs and regulations to address the problem in sustained and systematic ways that both insures effective treatment of pain and appropriate limits on the availability of opioids...
February 2017: Pain Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226332/responsible-safe-and-effective-prescription-of-opioids-for-chronic-non-cancer-pain-american-society-of-interventional-pain-physicians-asipp-guidelines
#20
Laxmaiah Manchikanti, Adam M Kaye, Nebojsa Nick Knezevic, Heath McAnally, Konstantin Slavin, Andrea M Trescot, Susan Blank, Vidyasagar Pampati, Salahadin Abdi, Jay S Grider, Alan D Kaye, Kavita N Manchikanti, Harold Cordner, Christopher G Gharibo, Michael E Harned, Sheri L Albers, Sairam Atluri, Steve M Aydin, Sanjay Bakshi, Robert L Barkin, Ramsin M Benyamin, Mark V Boswell, Ricardo M Buenaventura, Aaron K Calodney, David L Cedeno, Sukdeb Datta, Timothy R Deer, Bert Fellows, Vincent Galan, Vahid Grami, Hans Hansen, Standiford Helm Ii, Rafael Justiz, Dhanalakshmi Koyyalagunta, Yogesh Malla, Annu Navani, Kent H Nouri, Ramarao Pasupuleti, Nalini Sehgal, Sanford M Silverman, Thomas T Simopoulos, Vijay Singh, Daneshvari R Solanki, Peter S Staats, Ricardo Vallejo, Bradley W Wargo, Arthur Watanabe, Joshua A Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Opioid use, abuse, and adverse consequences, including death, have escalated at an alarming rate since the 1990s. In an attempt to control opioid abuse, numerous regulations and guidelines for responsible opioid prescribing have been developed by various organizations. However, the US opioid epidemic is continuing and drug dose deaths tripled during 1999 to 2015. Recent data show a continuing increase in deaths due to natural and semisynthetic opioids, a decline in methadone deaths, and an explosive increase in the rates of deaths involving other opioids, specifically heroin and illicit synthetic fentanyl...
February 2017: Pain Physician
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