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Arachnoid granulations

Jihad Drissi, Ayman Hachi, Laila Adlani, Jaouad Kouach, Driss Moussaoui, Mohamed Dehayni
We report the case of a 25-year old primipara whose pregnancy was complicated by idiopathic intracranial hypertension (ICHT) associated with visual impairment in the first quarter. She underwent lumboperitoneal shunt without obstetric consequences. This study aimed to determine the features of this rare pathological entity whose pathophysiological mechanism is poorly elucidated. It would be caused by poor absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) through the arachnoid granulations. Major risk factors are: obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome, thrombophilia and hyperfibrinolyse...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
Morteza Hemmat, Melissa J Rumple, Loretta W Mahon, Melanie Morrow, Tamara Zach, Arturo Anguiano, Mohamed M Elnaggar, Boris T Wang, Fatih Z Boyar
BACKGROUND: Homozygous mutations and deletions of the microcephalin gene (MCPH1; OMIM *607117) have been identified as a cause of autosomal recessive primary microcephaly and intellectual disability (MIM #251200). Previous studies in families of Asian descent suggest that the severity of the phenotype may vary based on the extent of the genomic alteration. We report chromosome microarray (CMA) findings and the first described family study of a patient with primary microcephaly in a consanguineous Hispanic family...
2017: Molecular Cytogenetics
Robert Chrzan, Artur Jurczyszyn, Andrzej Urbanik
BACKGROUND: For decades, the main imaging tool in multiple myeloma (MM) patients was plain radiography. However, computed tomography (CT) has been included in the updated criteria of MM. The main disadvantage of CT is a considerably high radiation dose. Therefore, low-dose CT protocols could be a solution. The aim of the study was to (1) preliminarily analyse the usefulness of Whole-Body Low-Dose CT (WBLDCT) in the evaluation of patients with MM and (2) to make adjustments in the standard CT imaging protocol...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
Jonathan C Simmonds, Andrew R Scott
We report a case of a seventeen-year old, healthy, non-obese young woman who presented with retro-orbital headaches and metallictasting, left-sided rhinorrhea. Computed tomography revealed a defect along the medial wall of the canal of V2 within a well-pneumatized lateral recess of the left sphenoid sinus. Prior imaging obtained 4 years earlier in the context of nasal trauma showed no such defect - thus lending support for the arachnoid granulation hypothesis of spontaneous CSF leaks from the sphenoid sinus...
July 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Shintaro Hayashi, Norihiko Akao, Koichi Okamoto
A 77-year-old man showed an asymptomatic meningeal lesion beneath the dura matter in the left fronto-parietal region on MRI during an examination for recurrent hoarsness. The lesion showed no gadolinium enhancement, and extended to neither the sulci nor skull. Neurological examinations revealed hoarseness, cochlear and vestibular dysfunction of the right ear, and mildly decreased Achilles tendon reflexes bilaterally. Laboratory findings showed marked inflammatory responses, but no abnormalities for LDH, IgG4, angiotensin-converting enzyme, or soluble IL-2 receptor...
June 28, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Darko Orešković, Milan Radoš, Marijan Klarica
The classic hypothesis presents the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as the "third circulation," which flows from the brain ventricles through the entire CSF system to the cortical subarachnoid space to eventually be passively absorbed into the superior sagittal sinus through arachnoid granulations. The choroid plexus (CP) represents a key organ in the classic CSF physiology and a powerful biological pump, which exclusively secretes CSF. Thereby, the CP is considered to be responsible for CSF pressure regulation and hydrocephalus development...
June 23, 2017: Neuroscience
Randle Umeh, Rod J Oskouian, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
Giant arachnoid granulations (AG) can mimic intracranial lesions. Knowledge of these structures can help avoid misdiagnosis when interpreting imaging. Here, we report a child who presented with a mass within the superior sagittal sinus and an anomalous draining vein. Herein, the diagnosis of a giant AG was made. Clinicians who view or interpret imaging of the head should be aware of these anatomical variants and though when very large, apparently, do not necessarily result in pathology. Based on our case report, giant AG might also demonstrate anomalous draining veins...
March 1, 2017: Curēus
Joana Ruivo Rodrigues, Gonçalo Roque Santos
Arachnoid granulations are structures filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that extend into the venous sinuses through openings in the dura mater and allow the drainage of CSF from subarachnoid space into venous system. Usually they are asymptomatic but can be symptomatic when large enough to cause sinus occlusion. We report a rare case of a brain herniation into a giant arachnoid granulation in an asymptomatic elderly male patient, which was discovered incidentally.
2017: Case Reports in Radiology
Eric A Hansen, Liudmila Romanova, Christopher Janson, Cornelius H Lam
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), large amounts of red blood cells and hemolytic products are deposited intracranially creating debris in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This debris, which includes heme and bilirubin, is cleared via the arachnoid granulations and lymphatic systems. However, the mechanisms by which erythrocytes and their breakdown products interfere with normal CSF dynamics remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to model in vitro how blood breakdown products affect arachnoid cells at the CSF-blood barrier, and the extent to which the resorption of CSF into the venous drainage system is mechanically impaired following TBI...
March 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Hayri Ogul, Mecit Kantarci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Headache
R Umeh, M Loukas, R J Oskouian, R S Tubbs
Arachnoid granulations are hypertrophied arachnoid villi, which extend from the subarachnoid space into the venous system and aid in the passive filtration and reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid. These macroscopic structures have been described in various locations, with the transverse and sigmoid sinuses seen as normal variants on imaging. Here we present the occurrence of an enlarged arachnoid granulation at the foramen rotundum where a variant intracranial venous sinus was identified during routine dissection...
2017: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
PURPOSE: Arachnoid granulations (AGs) occasionally appear to protrude into the calvarial convexity, lying close to the bridging veins (BVs). This study aims to characterize such AGs and BVs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Ninety-five patients were enrolled in this study. Initially, stepwise frontal craniotomy was performed in an injected cadaver head. Next, examinations with contrast MRI were performed involving the whole cranial vault. RESULTS: In cadaveric dissection, the AGs located in the parasagittal regions appeared as outward protrusions through the dura mater and in contact with the diploic veins...
September 19, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Nicholas L Deep, Joseph M Hoxworth, Christopher J Stevens, Michael J Link, Colin L W Driscoll, Christopher P Wood
OBJECTIVE: The radiologic appearance of arachnoid granulations (AGs) in typical locations is well established and they are rarely mistaken for other pathologies. However, when large and seen in atypical locations, such as along the posterior petrous bone, AGs can be a source of diagnostic and therapeutic confusion. We present two cases of giant posterior temporal bone AGs and review their clinical presentation, potential complications, and an imaging-based differential diagnosis. PATIENTS: Two patients with surgically or pathologically proven giant symptomatic AGs in the posterior petrous bone...
August 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Greta B Liebo, John Jack I Lane, Jamie J Van Gompel, Laurence J Eckel, Kara M Schwartz, Vance T Lehman
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Brain herniation into presumed arachnoid granulations (BHAG) is an increasingly recognized entity. Though it has previously been described as isointense to brain matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we have encountered 21 cases in our clinical practice, many of which have signal abnormality in the herniated or adjacent parenchyma. We performed a systematic analysis on these cases to further understand the clinical significance. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of cases collected from our clinical MRI practice...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
William G Bradley
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a syndrome found in the elderly, which is characterized by ventriculomegaly and deep white matter ischemia (DWMI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the clinical triad of gait disturbance, dementia, and urinary incontinence. NPH has been estimated to account for up to 10% of cases of dementia and is significant because it is treatable by ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Patients with a known cause of chronic communicating hydrocephalus, that is, meningitis or hemorrhage, tend to respond better than patients with the so-called "idiopathic" form, most likely because of poor selection criteria in the past...
April 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Recep Sade, Hayri Ogul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Headache
R Shane Tubbs, Amin Demerdash, Anthony V D'Antoni, Marios Loukas, Charles Kulwin, Rod J Oskouian, Aaron Cohen-Gadol
BACKGROUND: The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is often sacrificed during neurosurgical procedures in the region of the pterion. This maneuver, herein, is hypothesized to be a potential reason for the development of postoperative hydrocephalus by injuring the vascular supply to the arachnoid granulations near the vertex of the skull, and thus disrupting their ability to allow for transfer of CSF from the subarachnoid space to the venous system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test this theory, the middle meningeal artery was isolated at the skull base and injected with India ink...
November 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Sonaz Malekzadehlashkariani, Isabel Wanke, Daniel A Rüfenacht, Diego San Millán
INTRODUCTION: Brain herniations (BH) into arachnoid granulations (AG) in dural venous sinuses and calvarium have rarely been reported in the literature. METHODS: MRIs of 38 patients with BH into AG (BHAG) were retrospectively analyzed. Locations of BHAG, gyrus/lobe of the herniated brain, parenchymal abnormalities of the BH, and clinical and radiological conditions with raised intracranial pressure were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty-eight BHAG were found, by order of frequency, in the occipital squama (OS), transverse sinus (TS), lateral lacuna of the superior sagittal sinus (LLSSS), and straight sinus (SS), with cerebellar tissue being the most frequently involved in BHAG (94...
May 2016: Neuroradiology
Baomin Li, Yongping Liang, Xiangyu Cao, Jun Wang, Xinfeng Liu, Chunshui Yang, Chunming Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the imaging anatomic features of symptomatic cerebral venous sinus stenosis, and evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of different treatment methods. METHODS: From August 2001 to September 2004, 173 patients (transverse sinus stenosis 150, middle of the superior sagittal sinus stenosis 18, proximal part of sigmoid sinus stenosis 3, straight sinus stenosis 2; combined with sinus diverticulum 14, combined with Labbe's vein stenosis 3) were confirmed venous sinus stenosis by digital subtraction angiography (DSA)...
November 17, 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Christopher R Durst, David A Ornan, Michael A Reardon, Prachi Mehndiratta, Sugoto Mukherjee, Robert M Starke, Max Wintermark, Avery Evans, Mary E Jensen, R Webster Crowley, John Gaughen, Kenneth C Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While recent literature has described the prevalence of transverse sinus stenosis in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension, tinnitus, and refractory headaches, it is unclear what the prevalence is in the general population. This study evaluates the prevalence of venous sinus stenosis and hypoplasia in the general patient population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 355 of 600 consecutive patients who underwent CT angiography of the head met the inclusion criteria...
November 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
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