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Arachnoid granulations

Randle Umeh, Rod J Oskouian, Marios Loukas, R Shane Tubbs
Giant arachnoid granulations (AG) can mimic intracranial lesions. Knowledge of these structures can help avoid misdiagnosis when interpreting imaging. Here, we report a child who presented with a mass within the superior sagittal sinus and an anomalous draining vein. Herein, the diagnosis of a giant AG was made. Clinicians who view or interpret imaging of the head should be aware of these anatomical variants and though when very large, apparently, do not necessarily result in pathology. Based on our case report, giant AG might also demonstrate anomalous draining veins...
March 1, 2017: Curēus
Joana Ruivo Rodrigues, Gonçalo Roque Santos
Arachnoid granulations are structures filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that extend into the venous sinuses through openings in the dura mater and allow the drainage of CSF from subarachnoid space into venous system. Usually they are asymptomatic but can be symptomatic when large enough to cause sinus occlusion. We report a rare case of a brain herniation into a giant arachnoid granulation in an asymptomatic elderly male patient, which was discovered incidentally.
2017: Case Reports in Radiology
Eric A Hansen, Liudmila Romanova, Christopher Janson, Cornelius H Lam
After traumatic brain injury (TBI), large amounts of red blood cells and hemolytic products are deposited intracranially creating debris in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This debris, which includes heme and bilirubin, is cleared via the arachnoid granulations and lymphatic systems. However, the mechanisms by which erythrocytes and their breakdown products interfere with normal CSF dynamics remain poorly defined. The purpose of this study was to model in vitro how blood breakdown products affect arachnoid cells at the CSF-blood barrier, and the extent to which the resorption of CSF into the venous drainage system is mechanically impaired following TBI...
March 11, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Hayri Ogul, Mecit Kantarci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 11, 2017: Headache
Randle Umeh, Marios Loukas, Rod J Oskouian, R Shane Tubbs
BACKGROUND: Arachnoid granulations are hypertrophied arachnoid villi, which extend from the subarachnoid space into the venous system and aid in the passive filtration and reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid. These macroscopic structures have been described in various locations, with the transverse and sigmoid sinuses seen as normal variant s on imaging. CASE REPORT: Here we present the occurrence of an enlarged arachnoid granulation at the foramen rotundum where a variant intracranial venous sinus was identified during routine dissection...
November 4, 2016: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Satoshi Tsutsumi, Hideo Ono, Yukimasa Yasumoto
PURPOSE: Arachnoid granulations (AGs) occasionally appear to protrude into the calvarial convexity, lying close to the bridging veins (BVs). This study aims to characterize such AGs and BVs using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Ninety-five patients were enrolled in this study. Initially, stepwise frontal craniotomy was performed in an injected cadaver head. Next, examinations with contrast MRI were performed involving the whole cranial vault. RESULTS: In cadaveric dissection, the AGs located in the parasagittal regions appeared as outward protrusions through the dura mater and in contact with the diploic veins...
September 19, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Nicholas L Deep, Joseph M Hoxworth, Christopher J Stevens, Michael J Link, Colin L W Driscoll, Christopher P Wood
OBJECTIVE: The radiologic appearance of arachnoid granulations (AGs) in typical locations is well established and they are rarely mistaken for other pathologies. However, when large and seen in atypical locations, such as along the posterior petrous bone, AGs can be a source of diagnostic and therapeutic confusion. We present two cases of giant posterior temporal bone AGs and review their clinical presentation, potential complications, and an imaging-based differential diagnosis. PATIENTS: Two patients with surgically or pathologically proven giant symptomatic AGs in the posterior petrous bone...
August 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Greta B Liebo, John Jack I Lane, Jamie J Van Gompel, Laurence J Eckel, Kara M Schwartz, Vance T Lehman
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Brain herniation into presumed arachnoid granulations (BHAG) is an increasingly recognized entity. Though it has previously been described as isointense to brain matter on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we have encountered 21 cases in our clinical practice, many of which have signal abnormality in the herniated or adjacent parenchyma. We performed a systematic analysis on these cases to further understand the clinical significance. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of cases collected from our clinical MRI practice...
June 8, 2016: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
William G Bradley
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a syndrome found in the elderly, which is characterized by ventriculomegaly and deep white matter ischemia (DWMI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and the clinical triad of gait disturbance, dementia, and urinary incontinence. NPH has been estimated to account for up to 10% of cases of dementia and is significant because it is treatable by ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Patients with a known cause of chronic communicating hydrocephalus, that is, meningitis or hemorrhage, tend to respond better than patients with the so-called "idiopathic" form, most likely because of poor selection criteria in the past...
April 2016: Seminars in Ultrasound, CT, and MR
Recep Sade, Hayri Ogul
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2016: Headache
R Shane Tubbs, Amin Demerdash, Anthony V D'Antoni, Marios Loukas, Charles Kulwin, Rod J Oskouian, Aaron Cohen-Gadol
BACKGROUND: The middle meningeal artery (MMA) is often sacrificed during neurosurgical procedures in the region of the pterion. This maneuver, herein, is hypothesized to be a potential reason for the development of postoperative hydrocephalus by injuring the vascular supply to the arachnoid granulations near the vertex of the skull, and thus disrupting their ability to allow for transfer of CSF from the subarachnoid space to the venous system. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To test this theory, the middle meningeal artery was isolated at the skull base and injected with India ink...
November 2016: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
Sonaz Malekzadehlashkariani, Isabel Wanke, Daniel A Rüfenacht, Diego San Millán
INTRODUCTION: Brain herniations (BH) into arachnoid granulations (AG) in dural venous sinuses and calvarium have rarely been reported in the literature. METHODS: MRIs of 38 patients with BH into AG (BHAG) were retrospectively analyzed. Locations of BHAG, gyrus/lobe of the herniated brain, parenchymal abnormalities of the BH, and clinical and radiological conditions with raised intracranial pressure were recorded. RESULTS: Sixty-eight BHAG were found, by order of frequency, in the occipital squama (OS), transverse sinus (TS), lateral lacuna of the superior sagittal sinus (LLSSS), and straight sinus (SS), with cerebellar tissue being the most frequently involved in BHAG (94...
May 2016: Neuroradiology
Baomin Li, Yongping Liang, Xiangyu Cao, Jun Wang, Xinfeng Liu, Chunshui Yang, Chunming Wang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the imaging anatomic features of symptomatic cerebral venous sinus stenosis, and evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of different treatment methods. METHODS: From August 2001 to September 2004, 173 patients (transverse sinus stenosis 150, middle of the superior sagittal sinus stenosis 18, proximal part of sigmoid sinus stenosis 3, straight sinus stenosis 2; combined with sinus diverticulum 14, combined with Labbe's vein stenosis 3) were confirmed venous sinus stenosis by digital subtraction angiography (DSA)...
November 17, 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Christopher R Durst, David A Ornan, Michael A Reardon, Prachi Mehndiratta, Sugoto Mukherjee, Robert M Starke, Max Wintermark, Avery Evans, Mary E Jensen, R Webster Crowley, John Gaughen, Kenneth C Liu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: While recent literature has described the prevalence of transverse sinus stenosis in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension, tinnitus, and refractory headaches, it is unclear what the prevalence is in the general population. This study evaluates the prevalence of venous sinus stenosis and hypoplasia in the general patient population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 355 of 600 consecutive patients who underwent CT angiography of the head met the inclusion criteria...
November 2016: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Bilal Battal, Salih Hamcan, Veysel Akgun, Sebahattin Sari, Oguzhan Oz, Mustafa Tasar, Mauricio Castillo
OBJECTIVES: To determine frequency, imaging features and clinical significance of herniations of brain parenchyma into dural venous sinuses (DVS) and/or calvarium found on MRI. METHODS: A total of 6160 brain MRI examinations containing at least one high-resolution T1- or T2-weighted sequence were retrospectively evaluated to determine the presence of incidental brain herniations into the DVS or calvarium. MRI sequences available for review were evaluated according to their capability to demonstrate these herniations...
June 2016: European Radiology
Masakazu Miyajima, Hajime Arai
The traditional hypothesis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) hydrodynamics presumes that CSF is primarily produced in the choroid plexus (CP), then flows from the ventricles into the subarachnoid spaces, and mainly reabsorbed in the arachnoid granulations. This hypothesis is necessary to reconsider in view of recent research and clinical observations. This literature review presents numerous evidence for a new hypothesis of CSF hydrodynamics-(1) A significantly strong relationship exists between the CSF and interstitial fluid (IF), (2) CSF and IF are mainly produced and absorbed in the parenchymal capillaries of the brain and spinal cord...
2015: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Aaron K Remenschneider, Elliott D Kozin, Hugh Curtin, Felipe Santos
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The objective of this study was to utilize techniques of otopathology to gain insight into the pathogenesis, sites of origin, and associated findings in idiopathic lateral skull base defects. STUDY DESIGN: Histopathologic analysis of temporal bones from an otopathology repository. METHODS: Specimens from a human temporal bone repository were investigated for clinical or otopathologic evidence of occult bony dehiscence indicating communication between the subarachnoid space and air cells of the temporal bone...
August 2015: Laryngoscope
Helen N Schwerdt, Usamma Amjad, Jennie Appel, Ali M Elhadi, Ting Lei, Mark C Preul, Ruth E Bristol, Junseok Chae
Reliable cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) draining methods are needed to treat hydrocephalus, a chronic debilitating brain disorder. Current shunt implant treatments are characterized by high failure rates that are to some extent attributed to their length and multiple components. The designed valve, made of hydrogel, steers away from such protracted schemes and intends to provide a direct substitute for faulty arachnoid granulations, the brain's natural CSF draining valves, and restore CSF draining operations within the cranium...
March 2015: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Long Chen, Gavin Elias, Marina P Yostos, Bojan Stimec, Jean Fasel, Kieran Murphy
INTRODUCTION: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) absorption has long been held to predominantly entail drainage into the venous outflow system via the intracranial arachnoid granulations. Newer data suggest pathways involving spinal arachnoid granulations and lymphatic channels may also make substantial contributions to CSF outflow. METHODS: The putative major CSF outflow pathways and their proportionate contribution to CSF absorption were reviewed in this article. RESULTS: CSF is absorbed and drained in bulk not just through cerebral arachnoid granulations (CAG) but also through spinal arachnoid granulations (SAG) and a lymphatic pathway involving egress through cranial and spinal nerve sheaths...
February 2015: Neuroradiology
Peter H Gaudet, Richard J Cawthorn, Melanie A Buote, J Frank Morado, Glenda M Wright, Spencer J Greenwood
Hematodinium is a parasitic dinoflagellate of numerous crustacean species, including the economically important Atlantic snow crab, Chionoecetes opilio. The parasite was cultured in vitro in modified Nephrops medium at 0 °C and a partial characterization of the life stages was accomplished using light and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In haemolymph from heavily infected snow crabs two life stages were detected; amoeboid trophonts and sporonts. During in vitro cultivation, several Hematodinium sp...
April 2015: Parasitology
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