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Fetal alcohol syndrome and language

Melissa Lubbe, Corné van Walbeek, Nicole Vellios
Alcohol consumption is high among farm labourers in the Western and Northern Cape of South Africa. Excessive alcohol consumption during pregnancy is common, resulting in a high prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) among children. FAS causes intellectual and behavioural problems, which create considerable obstacles to a child's education. The aim of this study is to provide a prevalence estimate of FAS in a rural school and to examine the effects of FAS on learners' educational outcomes. The study was conducted at a farm school near Clanwilliam in the Western Cape of South Africa...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Karolina Löwgren, Rasmus Bååth, Anders Rasmussen, Henk-Jan Boele, Sebastiaan K E Koekkoek, Chris I De Zeeuw, Germund Hesslow
A growing body of evidence suggests that the cerebellum is involved in both cognition and language. Abnormal cerebellar development may contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), autism, fetal alcohol syndrome, dyslexia, and specific language impairment. Performance in eyeblink conditioning, which depends on the cerebellum, can potentially be used to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying the cerebellar dysfunction in disorders like these. However, we must first understand how the performance develops in children who do not have a disorder...
2017: PloS One
Randall Phelps, Debra Eisert, Susan Schulz, Marilyn Augustyn
Alex is a 9-year-old boy brought to you, his primary care provider, for a "fifth opinion." You have cared for Alex since he was adopted from a Romanian orphanage at 3 years of age. He has been physically healthy with normal growth parameters and no evidence of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alex has long-standing history of social difficulties, impulsivity, lying, controlling, manipulative behaviors, violent outbursts at home with subsequent lack of remorse, and excessive chatter. You referred Alex to an interdisciplinary child development clinic 2 years ago, where he was diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Svetlana Popova, Shannon Lange, Kevin Shield, Alanna Mihic, Albert E Chudley, Raja A S Mukherjee, Dennis Bekmuradov, Jürgen Rehm
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD) is related to many comorbidities because of the permanent effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the fetus. We aimed to identify the comorbid conditions that co-occur in individuals with FASD and estimate the pooled prevalence of comorbid conditions occurring in individuals with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). METHODS: We did a systematic literature search of studies reporting on the comorbidity and cause of death in individuals with FASD using multiple electronic bibliographic databases, searching for studies published up to July, 2012...
March 5, 2016: Lancet
Erin Mestas
BACKGROUND: Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the leading viral intrauterine infection in the United States. It causes more developmental delays and long-term sequelae than Down syndrome (trisomy 21), neural tube defects, or fetal alcohol syndrome combined. Yet, this virus, a member of the herpes virus family, is not well known to the public and its prevention is typically not discussed in obstetric offices. Although many infants with congenital CMV are asymptomatic at birth, a significant proportion still may develop sequelae...
February 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Marjorie Beeghly, Ruth Rose-Jacobs, Brett M Martin, Howard J Cabral, Timothy C Heeren, Deborah A Frank
Neuropsychological processes such as attention and memory contribute to children's higher-level cognitive and language functioning and predict academic achievement. The goal of this analysis was to evaluate whether level of intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) alters multiple aspects of preadolescents' neuropsychological functioning assessed using a single age-referenced instrument, the NEPSY: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment (NEPSY) (Korkman et al., 1998), after controlling for relevant covariates...
September 2014: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Nora Dörrie, Manuel Föcker, Inga Freunscht, Johannes Hebebrand
Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is one of the most prevalent and modifiable risk factors for somatic, behavioral, and neurological abnormalities. Affected individuals exhibit a wide range of such features referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). These are characterized by a more or less specific pattern of minor facial dysmorphic features, growth deficiency and central nervous system symptoms. Nevertheless, whereas the diagnosis of the full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome does not pose a major challenge, only a tentative diagnosis of FASD can be reached if only mild features are present and/or maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy cannot be verified...
October 2014: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
Claudia Arberas, Víctor Ruggieri
Autism spectrum disorders are characterized by impairment of social integration and language development and restricted interests. Autism spectrum disorders manifest during childhood and may have a varying clinical expression over the years related to different therapeutic approaches, behavior-modifying drugs, and environmental factors, among others. So far, the genetic alterations identified are not sufficient to explain the genesis of all these processes, as many of the mutations found are also present in unaffected individuals...
2013: Medicina
Bethany C Reeb-Sutherland, Nathan A Fox
Eyeblink conditioning (EBC) is a classical conditioning paradigm typically used to study the underlying neural processes of learning and memory. EBC has a well-defined neural circuitry, is non-invasive, and can be employed in human infants shortly after birth making it an ideal tool to use in both developing and special populations. In addition, abnormalities in the cerebellum, a region of the brain highly involved in EBC, have been implicated in a number of neurodevelopmental disorders including autism spectrum disorders (ASDs)...
February 2015: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Kelly Nash, Sara Stevens, Joanne Rovet, Ellen Fantus, Irena Nulman, Donna Sorbara, Gideon Koren
OBJECTIVE: Children with FASD display a heterogeneous profile and may have deficits in physical, behavioural, emotional, and social functioning, as the result of prenatal alcohol exposure. The major objective of the current study was to identify if a specific pattern of neuropsychological functioning exists among children prenatally exposed to alcohol who received a diagnosis, versus exposed children who did not. We compared groups on domains of intellectual functioning, memory, attention, executive functioning, motor functioning, language/communication and achievement...
2013: Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology
John C Thorne, Truman Coggins
BACKGROUND: Foetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD) include the range of disabilities that occur in children exposed to alcohol during pregnancy, with Foetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) on the severe end of the spectrum. Clinical research has documented a range of cognitive, social, and communication deficits in FASD and it indicates the need for diagnostic tools that can identify children with diminished communicative capacities resulting from prenatal alcohol exposure. Previous research indicates that analysis of nominal reference errors within narrative discourse may provide such a tool...
September 2008: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
Randall Phelps, Debra Eisert, Susan Schulz, Marilyn Augustyn
: Alex is a 9-year-old boy brought to you, his primary care provider, for a "fifth opinion." You have cared for Alex since he was adopted from a Romanian orphanage at 3 years of age. He has been physically healthy with normal growth parameters and no evidence of fetal alcohol syndrome. Alex has long-standing history of social difficulties, impulsivity, lying, controlling, manipulative behaviors, violent outbursts at home with subsequent lack of remorse, and excessive chatter. You referred Alex to an interdisciplinary child development clinic 2 years ago, where he was diagnosed with reactive attachment disorder (RAD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
January 2012: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
Michael W Church, John W Hotra, Pamela A Holmes, Jennifer I Anumba, Desmond A Jackson, Brittany R Adams
BACKGROUND: Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental impairments (NDIs) in developed countries. Sensory deficits can play a major role in NDI, yet few studies have investigated the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on sensory function. In addition, there is a paucity of information on the lifelong effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. Thus, we sought to investigate the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on auditory function across the life span in an animal model...
January 2012: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Sarah N Mattson, Nicole Crocker, Tanya T Nguyen
Heavy prenatal alcohol exposure can cause alterations to the developing brain. The resulting neurobehavioral deficits seen following this exposure are wide-ranging and potentially devastating and, therefore, are of significant concern to individuals, families, communities, and society. These effects occur on a continuum, and qualitatively similar neuropsychological and behavioral features are seen across the spectrum of effect. The term fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) has been used to emphasize the continuous nature of the outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure, with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) representing one point on the spectrum...
June 2011: Neuropsychology Review
Lynn K Paul
This review provides an overview of the involvement of the corpus callosum (CC) in a variety of developmental disorders that are currently defined exclusively by genetics, developmental insult, and/or behavior. I begin with a general review of CC development, connectivity, and function, followed by discussion of the research methods typically utilized to study the callosum. The bulk of the review concentrates on specific developmental disorders, beginning with agenesis of the corpus callosum (AgCC)-the only condition diagnosed exclusively by callosal anatomy...
March 2011: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
Andrea Ballini, Stefania Cantore, Domenica Tullo, Apollonia Desiate
INTRODUCTION: Dubowitz syndrome is a very rare, autosomal recessive disease characterized by microcephaly, growth retardation, a high sloping forehead, facial asymmetry, blepharophimosis, sparse hair and eyebrows, low-set ears and mental retardation. Symptoms vary between patients, but other characteristics include a soft high-pitched voice, dental and craniofacial abnormalities, partial webbing of the fingers and toes, palate deformations, genital abnormalities, eczema, hyperactivity, preference for concrete over abstract thinking, language difficulties and an aversion to crowds...
2011: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Dorothy V M Bishop
AIM: There are substantial differences in the amount of research concerned with different disorders. This paper considers why. METHODS: Bibliographic searches were conducted to identify publications (1985-2009) concerned with 35 neurodevelopmental disorders: Developmental dyslexia, Developmental dyscalculia, Developmental coordination disorder, Speech sound disorder, Specific language impairment, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autistic spectrum disorder, Tourette syndrome, Intellectual disability, Angelman syndrome, Cerebral palsy, Cornelia de Lange syndrome, Cri du chat syndrome, Down syndrome, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, Fetal alcohol syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Galactosaemia, Klinefelter syndrome, Lesch-Nyhan syndrome, Lowe syndrome, Marfan syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type 1, Noonan syndrome, Phenylketonuria, Prader-Willi syndrome, Rett syndrome, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome, Trisomy 18, Tuberous sclerosis, Turner syndrome, Velocardiofacial syndrome, Williams syndrome, XXX and XYY...
November 30, 2010: PloS One
Ira J Chasnoff, Anne M Wells, Erin Telford, Christine Schmidt, Gwendolyn Messer
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to compare the neurodevelopmental profiles of 78 foster and adopted children with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), partial FAS (pFAS), or alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND). METHOD: Seventy-eight foster and adopted children underwent a comprehensive diagnostic evaluation. By using criteria more stringent than those required by current guidelines, the children were placed in 1 of 3 diagnostic categories: FAS, pFAS, or ARND...
April 2010: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
J C Godel, B E Lee, D E McCallum, S L Lee, C W Macneil, G A Liddell, D R Shea
OBJECTIVES: To establish the prevalence of fetal alcohol exposure; to compare physical, behavioural and learning patterns of children with significant alcohol exposure in utero with those of a group of children exposed to minimal alcohol; to assess the usefulness of a fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)/fetal alcohol effect (FAE) score; and to provide feedback to parents, schools and communities. DESIGN: Parent questionnaire, complete physical examinations of children, psychometric tests of the children using elements of the Pediatric Early Elementary Examination (PEEX) and the Pediatric Examination of Educational Readiness (PEER), ADD-H comprehensive teachers rating scale (ACTeRS) score, the newly developed FAS/FAE Score, and the Brigance Comprehensive Inventory of Basic Skills to assess language and mathematical achievement...
March 2000: Paediatrics & Child Health
Parvaneh Yazdani, Mary Motz, Gideon Koren
BACKGROUND: Animal studies suggest that early intervention in pups exposed heavily to ethanol in utero can mitigate their neurocognitive damage. No human studies on this promising mechanism exists. METHODS: Breaking the Cycle is an early intervention program for drug-and alcohol addicted mothers and their young children. We compared BSID-III scores between infants heavily exposed to ethanol and a group exposed only to drugs of abuse, mainly cocaine. Both groups benefited from all aspects of our early intervention program...
2009: Canadian Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, Journal Canadien de Pharmacologie Clinique
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