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stridor pediatric emergency

Sıddika Songül Yalçın, Beril Özdemir, Sadriye Özdemir, Esra Baskın
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the agreement between integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) and final diagnosis in patients presenting with cough at the second and third level health institutions. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 373 children aged 2-60 mo who presented with cough at the pediatric emergency and outpatient clinics in the Department of Pediatrics. After clinical examination of children, body temperature, respiratory rate, saturation, presence or absence of the chest indrawing, rales, wheezing and laryngeal stridor were recorded...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Cameron C Sheehan, Joseph Lopez, Charles A Elmaraghy
OBJECTIVES: To describe our institution's low rate of positive bronchoscopy in infants suspected of inhaling a foreign body. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients at a tertiary children's hospital with suspected inhalation of a foreign body. Charts were reviewed for demographic information, radiologic findings, operative reports, and respiratory viral panels were reviewed. RESULTS: Sixteen pediatric patients under 12 months of age were identified from 2008 to 2016 with a diagnosis of possible airway foreign body inhalation who underwent emergent bronchoscopy...
January 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Ashley Marchese, Melissa L Langhan, Kathryn H Pade
Stridor is a result of turbulent air-flow through the trachea from upper airway obstruction, and although in children it is often due to croup, it can also be caused by noninfectious and/or congenital conditions as well as life-threatening etiologies. The history and physical examination guide initial management, which includes reduction of airway inflammation, treatment of bacterial infection, and, less often, imaging, emergent airway stabilization, or surgical management. This issue discusses the most common as well as the life-threatening etiologies of acute and chronic stridor and its management in the emergency department...
November 22, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
Tais Sao Pedro, Dennis Scolnik, Jeffrey Traubici, Derek Stephens
INTRODUCTION: Although retropharyngeal infection (RPI) may present with voice change, drooling, fever, and a toxic appearance, diagnosis based on symptoms alone is unreliable. As incidence is increasing in children and drug-resistant bacterial strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are becoming more common, we decided to assess the clinical utility of lateral neck radiography. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to review the experience of a large tertiary care pediatric emergency department (ED) in using lateral soft tissue neck radiographs in the diagnosis of suspected RPI...
October 27, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
Francisco J Escribá Alepuz, Javier Alonso García, J Vicente Cuchillo Sastriques, Emilio Alcalá, Pilar Argente Navarro
Postintubation subglottic stenosis is one of the most common causes of stridor in newborns and babies after prolonged mechanical ventilation. Management of this pathology is complex and requires highly trained personnel because it is associated with a high rate of airway-related mortality. This article presents the rescue of a difficult airway in a pediatric patient with subglottic stenosis with a new device available on the market, the Ventrain, offering certain advantages over those available until now.
March 15, 2018: A&A practice
Ashley Marchese, Melissa L. Langhan
Stridor is a result of turbulent air-flow through the trachea from upper airway obstruction, and although in children it is often due to croup, it can also be caused by noninfectious and/or congenital conditions as well as life-threatening etiologies. The history and physical examination guide initial management, which includes reduction of airway inflammation, treatment of bacterial infection, and, less often, imaging, emergent airway stabilization, or surgical management. This issue discusses the most common as well as the life-threatening etiologies of acute and chronic stridor and its management in the emergency department...
November 2017: Pediatric Emergency Medicine Practice
Sahba Sedaghat, Mario Tapia, Felipe Fredes, Pablo Rojas
INTRODUCTION: Bilateral vocal cord paralysis in adducted position (BVCPAd) is a severe cause of airway obstruction and usually debuts with stridor and airway distress necessitating immediate intervention. Tracheostomy has long been the gold standard for treating this condition, but has significant associated morbidity and mortality in pediatric patients. New conservative procedures have emerged to treat this condition thus avoiding tracheostomy, like endoscopic anterior and posterior cricoid split (EAPCS)...
June 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Candice L Bjornson, Janielee Williamson, David W Johnson
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to derive a simple clinical scoring instrument for assessing children with croup by telephone for use in clinical research studies. METHODS: We reviewed published literature on croup scores, surveyed experienced pediatric emergency nurses and physicians, and conducted a prospective cohort study. Score items were derived from published literature and surveys of experienced clinicians. We enrolled children with croup attending an urban pediatric emergency department...
May 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Jenna O Miller, Satid Thammasitboon, Deborah C Hsu, Manish I Shah, Charles G Minard, Jeanine M Graf
OBJECTIVE: Research has shown that patients transported by nonpediatric teams have higher rates of morbidity and mortality. There is currently a paucity of pediatric standardized ongoing medical education for emergency medical service providers, thus we aimed to develop a model curriculum to increase their knowledge regarding pediatric respiratory distress and failure. METHODS: The curriculum was based on the Kolb Learning Cycle to optimize learning. Target learners were flight nurses (registered nurse) and emergency medical technicians of a private helicopter emergency transport team...
February 2016: Pediatric Emergency Care
Anirban Mandal, Sushil K Kabra, Rakesh Lodha
Children with upper airway obstruction are both unique and variable in their presentation and management, often posing a challenge to the pediatrician. Several anatomical and physiologic peculiarities make a child vulnerable to develop an obstruction of upper airways. The characteristic finding in upper airway obstruction is stridor-inspiratory, biphasic or expiratory. The etiologies vary widely throughout the age groups and according to the mode of presentation. The approach starts with suspicion, mandates careful clinical evaluation of the degree of obstruction and many a times emergency measures precede any investigation or even precise diagnosis...
August 2015: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Hyun Jee Kim, Je Do Son, Kyung-Hwa Kwak
An 18 month-old boy underwent endoscopic foreign body removal under anesthesia on an outpatient basis and the operation took approximately 5 minutes. Stridor developed in both lung fields 6 hours after emergence from anesthesia, and severe croup developed, with cyanosis of the lips and aggravated stridor 20 hours after the end of the procedure. The croup resolved with oxygen therapy, intravenous dexamethasone, and epinephrine nebulization therapy. In this report, we suggest that thorough investigations of the patient's past history, including history of any airway problems, and careful monitoring after emergence from anesthesia be done in order to decide the proper discharge time of the patient...
October 2014: Korean Journal of Anesthesiology
B S Sharma, Dhananjay S Shekhawat, Prity Sharma, Chetan Meena, Hari Mohan
Acute respiratory distress is one of the most common reason for emergency visits in children under 5 y of age. An accurate understanding of the epidemiology of these diseases, identification of risk factors and etiology is critical for successful treatment and prevention of related mortality. The cause of acute respiratory distress varies in etiology, and hence is amenable to different treatment modalities. Depending on the predominant symptoms and signs, a child presenting to the clinician can be divided into six groups, viz...
July 2015: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Sapna R Kudchadkar, Justin T Hamrick, Christine L Mai, Ivor Berkowitz, David Tunkel
BACKGROUND: Thermal epiglottitis is a rare but potentially life-threatening disease. Diagnosis requires a thorough history and high clinical level of suspicion, particularly in children. Thermal epiglottitis from steam inhalation can have a slow onset without oropharyngeal signs of thermal injury, findings that can hide the clinical diagnosis. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to review the pathophysiology and clinical presentation of thermal epiglottitis and the challenges involved in diagnosis and management of this form of atypical epiglottitis...
February 2014: Journal of Emergency Medicine
A Duhamel, D Grevent, V Nouyrigat, G Cheron
We report the case of a patient who presented dyspnea due to a large intrathoracic goiter. This patient had congenital hypothyroidism due to thyroid enzyme deficiency. He came to a pediatric emergency department for dyspnea. At home, he had inspiratory and expiratory dyspnea with a stridor. No signs of respiratory distress were observed. The neck was deformed by a large goiter. The patient indicated that he did not follow the recommended L-thyroxine treatment. Chest and neck radiography showed tracheal compression...
June 2013: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
M Jayashree, Sunit C Singhi
Triage refers to quick assessment of a patient in the Emergency Room with a view to define urgency of care and priorities in management. Triage evaluation can be completed in an organized and systematic manner using Pediatric Assessment Triangle (PAT), which refers to immediate visual and auditory assessment of appearance, breathing and circulation. At the end of PAT, patient's illness is categorized as either stable or unstable. Unstable conditions are further classified into life threatening and non life threatening...
September 2011: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Xu Zhang, Wenxian Li, Yinzi Chen
OBJECTIVES:   To identify the risk factors associated with postoperative adverse respiratory events in preschool-aged children with inhaled foreign bodies (FBs) undergoing rigid bronchoscopy. BACKGROUND:   Foreign bodies aspiration is the most common cause of admission in pediatric emergency in otolaryngology service. Performance of rigid bronchoscopy is the standard treatment for removal of FBs in children. In some cases, severe respiratory events (complete laryngospasm and pneumothorax) may cause anesthesia-related morbidity and mortality...
October 2011: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Kerry Caperell, Raymond Pitetti
OBJECTIVE: To prospectively investigate whether American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, as assigned by nonanesthesiologists, is associated with adverse events during procedural sedation in a pediatric emergency department. METHODS: A prospectively collected database of children aged 0 to 21 years undergoing procedural sedation in the emergency department of an urban, tertiary care, children's hospital was retrospectively reviewed. This database included clinical and demographic characteristics, including assigned ASA class...
October 2009: Pediatric Emergency Care
Makoto Komura, Yutaka Kanamori, Masahiko Sugiyama, Noriyoshi Fukushima, Tadashi Iwanaka
Most patients with thymic cysts complain of a slowly enlarging, asymptomatic cervical mass. Only 6-10% suffer dysphagia, dyspnoea, stridor, cervical pain or vocal paralysis. In some rare cases sudden onset of severe dyspnoea or asphyxia is the first symptom, especially in neonates and small infants. We report a unique case of a 20-month-old child, who required emergency tracheal intubation due to asphyxia. Cervicomediastinal thymic cyst might need to be included in causes of life-threatening airway obstruction in young children...
September 2010: Pediatric Radiology
Hedwig Schroeck, Karamarie Fecho, Kathleen Abode, Ann Bailey
OBJECTIVE: In children undergoing bronchoscopy for evaluation of stridor or respiratory symptoms, movement of the vocal cords is routinely assessed at the conclusion of flexible bronchoscopy with children still anesthetized. The effect of anesthesia on vocal cord function is not well described. This study aimed to characterize the relationship between depth of propofol anesthesia, as measured by Bispectral Index (BIS), and vocal cord movement in pediatric patients. METHODS: Children between 6 months and 12 years of age presenting for diagnostic flexible bronchoscopy were enrolled in this prospective observational study...
May 2010: Pediatric Pulmonology
Biswajit Dubashi, Sanju Cyriac, Sagar Gnana Tenali
BACKGROUND: Primary mediastinal malignancies are uncommon. They can originate from any mediastinal organ or tissue but most commonly arise from thymic, neurogenic, lymphatic, germinal or mesenchymal tissues. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to review the clinical presentations, diagnostic methods adopted, the histologies and the treatment outcomes of this rare subset of tumors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Case records of 91 patients in the period 1993-2006 at our institute were retrospectively analyzed...
July 2009: Annals of Thoracic Medicine
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