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Lipid gpcr

Jin Xiang, Eugene Chun, Chang Liu, Liang Jing, Zina Al-Sahouri, Lan Zhu, Wei Liu
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute the largest class of drug targets in the human genome, which highlights the importance of understanding the molecular basis of their activation, downstream signaling, and regulation. Since 2007, great progress has been made in the field of GPCR structure determination and their signaling complexes at the molecular level. Here, we summarize the high-resolution structures of over 30 different GPCRs with their co-crystallized ligands, and outline the successful strategies involved, including construct design, expression systems, and lipidic cubic phase (LCP) composition, and the many key technical parameters of the crystallization methods...
October 7, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Valentin Mutemberezi, Owein Guillemot-Legris, Giulio G Muccioli
Oxysterols are cholesterol metabolites that can be produced through enzymatic or radical processes. They constitute a large family of lipids (i.e. the oxysterome) involved in a plethora of physiological processes. They can act through GPCR (e.g. EBI2, SMO, CXCR2), nuclear receptors (LXR, ROR, ERα) and through transporters or regulatory proteins. Their physiological effects encompass cholesterol, lipid and glucose homeostasis. Additionally, they were shown to be involved in other processes such as immune regulatory functions and brain homeostasis...
September 26, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Chen-Chen Han, Yang Ma, Yifan Li, Yang Wang, Wei Wei
G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2 (GRK2) is a key member of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK) family. GRK2 activity is regulated by the C-terminus of GRK2 which contains a plekstrin homology domain and the N-terminus of GRK2 which contains the RGS homology domain with binding sites for several proteins and lipids such as G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), G protein, phospholipase C, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, extracellular signal‑regulated kinase, protein kinase A and Gβγ...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Lauren E Ragle, Dilip J Palanisamy, Margaux J Joe, Rachel S Stein, Derek D Norman, Gabor Tigyi, Daniel L Baker, Abby L Parrill
Autotaxin (ATX) is a ubiquitous ectoenzyme that hydrolyzes lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) to form the bioactive lipid mediator lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). LPA activates specific G-protein coupled receptors to elicit downstream effects leading to cellular motility, survival, and invasion. Through these pathways, upregulation of ATX is linked to diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Recent crystal structures confirm that the catalytic domain of ATX contains multiple binding regions including a polar active site, hydrophobic tunnel, and a hydrophobic pocket...
October 1, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Daniel M Houslay, Karen E Anderson, Tamara Chessa, Suhasini Kulkarni, Ralph Fritsch, Julian Downward, Jonathan M Backer, Len R Stephens, Phillip T Hawkins
Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) catalyze production of the lipid messenger phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3), which plays a central role in a complex signaling network regulating cell growth, survival, and movement. This network is overactivated in cancer and inflammation, and there is interest in determining the PI3K catalytic subunit (p110α, p110β, p110γ, or p110δ) that should be targeted in different therapeutic contexts. Previous studies have defined unique regulatory inputs for p110β, including direct interaction with Gβγ subunits, Rac, and Rab5...
2016: Science Signaling
Marina Casiraghi, Marjorie Damian, Ewen Lescop, Elodie Point, Karine Moncoq, Nelly Morellet, Daniel Levy, Jacky Marie, Eric Guittet, Jean-Louis Banères, Laurent J Catoire
Mapping the conformational landscape of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), and in particular how this landscape is modulated by the membrane environment, is required to gain a clear picture of how signaling proceeds. To this end, we have developed an original strategy based on solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance combined with an efficient isotope labeling scheme. This strategy was applied to a typical GPCR, the leukotriene B4 receptor BLT2, reconstituted in a lipid bilayer. Because of this, we are able to provide direct evidence that BLT2 explores a complex landscape that includes four different conformational states for the unliganded receptor...
September 7, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Mandi M Hopkins, Ze Liu, Kathryn E Meier
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator that mediates cellular effects via G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Epidermal growth factor (EGF) is a peptide that acts via a receptor tyrosine kinase. LPA and EGF both induce proliferation of prostate cancer cells and can transactivate each other's receptors. The LPA receptor LPA1 is particularly important for LPA response in human prostate cancer cells. Previous work in our laboratory has demonstrated that free fatty acid 4 (FFA4), a GPCR activated by ω-3 fatty acids, inhibits responses to both LPA and EGF in these cells...
October 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Shuguang Yuan, H C Stephen Chan, Horst Vogel, Slawomir Filipek, Raymond C Stevens, Krzysztof Palczewski
Human purinergic G protein-coupled receptor P2Y1 (P2Y1 R) is activated by adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP) to induce platelet activation and thereby serves as an important antithrombotic drug target. Crystal structures of P2Y1 R revealed that one ligand (MRS2500) binds to the extracellular vestibule of this GPCR, whereas another (BPTU) occupies the surface between transmembrane (TM) helices TM2 and TM3. We introduced a total of 20 μs all-atom long-timescale molecular dynamic (MD) simulations to inquire why two molecules in completely different locations both serve as antagonists while ADP activates the receptor...
August 22, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
Smriti P K Mittal, Swati Khole, Nidhi Jagadish, Debjani Ghosh, Vijay Gadgil, Vilas Sinkar, Saroj S Ghaskadbi
BACKGROUND: Andrographolide, principle constituent of Andrographis paniculata Nees is used in traditional medicine in Southeast Asia and is known to exhibit various biological activities. Its antioxidant activity is due to its ability to activate one of the antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) which is regulated transcriptionally through Nrf-2. However, molecular mechanism underlying activation of Nrf-2/HO-1 has not yet been clearly understood. METHODS: Protective effect of andrographolide against H2O2 induced cell death, reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation was observed in HepG2 cells...
November 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Irina V Tiper, James E East, Priyanka B Subrahmanyam, Tonya J Webb
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a sphingosine containing lipid intermediate obtained from ceramide. S1P is known to be an important signaling molecule and plays multiple roles in the context of immunity. This lysophospholipid binds and activates G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as S1P receptors 1-5 (S1P1-5). Once activated, these GPCRs mediate signaling that can lead to alterations in cell proliferation, survival or migration, and can also have other effects such as promoting angiogenesis. In this review, we will present evidence demonstrating a role for S1P in lymphocyte migration, inflammation and infection, as well as in cancer...
August 2016: Pathogens and Disease
Kevin W Kastner, Jesús A Izaguirre
Octopamine receptors (OARs) perform key biological functions in invertebrates, making this class of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) worth considering for insecticide development. However, no crystal structures and very little research exists for OARs. Furthermore, GPCRs are large proteins, are suspended in a lipid bilayer, and are activated on the millisecond timescale, all of which make conventional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations infeasible, even if run on large supercomputers. However, accelerated Molecular Dynamics (aMD) simulations can reduce this timescale to even hundreds of nanoseconds, while running the simulations on graphics processing units (GPUs) would enable even small clusters of GPUs to have processing power equivalent to hundreds of CPUs...
October 2016: Proteins
M Gertrude Gutierrez, Kylee S Mansfield, Noah Malmstadt
Although the properties of the cell plasma membrane lipid bilayer are broadly understood to affect integral membrane proteins, details of these interactions are poorly understood. This is particularly the case for the large family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Here, we examine the lipid dependence of the human serotonin 5-HT1A receptor, a GPCR that is central to neuronal function. We incorporate the protein in synthetic bilayers of controlled composition together with a fluorescent reporting system that detects GPCR-catalyzed activation of G protein to measure receptor-catalyzed oligonucleotide exchange...
June 7, 2016: Biophysical Journal
Andrea N Naranjo, Patrick M McNeely, John Katsaras, Anne Skaja Robinson
The adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) is a much-studied class A G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). For biophysical studies, A2AR is commonly purified in a detergent mixture of dodecylmaltoside (DDM), 3-(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammoniopropane sulfonate (CHAPS), and cholesteryl hemisuccinate (CHS). Here we studied the effects of CHAPS on the ligand binding activity and stability of wild type, full-length human A2AR. We also tested the cholesterol requirement for maintaining the active conformation of the receptor when solubilized in detergent micelles...
August 2016: Protein Expression and Purification
Nuska Tschammer
Allosteric modulation is the regulation of a protein by binding of an effector molecule at the proteins allosteric site (a site other than that of the endogenous ligand). Allosteric modulators, by virtue of the fact that they may stabilize different global conformations of a receptor, have the potential to disrupt protein-protein interactions of very large proteins and elicit diverse functional responses. The existence of ligands that allosterically modulate the G protein receptor (GPCR) functions provides both challenges and opportunities for drug development campaigns...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Moon-Yong Park, Nahyun Kim, Li-Ling Wu, Guang-Yan Yu, Kyungpyo Park
Endocytosis has numerous functions in cellular homeostasis. Defects in the endocytic pathway of receptors may lead to dysfunction of salivary gland secretion. Therefore, elucidating the complex mechanisms of endocytosis may facilitate solutions for disease treatment and prevention. The muscarinic type 3 receptor (M3R), a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) located in the plasma membrane, is involved in numerous physiological activities such as smooth muscle contraction and saliva secretion. M3R enters cells through clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), while flotillins (flot-1 and -2), highly conserved proteins residing in lipid-raft microdomains, make use of clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) for their internalization...
August 5, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Pei Yang, Kristoff T Homan, Yaoxin Li, Osvaldo Cruz-Rodríguez, John J G Tesmer, Zhan Chen
Interactions between proteins and cell membranes are critical for biological processes such as transmembrane signaling, and specific components of the membrane may play roles in helping to organize or mandate particular conformations of both integral and peripheral membrane proteins. One example of a signaling enzyme whose function is dependent on membrane binding and whose activity is affected by specific lipid components is G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) kinase 2 (GRK2). Efficient GRK2-mediated phosphorylation of activated GPCRs is dependent not only on its recruitment to the membrane by heterotrimeric Gβγ subunits but also on the presence of highly negatively charged lipids, in particular phosphatidylinositol 4',5'-bisphosphate (PIP2)...
May 24, 2016: Biochemistry
Xuechen Lv, Junlin Liu, Qiaoyun Shi, Qiwen Tan, Dong Wu, John J Skinner, Angela L Walker, Lixia Zhao, Xiangxiang Gu, Na Chen, Lu Xue, Pei Si, Lu Zhang, Zeshi Wang, Vsevolod Katritch, Zhi-Jie Liu, Raymond C Stevens
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are involved in all human physiological systems where they are responsible for transducing extracellular signals into cells. GPCRs signal in response to a diverse array of stimuli including light, hormones, and lipids, where these signals affect downstream cascades to impact both health and disease states. Yet, despite their importance as therapeutic targets, detailed molecular structures of only 30 GPCRs have been determined to date. A key challenge to their structure determination is adequate protein expression...
May 2016: Protein & Cell
Sejin Jung, Asuka Inoue, Sho Nakamura, Takayuki Kishi, Akiharu Uwamizu, Misa Sayama, Masaya Ikubo, Yuko Otani, Kuniyuki Kano, Kumiko Makide, Junken Aoki, Tomohiko Ohwada
Lysophosphatidylserine (LysoPS) is an endogenous lipid mediator that specifically activates membrane proteins of the P2Y and its related families of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR), GPR34 (LPS1), P2Y10 (LPS2), and GPR174 (LPS3). Here, in order to increase potency and receptor selectivity, we designed and synthesized LysoPS analogues containing the conformational constraints of the glycerol moiety. These reduced structural flexibility by fixation of the glycerol framework of LysoPS using a 2-hydroxymethyl-3-hydroxytetrahydropyran skeleton, and related structures identified compounds which exhibited high potency and selectivity for activation of GPR34 or P2Y10...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Aditi Tandale, Manali Joshi, Durba Sengupta
The human β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) belongs to the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family and due to its central role in bronchodilation, is an important drug target. The inter-individual variability in β2AR has been implicated in disease susceptibility and differential drug response. In this work, we identified nine potentially deleterious non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (nsSNPs) using a consensus approach. The deleterious nsSNPs were found to cluster near the ligand binding site and towards the G-protein binding site...
2016: Scientific Reports
Mark Wheatley, Jack Charlton, Mohammed Jamshad, Sarah J Routledge, Sian Bailey, Penelope J La-Borde, Maria T Azam, Richard T Logan, Roslyn M Bill, Tim R Dafforn, David R Poyner
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) form the largest class of membrane proteins and are an important target for therapeutic drugs. These receptors are highly dynamic proteins sampling a range of conformational states in order to fulfil their complex signalling roles. In order to fully understand GPCR signalling mechanisms it is necessary to extract the receptor protein out of the plasma membrane. Historically this has universally required detergents which inadvertently strip away the annulus of lipid in close association with the receptor and disrupt lateral pressure exerted by the bilayer...
April 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
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