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Knowledge Retention

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088574/time-dependence-of-the-enhancement-effect-of-chemical-enhancers-molecular-mechanisms-of-enhancing-kinetics
#1
Xiaochang Liu, Peng Quan, Shanshan Li, Chao Liu, Yuan Zhao, Yongshan Zhao, Liang Fang
Chemical enhancers are widely used for facilitating drug penetration in transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS). However, there is a lack of knowledge about how the enhancement effect changes over time. In this study, on the basis of kinetic parameters of enhancement effect, molecular details of the dynamic enhancement process was described and a new hypothesis of the recovery mechanism of the skin barrier function was proposed. Using pretreated skin and flurbiprofen patch, the effects of Azone (AZ) and menthol decanoate (MT-10) were evaluated with in vitro permeation experiment and further confirmed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and TEWL...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087960/retention-of-knowledge-following-training-of-students-in-basic-trauma-life-support
#2
K G Lim, S K Lum, I A S Burud
INTRODUCTION: In the course of their undergraduate training at the International Medical University, students receive a Basic Trauma Life Support course. OBJECTIVE: We wanted to test the long-term retention of knowledge (after 16 months) of third year medical students who had received training in Basic Trauma Life Support Method: To assess the retention of knowledge one cohort of students who received the training course were tested again 16 months later using the same 30 question One Best Answer quiz...
December 2016: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074423/effectiveness-of-risk-evaluation-and-mitigation-strategies-rems-for-lenalidomide-and-thalidomide-patient-comprehension-and-knowledge-retention
#3
Nancy A Brandenburg, Robert Bwire, John Freeman, Florence Houn, Paul Sheehan, Jerome B Zeldis
INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of patient education activities conducted within the lenalidomide and thalidomide risk evaluation and mitigation strategies (REMS) programs was evaluated by measuring understanding of serious risk and safe-use messages. METHODS: Results from mandatory knowledge, attitude, and behavior surveys and voluntary patient surveys completed between June 2012 and June 2013 were analyzed, and responses to questions relating to compliance with birth control measures and understanding of safe-use messages are presented by patient risk category...
January 10, 2017: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068980/use-of-information-and-communication-technology-and-retention-of-health-workers-in-rural-post-war-conflict-northern-uganda-findings-from-a-qualitative-study
#4
Walter Onen Yagos, Geoffrey Tabo Olok, Emilio Ovuga
BACKGROUND: Information and communication technologies have become a vital infrastructural asset for use in the retention of rural health workers. However, little is known about the potential influence of ICT use, perceptions of health workers on ICT in healthcare delivery, and contribution of ICT to health care providers' retention in rural and remote areas in rural post-war and conflict situations of northern Uganda. METHODS: Data from interviews were transcribed, coded and thematically analysed...
January 10, 2017: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068640/transient-medial-prefrontal-perturbation-reduces-false-memory-formation
#5
Ruud M W J Berkers, Marieke van der Linden, Rafael F de Almeida, Nils C J Müller, Leonore Bovy, Martin Dresler, Richard G M Morris, Guillén Fernández
Knowledge extracted across previous experiences, or schemas, benefit encoding and retention of congruent information. However, they can also reduce specificity and augment memory for semantically related, but false information. A demonstration of the latter is given by the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm, where the studying of words that fit a common semantic schema are found to induce false memories for words that are congruent with the given schema, but were not studied. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been ascribed the function of leveraging prior knowledge to influence encoding and retrieval, based on imaging and patient studies...
December 24, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063849/recruitment-promotion-and-retention-of-women-in-academic-medicine-how-institutions-are-addressing-gender-disparities
#6
Phyllis L Carr, Christine Gunn, Anita Raj, Samantha Kaplan, Karen M Freund
OBJECTIVE: Greater numbers of women in medicine have not resulted in more women achieving senior positions. Programs supporting the recruitment, promotion, and retention of women in academic medicine could help to achieve greater advancement of more women to leadership positions. Qualitative research was conducted to understand such programs at 23 institutions and, using the social ecological model, examine how they operate at the individual, interpersonal, institutional, academic community, and policy levels...
January 4, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061690/organophosphorus-xenobiotic-toxicology
#7
John E Casida
Originally, organophosphorus (OP) toxicology consisted of acetylcholinesterase inhibition by insecticides and chemical threat agents acting as phosphorylating agents for serine in the catalytic triad, but this is no longer the case. Other serine hydrolases can be secondary OP targets, depending on the OP structure, and include neuropathy target esterase, lipases, and endocannabinoid hydrolases. The major OP herbicides are glyphosate and glufosinate, which act in plants but not animals to block aromatic amino acid and glutamine biosynthesis, respectively, with safety for crops conferred by their expression of herbicide-tolerant targets and detoxifying enzymes from bacteria...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059603/retention-of-basic-life-support-in-laypeople-mastery-learning-vs-time-based-education
#8
Sylvain Boet, M Dylan Bould, Ashlee-Ann Pigford, Bernhard Rössler, Pratheeban Nambyiah, Qi Li, Alexandra Bunting, Karl Schebesta
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of a mastery learning (ML) versus a time-based (TB) BLS course for the acquisition and retention of BLS knowledge and skills in laypeople. METHODS: After ethics approval, laypeople were randomized to a ML or TB BLS course based on the American Heart Association (AHA) Heartsaver course. In the ML group, subjects practiced and received feedback at six BLS stations until they reached a pre-determined level of performance. The TB group received a standard AHA six-station BLS course...
January 6, 2017: Prehospital Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057047/effect-of-an-educational-intervention-on-knowledge-and-attitude-regarding-pharmacovigilance-and-consumer-pharmacovigilance-among-community-pharmacists-in-lalitpur-district-nepal
#9
Nisha Jha, Devendra Singh Rathore, Pathiyil Ravi Shankar, Shital Bhandary, Rabi Bushan Pandit, Sudesh Gyawali, Mohamed Alshakka
BACKGROUND: Pharmacovigilance activities are in a developing stage in Nepal. ADR reporting is mainly confined to healthcare professionals working in institutions recognized as regional pharmacovigilance centers. Community pharmacists could play an important role in pharmacovigilance. This study was conducted among community pharmacists in Lalitpur district to examine their knowledge and attitude about pharmacovigilance before and after an educational intervention. METHODS: Knowledge and attitude was studied before, immediately after and 6 weeks following the intervention among 75 community pharmacists...
January 3, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054175/directed-accumulation-of-less-toxic-pimaricin-derivatives-by-improving-the-efficiency-of-a-polyketide-synthase-dehydratase-domain
#10
Zhen Qi, Yucong Zhou, Qianjin Kang, Chunyan Jiang, Jianting Zheng, Linquan Bai
Pimaricin is an important polyene antifungal antibiotic that binds ergosterol and extracts it from fungal membranes. In previous work, two pimaricin derivatives (1 and 2) with improved pharmacological activities and another derivative (3) that showed no antifungal activity were produced by the mutant strain of Streptomyces chattanoogensis, in which the P450 monooxygenase gene scnG has been inactivated. Furthermore, inactivation of the DH12 dehydratase domain of the pimaricin polyketide synthases (PKSs) resulted in specific accumulation of the undesired metabolite 3, suggesting that improvement of the corresponding dehydratase activity may reduce or eliminate the accumulation of 3...
January 4, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052168/a-review-of-tenure-for-black-latino-and-native-american-faculty-in-academic-medicine
#11
Zedeena E Fisher, José E Rodríguez, Kendall M Campbell
OBJECTIVES: Tenure policies in US medical schools have been under scrutiny for decades while black/African American, Latino, and Native American faculty continue to be underrepresented in medicine. As medical institutions seek to improve diversity, tenure continues to be a major retention tool. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to investigate the role that tenure plays in the recruitment, retention, and advancement of underrepresented minorities in medicine (URMM) faculty in academic medicine...
January 2017: Southern Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050985/patients-awareness-toward-implant-supported-prosthesis-an-observational-study
#12
C Mahendra Raju, Sumanth Gunupati, Madisetty Mahesh Babu, C Sameer Kumar Reddy, Sukrutha Biradavolu, M Saravanan
INTRODUCTION: Implant-supported prosthesis has high predictability and success and improves quality of life. This study aims at assessing awareness among the patients regarding implant-supported prosthesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 391 study participants. A structured questionnaire was distributed to assess implant-related awareness among the study participants. The questionnaires were analyzed for the responses. RESULTS: Among the 391 respondents, 37...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050966/chemical-and-structural-arrangement-of-the-trigonal-phase-in-gesbte-thin-films
#13
Antonio M Mio, Stefania M S Privitera, Valeria Bragaglia, Fabrizio Arciprete, Corrado Bongiorno, Raffaella Calarco, Emanuele Rimini
The thermal and electrical properties of phase change materials, mainly GeSbTe alloys, in the crystalline state strongly depend on their phase and on the associated degree of order. The switching of Ge atoms in superlattice structures with trigonal phase has been recently proposed to develop memories with reduced switching energy, in which two differently ordered crystalline phases are the logic states. A detailed knowledge of the stacking plane sequence, of the local composition and of the vacancy distribution is therefore crucial in order to understand the underlying mechanism of phase transformations in the crystalline state and to evaluate the retention properties...
January 4, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050508/factors-affecting-tooth-retention-among-adult-population-of-dharwad-district-india
#14
Salma H Mulla, Nurul Ameen Inamdar, K V V Prasad
INTRODUCTION: Oral health in relation to general health is influen-ced by the retention of teeth. Understanding factors affecting tooth retention will help health and social policy-makers to translate the knowledge on tooth retention into action programs for improving oral health of the people and hence enhance tooth retention. AIM: The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting tooth retention among adult population of Dharwad district, India...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042917/profiling-and-identification-of-epicatechin-metabolites-in-rats-using-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-coupled-with-linear-trap-orbitrap-mass-spectrometer
#15
Zhanpeng Shang, Fei Wang, Shengyun Dai, Jianqiu Lu, Xiaodan Wu, Jiayu Zhang
(-)-Epicatechin (EC), an optical antipode of (+)-catechin (C), possesses many potential significant health benefits. However, the in vivo metabolic pathway of EC has not been clarified yet. In this study, an efficient strategy based on ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer was developed to profile and characterize EC metabolites in rat urine, feces, plasma, and various tissues. Meanwhile, post-acquisition data-mining methods including high-resolution extracted ion chromatogram (HREIC), multiple mass defect filters (MMDFs), and diagnostic product ions (DPIs) were utilized to screen and identify EC metabolites from HR-ESI-MS(1) to ESI-MS(n) stage...
January 2, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042601/the-current-state-of-knowledge-on-the-interaction-of-escherichia-coli-within-vegetative-filter-strips-as-a-sustainable-best-management-practice-to-reduce-fecal-pathogen-loading-into-surface-waters
#16
Casianes Owino Olilo, Anastasia Wairimu Muia, Wilkister Nyaora Moturi, Japhet Ogalo Onyando, Ford Roegner Amber
Agro-pastoral operations have the potential to threaten public health with loading of diverse pathogens into surface waters through overland flow; increasing awareness of the limitations of fecal indicators has led to development of a number of advancements in detection, source tracking and predictive modeling of public health risk. These tools and techniques are beginning to be integrated into management strategies. The objective of this review was to determine the status of current knowledge and challenges of the fate and transport of Escherichia coli in overland flow and their interaction within vegetative filter strip (VFS) as one of these implemented best management practices and to critically evaluate its use in that setting as an indicator organism...
August 2016: Energy Ecol Environ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038388/evaluation-of-perampanel-in-patients-with-intellectual-disability-and-epilepsy
#17
Francesca M Snoeijen-Schouwenaars, Jans S van Ool, In Y Tan, Helenius J Schelhaas, Marian H J M Majoie
INTRODUCTION: Initial registration studies of perampanel (PMP), an AMPA receptor antagonist, have now been followed up by 'clinical' studies that confirmed its efficacy and safety in patients with refractory epilepsy. Publications on the use of PMP among patients with intellectual disability (ID) are still limited. This study extends our knowledge with respect to the relevance of PMP for patients with both ID and epilepsy, and furthermore specifies the behavioral side effects of PMP in this specific population...
December 27, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036235/biomarkers-for-uranium-risk-assessment-for-the-development-of-the-cure-concerted-uranium-research-in-europe-molecular-epidemiological-protocol
#18
Yann Guéguen, Laurence Roy, Sabine Hornhardt, Christophe Badie, Janet Hall, Sarah Baatout, Eileen Pernot, Ladislav Tomasek, Olivier Laurent, Teni Ebrahimian, Chrystelle Ibanez, Stephane Grison, Sylwia Kabacik, Dominique Laurier, Maria Gomolka
Despite substantial experimental and epidemiological research, there is limited knowledge of the uranium-induce health effects after chronic low-dose exposures in humans. Biological markers can objectively characterize pathological processes or environmental responses to uranium and confounding agents. The integration of such biological markers into a molecular epidemiological study would be a useful approach to improve and refine estimations of uranium-induced health risks. To initiate such a study, Concerted Uranium Research in Europe (CURE) was established, and involves biologists, epidemiologists and dosimetrists...
December 30, 2016: Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034506/development-and-comparison-of-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-techniques-for-analysis-of-flame-retardants
#19
Jakob Gustavsson, Lutz Ahrens, Minh A Nguyen, Sarah Josefsson, Karin Wiberg
The restrictions on the use of legacy flame retardants (FRs) have increased the need of alternative FRs to comply with fire safety legislations. In this study, the feasibility of three different gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques were investigated for the analysis of 102 legacy and alternative FRs including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, n=27), halogenated FRs (HFRs, containing bromine and/or chlorine, n=46), and organophosphorous FRs (OPFRs, n=29). The tested techniques included GC-single MS with (i) electon impact (EI) ionization and (ii) negative chemical ionization (NCI), and (iii) GC-tandem MS (MS/MS) with EI ionization...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024787/cone-beam-computed-tomographic-evaluation-of-the-long-term-effects-of-orthodontic-retainers-on-marginal-bone-levels
#20
Anna Westerlund, Charitini Oikimoui, Maria Ransjö, Annika Ekestubbe, Andrea Bresin, Henrik Lund
INTRODUCTION: Fixed retainers are widely used after orthodontic treatment, sometimes for extended periods, despite insufficient knowledge of their possible long-term adverse effects on the periodontium. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether bonded orthodontic retainers have an adverse long-term effect on the marginal bone levels of the mandibular front teeth. METHODS: The study included 62 consecutive patients in 3 groups: (1) patients who underwent orthodontic treatment and wore a fixed retainer for 10 years, (2) patients who underwent orthodontic treatment but did not have a fixed retainer, and (3) untreated controls...
January 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
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