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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667564/the-recency-ratio-as-predictor-of-early-mci
#1
Davide Bruno, Rebecca L Koscik, John L Woodard, Nunzio Pomara, Sterling C Johnson
ABSTRACTObjectives:Individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD) present poor immediate primacy recall accompanied by intact or exaggerated recency, which then tends to decline after a delay. Bruno et al. (Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, Vol. 38, 2016, pp. 967-973) have shown that higher ratio scores between immediate and delayed recency (i.e. the recency ratio; Rr) are associated with cognitive decline in high-functioning older individuals. We tested whether Rr predicted conversion to early mild cognitive impairment (early MCI) from a cognitively healthy baseline...
April 18, 2018: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667466/evaluation-of-a-modified-16-item-readiness-for-interprofessional-learning-scale-ripls-exploratory-and-confirmatory-factor-analyses
#2
Tzu-Chieh Yu, Tanisha Jowsey, Marcus Henning
The Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale (RIPLS) was developed to assess undergraduate readiness for engaging in interprofessional education (IPE). It has become an accepted and commonly used instrument. To determine utility of a modified 16-item RIPLS instrument, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Data used were collected from a pre- and post-intervention study involving 360 New Zealand undergraduate students from one university. Just over half of the participants were enrolled in medicine (51%) while the remainder were in pharmacy (27%) and nursing (22%)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Interprofessional Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667323/clades-a-classification-based-machine-learning-method-for-species-delimitation-from-population-genetic-data
#3
Jingwen Pei, Chong Chu, Xin Li, Bin Lu, Yufeng Wu
Species are considered to be the basic unit of ecological and evolutionary studies. Since multi-locus genomic data are increasingly available there has been considerable interests in the use of DNA sequence data to delimit species. In this paper, we show that machine learning can be used for species delimitation. Our method treats the species delimitation problem as a classification problem for identifying the category of a new observation on the basis of training data. Extensive simulation is first conducted over a broad range of evolutionary parameters for training purposes...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667127/bilateral-olfactory-mucosa-damage-induces-the-disappearance-of-olfactory-glomerulus-and-reduces-the-expression-of-extrasynaptic-%C3%AE-5gaba-a-rs-in-the-hippocampus-in-early-postnatal-sprague-dawley-rats
#4
Xiaomin Zheng, Liang Liang, Changchun Hei, Wenjuan Yang, Tingyuan Zhang, Kai Wu, Yi Qin, Qing Chang
Chloroform-induced olfactory mucosal degeneration has been reported in adult rats following gavage. We used fixed-point chloroform infusions on different postnatal days (PNDs) to investigate the effects of early olfactory bilateral deprivation on the main olfactory bulbs in Sprague Dawley rats. The experimental groups included rats infused with chloroform (5 μl) or saline (sham, 5 μl) on PNDs 3 and 8, and rats not receiving infusions (control) (n = 6 in all groups). Rats receiving chloroform on PND 3 showed significant hypoevolutism when compared to those in other groups (P < 0...
April 17, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667108/5-hydroxytryptamine-receptor-6-antagonist-sb258585-exerts-neuroprotection-in-a-rat-model-of-streptozotocin-induced-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Nasrin Hashemi-Firouzi, Siamak Shahidi, Sara Soleimani-Asl, Alireza Komaki
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive memory decline. It has been suggested that 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 6 (5-HT6R) might be involved in AD pathology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a 5-HT6R antagonist on cognition, learning, memory, and hippocampal apoptosis in an experimental rat model of AD. AD was induced by intracerebroventricular (icv) administration of streptozotocin (STZ; 3 mg/kg, 10 μL, twice). Adult, male rats were divided into the following groups: control, sham, AD (saline treatment, 1 μL icv for 30 days), and AD + SB258585 (5-HT6R antagonist, 1 μg/μL icv for 30 days)...
April 17, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666044/capturing-ultraviolet-radiation-exposure-and-physical-activity-feasibility-study-and-comparison-between-self-reports-mobile-apps-dosimeters-and-accelerometers
#6
Elke Hacker, Caitlin Horsham, Martin Allen, Andrea Nathan, John Lowe, Monika Janda
BACKGROUND: Skin cancer is the most prevalent cancer in Australia. Skin cancer prevention programs aim to reduce sun exposure and increase sun protection behaviors. Effectiveness is usually assessed through self-report. OBJECTIVE: It was the aim of this study to test the acceptance and validity of a newly developed ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure app, designed to reduce the data collection burden to research participants. Physical activity data was collected because a strong focus on sun avoidance may result in unhealthy reductions in physical activity...
April 17, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666041/secure-logistic-regression-based-on-homomorphic-encryption-design-and-evaluation
#7
Miran Kim, Yongsoo Song, Shuang Wang, Yuhou Xia, Xiaoqian Jiang
BACKGROUND: Learning a model without accessing raw data has been an intriguing idea to security and machine learning researchers for years. In an ideal setting, we want to encrypt sensitive data to store them on a commercial cloud and run certain analyses without ever decrypting the data to preserve privacy. Homomorphic encryption technique is a promising candidate for secure data outsourcing, but it is a very challenging task to support real-world machine learning tasks. Existing frameworks can only handle simplified cases with low-degree polynomials such as linear means classifier and linear discriminative analysis...
April 17, 2018: JMIR Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665842/sensory-re-learning-of-the-upper-limb-after-stroke-sensupp-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Håkan Carlsson, Birgitta Rosén, Hélène Pessah-Rasmussen, Anders Björkman, Christina Brogårdh
BACKGROUND: Many stroke survivors suffer from sensory impairments of their affected upper limb (UL). Although such impairments can affect the ability to use the UL in everyday activities, very little attention is paid to sensory impairments in stroke rehabilitation. The purpose of this trial is to investigate if sensory re-learning in combination with task-specific training may prove to be more effective than task-specific training alone to improve sensory function of the hand, dexterity, the ability to use the hand in daily activities, perceived participation, and life satisfaction...
April 17, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665779/a-machine-learning-model-to-determine-the-accuracy-of-variant-calls-in-capture-based-next-generation-sequencing
#9
Jeroen van den Akker, Gilad Mishne, Anjali D Zimmer, Alicia Y Zhou
BACKGROUND: Next generation sequencing (NGS) has become a common technology for clinical genetic tests. The quality of NGS calls varies widely and is influenced by features like reference sequence characteristics, read depth, and mapping accuracy. With recent advances in NGS technology and software tools, the majority of variants called using NGS alone are in fact accurate and reliable. However, a small subset of difficult-to-call variants that still do require orthogonal confirmation exist...
April 17, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665767/nano-cuo-impairs-spatial-cognition-associated-with-inhibiting-hippocampal-ltp-via-affecting-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-in-rats
#10
Xiaoliang Li, Wei Sun, Lei An
Manufactured metal nanoparticles and their applications are continuously expanding because of their unique characteristics while their increasing use may predispose to potential health problems. Several studies have reported the adverse effects of copper oxide nanoparticles (nano-CuO) relative to ecotoxicity and cell toxicity, whereas little is known about the neurotoxicity of nano-CuO. The present study aimed to examine its effects on spatial cognition, hippocampal function, and the possible mechanisms. Male Wistar rats were used to establish an animal model, and nano-CuO was administered at a dose of 0...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665243/creating-virtual-3-dimensional-models-for-teaching-pre-clinical-tooth-preparation-students-usages-and-perceptions
#11
W S Lin, J C Chou, J R Charette, M J Metz, B T Harris, N Choi
PURPOSE: This research aimed to evaluate the students' usage and perceptions of using smartphones in their general dental education and learning tooth preparation with the individually designed virtual 3D instructional models in the pre-clinical removable partial denture course. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Second-year dental students were asked to voluntarily participate in a survey to investigate their demographic information, general usages of smartphones, perception of smartphones usage in dental education (construct 1) and perception of individually designed virtual 3D instructional models (construct 2)...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Dental Education: Official Journal of the Association for Dental Education in Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665223/an-adaptive-semantic-matching-paradigm-for-reliable-and-valid-language-mapping-in-individuals-with-aphasia
#12
Stephen M Wilson, Melodie Yen, Dana K Eriksson
Research on neuroplasticity in recovery from aphasia depends on the ability to identify language areas of the brain in individuals with aphasia. However, tasks commonly used to engage language processing in people with aphasia, such as narrative comprehension and picture naming, are limited in terms of reliability (test-retest reproducibility) and validity (identification of language regions, and not other regions). On the other hand, paradigms such as semantic decision that are effective in identifying language regions in people without aphasia can be prohibitively challenging for people with aphasia...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665124/how-does-dementia-with-lewy-bodies-start-prodromal-cognitive-changes-in-rem-sleep-behavior-disorder
#13
Daphné Génier Marchand, Ronald B Postuma, Frédérique Escudier, Jessie De Roy, Amélie Pelletier, Jacques Montplaisir, Jean-François Gagnon
Objective We describe the progression of cognitive decline and identify the predictive values of cognitive tests in three groups of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) patients classified at their last follow-up as having Parkinson's disease (PD), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), or still-idiopathic. Methods Patients (n=109) underwent polysomnographic, neurological, and neuropsychological assessments. We used linear mixed-model analyses to compare the progression of cognitive test performance between the three groups over a three-year prodromal period, and performed linear regressions for a six-year prodromal period...
April 17, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663741/interactive-involvement-of-hippocampal-camp-pka-and-cyclooxygenase-2-signaling-pathways-in-spatial-learning-in-the-morris-water-maze
#14
Kaveh Tabrizian, Mahmoud Hashemzaei, Ali Akbar Nasiri, Sheyda Najafi, Fatemeh Amelinia, Mehdi Sanati, Farzaneh Shamshirgaran, Sahar Fanoudi
INTRODUCTION: Accumulated evidence shows that the cAMP-PKA signaling pathway plays a key role in memory functions. Cyclooxygenase-2, a critical player in neuroinflammation, has been confirmed in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. This study is aimed to assess the effect of the interaction of cAMP-PKA and cyclooxygenase pathways on spatial memory acquisition in animal models. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the present study, the effects of the four-day bilateral intra-hippocampal infusions of H-89 as a protein kinase AII inhibitor (10 µM/side), celecoxib (0...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663595/adult-neurogenesis-affects-motivation-to-obtain-weak-but-not-strong-reward-in-operant-tasks
#15
Rose-Marie Karlsson, Alice S Wang, Anup N Sonti, Heather A Cameron
Decreased motivation to seek rewards is a key feature of mood disorders that correlates with severity and treatment outcome. This anhedonia, or apathy, likely reflects impairment in reward circuitry, but the specific neuronal populations controlling motivation are unclear. Granule neurons generated in the adult hippocampus have been implicated in mood disorders, but are not generally considered as part of reward circuits. We investigated a possible role of these new neurons in motivation to work for food and sucrose rewards in operant conditioning tasks using GFAP-TK pharmacogenetic ablation of adult neurogenesis in both rats and mice...
April 16, 2018: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663370/deformable-torso-phantoms-of-chinese-adults-for-personalized-anatomy-modelling
#16
Hongkai Wang, Xiaobang Sun, Tongning Wu, Congsheng Li, Zhonghua Chen, Meiying Liao, Mengci Li, Wen Yan, Hui Huang, Jia Yang, Ziyu Tan, Libo Hui, Yue Liu, Hang Pan, Yue Qu, Zhaofeng Chen, Liwen Tan, Lijuan Yu, Hongcheng Shi, Li Huo, Yanjun Zhang, Xin Tang, Shaoxiang Zhang, Changjian Liu
In recent years, there has been increasing demand for personalized anatomy modelling for medical and industrial applications, such as ergonomics device development, clinical radiological exposure simulation, biomechanics analysis, and 3D animation character design. In this study, we constructed deformable torso phantoms that can be deformed to match the personal anatomy of Chinese male and female adults. The phantoms were created based on a training set of 79 trunk computed tomography (CT) images (41 males and 38 females) from normal Chinese subjects...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663261/evaluation-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-changes-and-neurocognitive-effects-of-asymptomatic-vitamin-b12-deficiency
#17
Ali Zeynal Abidin Tak, Erdal Dayan, Hacı Taner Bulut
Vitamin B12 plays an important role in the mechanisms which are responsible for myelinization in the central nervous system. It can particularly lead to hematological and neuropsychiatric symptoms when serum levels fall due to insufficient intake with diet or absorption problems. The purpose of this study was to show the cognitive effects in vitamin B12 deficiency cases that have not reached clinical symptom level using neuropsychological tests, and to show possible cerebral neuronal damage using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) method...
April 16, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663099/feasibility-study-of-stain-free-classification-of-cell-apoptosis-based-on-diffraction-imaging-flow-cytometry-and-supervised-machine-learning-techniques
#18
Jingwen Feng, Tong Feng, Chengwen Yang, Wei Wang, Yu Sa, Yuanming Feng
This study was to explore the feasibility of prediction and classification of cells in different stages of apoptosis with a stain-free method based on diffraction images and supervised machine learning. Apoptosis was induced in human chronic myelogenous leukemia K562 cells by cis-platinum (DDP). A newly developed technique of polarization diffraction imaging flow cytometry (p-DIFC) was performed to acquire diffraction images of the cells in three different statuses (viable, early apoptotic and late apoptotic/necrotic) after cell separation through fluorescence activated cell sorting with Annexin V-PE and SYTOX® Green double staining...
April 16, 2018: Apoptosis: An International Journal on Programmed Cell Death
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663083/-self-hypnosis-training-for-in-hospital-chronic-pain-patients-a-retrolective-observational-study
#19
Peter C Keil, Nicole Lindenberg, Christoph L Lassen, Bernhard M Graf, Jens Meier, Christoph H Wiese
BACKGROUND: Hypnosis is probably one of the oldest therapies known to man. In the last decades modern hypnosis has mainly been used by psychotherapists; however, hypnosis is becoming increasingly more important as a therapeutic method in medicine. Hypnosis can be used for a variety of medical indications. In the literature there is much evidence for the effectiveness of hypnosis. The aim of the present investigation was to demonstrate the effectiveness of hypnosis in inpatient treatment of chronic pain patients and to present a self-hypnosis program, which can be easily integrated into pain therapy...
April 16, 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661832/kinase-activity-in-the-olfactory-bulb-is-required-for-odor-memory-consolidation
#20
Michelle T Tong, Tae-Young P Kim, Thomas A Cleland
Long-term fear memory formation in the hippocampus and neocortex depends upon brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling after acquisition. Incremental, appetitive odor discrimination learning is thought to depend substantially on the differentiation of adult-born neurons within the olfactory bulb (OB)-a process that is closely associated with BDNF signaling. We sought to elucidate the role of neurotrophin signaling within the OB on odor memory consolidation. Male mice were trained on odor-reward associative discriminations after bilateral infusion of the kinase inhibitor K252a, or vehicle control, into the OB...
May 2018: Learning & Memory
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