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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222631/an-advanced-simulator-for-orthopedic-surgical-training
#1
J Cecil, Avinash Gupta, Miguel Pirela-Cruz
PURPOSE: The purpose of creating the virtual reality (VR) simulator is to facilitate and supplement the training opportunities provided to orthopedic residents. The use of VR simulators has increased rapidly in the field of medical surgery for training purposes. This paper discusses the creation of the virtual surgical environment (VSE) for training residents in an orthopedic surgical process called less invasive stabilization system (LISS) surgery which is used to address fractures of the femur...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222403/common-pathophysiology-in-multiple-mouse-models-of-pitt-hopkins-syndrome
#2
Courtney Thaxton, Alexander D Kloth, Ellen P Clark, Sheryl S Moy, Raymond A Chitwood, Benjamin D Philpot
Mutations or deletions of the transcription factor TCF4 are linked to Pitt-Hopkins syndrome (PTHS) and schizophrenia, suggesting that the precise pathogenic mutations dictate cellular, synaptic, and behavioral consequences. Here we generated two novel mouse models of PTHS-one that mimics the most common pathogenic TCF4 point mutation (human R580W, mouse R579W) and one that deletes three pathogenic arginines-and explored phenotypes of these lines alongside models of pan-cellular or CNS-specific heterozygous Tcf4 disruption...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222024/continuous-and-not-continuous-2-week-treadmill-training-enhances-the-performance-in-the-passive-avoidance-test-in-ischemic-gerbils
#3
Ana Paula Cassiano Silveira, Takae Tamy Kitabatake, Vivian Mozol Pantaleo, Hélio Zangrossi, Guilherme Bertolino, Elaine Caldeira de Oliveira Guirro, Hugo Celso Dutra de Souza, João Eduardo de Araujo
This study aims to investigate the frequency and total duration effects of the 2-week treadmill training after experimental ischemic stroke in the passive avoidance test. We performed bilateral occlusion of common external carotid arteries, for five minutes, in Mongolian gerbils. The training groups were: continuous training for twelve consecutive days or not continuous training for six non-consecutive days. The groups remained in the treadmill for 15min, with the speed set at 10m/min, and the training started 24h after the stroke...
December 6, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221763/cognitive-impairment-and-quality-of-life-of-people-with-epilepsy-and-neurocysticercosis-in-zambia
#4
Anne L Nau, Kabemba E Mwape, Jasmin Wiefek, Kathie Schmidt, Emmanuel Abatih, Pierre Dorny, Nicolas Praet, Clarance Chiluba, Holger Schmidt, Isaac K Phiri, Andrea S Winkler, Sarah Gabriël, Joachim Blocher
Cognitive impairment and quality of life (Qol) are important to assess the burden of epilepsy and neurocysticercosis (NCC), which are common but neglected in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The aims of this study were to assess cognitive performance and Qol of people with epilepsy (PWE) in Zambia and to explore differences in PWE with and without NCC. In this community based, cross-sectional case-control-study, 47 PWE and 50 healthy controls completed five neuropsychological tests (Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), Digit Span, Selective Reminding Test (SRT), Spatial Recall Test (SPART), Test Battery of Attentional Performance (TAP)) and a World Health Organization (WHO) questionnaire of Qol...
December 5, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221752/chronic-nicotine-exposure-impairs-uncertainty-modulation-on-reinforcement-learning-in-anterior-cingulate-cortex-and-serotonin-system
#5
Zhengde Wei, Long Han, Xiuying Zhong, Ying Liu, Rujing Zha, Ying Wang, Li-Zhuang Yang, Junjie Bu, Hongwen Song, Wenjuan Wang, Yifeng Zhou, Ping Gao, Xiaochu Zhang
Deficits in the computational processes of reinforcement learning have been suggested to underlie addiction. Additionally, environmental uncertainty, which is encoded in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), modulates reward prediction errors (RPEs) during reinforcement learning and exacerbates addiction. The present study tested whether and how the ACC would have an essential role in drug addiction by failing to use uncertainty to modulate the RPEs during reinforcement learning. In Experiment I, we found that the ACC/medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) did not modulate RPE learning according to uncertainty in smokers...
December 5, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220581/high-stakes-collaborative-testing-why-not
#6
Ruth E Levine, Nicole J Borges, Brenda J B Roman, Lisa R Carchedi, Mark H Townsend, Jeffrey S Cluver, Julia Frank, Oma Morey, Paul Haidet, Britta M Thompson
Phenomenon: Studies of high-stakes collaborative testing remain sparse, especially in medical education. We explored high-stakes collaborative testing in medical education, looking specifically at the experiences of students in established and newly formed teams. APPROACH: Third-year psychiatry students at 5 medical schools across 6 sites participated, with 4 participating as established team sites and 2 as comparison team sites. For the collaborative test, we used the National Board of Medical Examiners Psychiatry subject test, administering it via a 2-stage process...
December 8, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220543/skin-cancer-prevention-campaign-in-childhood-survey-based-on-3-676-children-in-brazil
#7
Paulo Ricardo Criado, Jorge Ocampo-Garza, Anne Lise Dias, Walter Belda Junior, Nilton Di Chiachio, Aparecida Machado de Moraes, Meire Brasil Parada, Fátima de Oliveira Rabay, Octavio Moraes Junior, Renato Sau Rios, Cristiana Silveira da Silva, Francisco C S Ferreira, Samuel Henrique Mandeulbaum, Cidia Vasconcellos
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Primary skin cancer prevention campaigns are essential and more effective among children, not only because of the importance of sun exposure effects during this period, but also because at this age is when individuals are developing behaviors. The Brazilian Society of Dermatology - Regional State of Sao Paulo developed and conducted, the program named "The Sun, Friend of Childhood", a school health education and disease prevention project for children and parents...
December 8, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220314/random-access-memories-a-new-paradigm-for-target-detection-in-high-resolution-aerial-remote-sensing-images
#8
Zhengxia Zou, Zhenwei Shi
We propose a new paradigm for target detection in high resolution aerial remote sensing images under small target priors. Previous remote sensing target detection methods frame the detection as learning of detection model + inference of class-label and bounding-box coordinates. Instead, we formulate it from a Bayesian view that at inference stage, the detection model is adaptively updated to maximize its posterior that is determined by both training and observation. We call this paradigm "random access memories (RAM)...
March 2018: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220310/direct-and-indirect-relationships-of-physical-fitness-weight-status-and-learning-duration-to-academic-performance-in-japanese-schoolchildren
#9
Toru Ishihara, Noriteru Morita, Toshihiro Nakajima, Koichi Okita, Koji Yamatsu, Masato Sagawa
The purpose of this study was to determine, using structural equation modelling (SEM), the direct and indirect influence of daily behaviours (i.e. exercise/learning durations), weight status, and physical fitness on academic performance among seventh-grade schoolchildren, after controlling for socioeconomic status. We analysed cross-sectional data from 274 schoolchildren (159 males and 115 females; 12-13 years old). Academic performance was assessed using the total grade points in eight academic subjects. Physical fitness was evaluated using the total score of eight physical fitness tests and weight status using body mass index...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219069/a-boosting-approach-for-prediction-of-protein-rna-binding-residues
#10
Yongjun Tang, Diwei Liu, Zixiang Wang, Ting Wen, Lei Deng
BACKGROUND: RNA binding proteins play important roles in post-transcriptional RNA processing and transcriptional regulation. Distinguishing the RNA-binding residues in proteins is crucial for understanding how protein and RNA recognize each other and function together as a complex. RESULTS: We propose PredRBR, an effectively computational approach to predict RNA-binding residues. PredRBR is built with gradient tree boosting and an optimal feature set selected from a large number of sequence and structure characteristics and two categories of structural neighborhood properties...
December 1, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219042/context-dependent-passive-avoidance-learning-in-the-terrestrial-slug-limax
#11
Yuko Fujisaki, Ryota Matsuo
The terrestrial slug Limax has been used as a model animal for studying the neural mechanisms underlying associative olfactory learning. The slug also innately exhibits negative phototactic behavior using its eyes. In the present study, we developed an experimental paradigm for quantification of slug's negative phototaxis behavior, and investigated whether the nature of the negative phototaxis can be modified by learning experience. The experimental set-up consists of light and dark compartments, between which the slug can move freely...
December 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218894/mri-to-mgmt-predicting-methylation-status-in-glioblastoma-patients-using-convolutional-recurrent-neural-networks
#12
Lichy Han, Maulik R Kamdar
Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), a malignant brain tumor, is among the most lethal of all cancers. Temozolomide is the primary chemotherapy treatment for patients diagnosed with GBM. The methylation status of the promoter or the enhancer regions of the O6-methylguanine methyltransferase (MGMT) gene may impact the efficacy and sensitivity of temozolomide, and hence may affect overall patient survival. Microscopic genetic changes may manifest as macroscopic morphological changes in the brain tumors that can be detected using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which can serve as noninvasive biomarkers for determining methylation of MGMT regulatory regions...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218893/discriminative-bag-of-cells-for-imaging-genomics
#13
Benjamin Chidester, Minh N Do, Jian Ma
Connecting genotypes to image phenotypes is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of cancer. To learn such connections, new machine learning approaches must be developed for the better integration of imaging and genomic data. Here we propose a novel approach called Discriminative Bag-of-Cells (DBC) for predicting genomic markers using imaging features, which addresses the challenge of summarizing histopathological images by representing cells with learned discriminative types, or codewords. We also developed a reliable and efficient patch-based nuclear segmentation scheme using convolutional neural networks from which nuclear and cellular features are extracted...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218885/democratizing-health-data-for-translational-research
#14
Philip R O Payne, Nigam H Shah, Jessica D Tenenbaum, Lara Mangravite
There is an expanding and intensive focus on the accessibility, reproducibility, and rigor of basic, clinical, and translational research. This focus complements the need to identify sustainable ways to generate actionable research results that improve human health. The principles and practices of open science offer a promising path to address both issues by facilitating: 1) increased transparency of data and methods which promotes research reproducibility and rigor; and 2) cumulative efficiencies wherein research tools and the output of research are combined to accelerate the delivery of new knowledge...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218882/improving-the-explainability-of-random-forest-classifier-user-centered-approach
#15
Dragutin Petkovic, Russ Altman, Mike Wong, Arthur Vigil
Machine Learning (ML) methods are now influencing major decisions about patient care, new medical methods, drug development and their use and importance are rapidly increasing in all areas. However, these ML methods are inherently complex and often difficult to understand and explain resulting in barriers to their adoption and validation. Our work (RFEX) focuses on enhancing Random Forest (RF) classifier explainability by developing easy to interpret explainability summary reports from trained RF classifiers as a way to improve the explainability for (often non-expert) users...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218881/data-driven-advice-for-applying-machine-learning-to-bioinformatics-problems
#16
Randal S Olson, William La Cava, Zairah Mustahsan, Akshay Varik, Jason H Moore
As the bioinformatics field grows, it must keep pace not only with new data but with new algorithms. Here we contribute a thorough analysis of 13 state-of-the-art, commonly used machine learning algorithms on a set of 165 publicly available classification problems in order to provide data-driven algorithm recommendations to current researchers. We present a number of statistical and visual comparisons of algorithm performance and quantify the effect of model selection and algorithm tuning for each algorithm and dataset...
2018: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218666/transition-from-laparoscopic-to-retroperitoneoscopic-approach-for-live-donor-nephrectomy
#17
Zi Qin Ng, Gabrielle Musk, Alethea Rea, Bulang He
BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic donor nephrectomy has become the standard of care due to multiple benefits. Currently, there are various techniques employed with two different approaches: transperitoneal (TLDN) or retroperitoneoscopic (RLDN) approach. There is a lack of data to determine which technique is superior, although the RLDN offers an anatomical advantage by avoidance of manipulation of the intraperitoneal organs. The aims of this study were to explore the merits of RLDN to TLDN and assess the learning curve of transition from TLDN to RLDN...
December 7, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218557/what-can-we-learn-from-wide-angle-solution-scattering
#18
Yujing Wang, Hao Zhou, Emre Onuk, John Badger, Lee Makowski
Extending collection of x-ray solution scattering data into the wide-angle regime (WAXS) can provide information not readily extracted from small angle (SAXS) data. It is possible to accurately predict WAXS scattering on the basis of atomic coordinate sets and thus use it as a means of testing molecular models constructed on the basis of crystallography, molecular dynamics (MD), cryo-electron microscopy or ab initio modeling. WAXS data may provide insights into the secondary, tertiary and quaternary structural organization of macromolecules...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218413/do-free-ranging-rattlesnakes-use-thermal-cues-to-evaluate-prey
#19
Hannes A Schraft, Colin Goodman, Rulon W Clark
Rattlesnakes use infrared radiation to detect prey animals such as small mammals and lizards. Because ectotherm locomotor performance depends on temperature, rattlesnakes could use prey temperature to evaluate the potential of lizards to evade attacks. Here, we tested whether hunting rattlesnakes use infrared information to (1) detect and (2) evaluate prey before attack. We expected thermal contrast between prey and background to be the best predictor of predatory behaviour under the prey detection hypothesis, and absolute prey temperature under the prey evaluation hypothesis...
December 7, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218403/the-storage-and-recall-of-memories-in-the-hippocampo-cortical-system
#20
REVIEW
Edmund T Rolls
A quantitative computational theory of the operation of the hippocampus as an episodic memory system is described. The CA3 system operates as a single attractor or autoassociation network (1) to enable rapid one-trial associations between any spatial location (place in rodents or spatial view in primates) and an object or reward and (2) to provide for completion of the whole memory during recall from any part. The theory is extended to associations between time and object or reward to implement temporal order memory, which is also important in episodic memory...
December 7, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
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