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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908365/the-optimal-viewing-position-effect-in-printed-versus-cursive-words-evidence-of-a-reading-cost-for-the-cursive-font
#1
Jérémy Danna, Delphine Massendari, Benjamin Furnari, Stéphanie Ducrot
Two eye-movement experiments were conducted to examine the effects of font type on the recognition of words presented in central vision, using a variable-viewing-position technique. Two main questions were addressed: (1) Is the optimal viewing position (OVP) for word recognition modulated by font type? (2) Is the cursive font more appropriate than the printed font in word recognition in children who exclusively write using a cursive script? In order to disentangle the role of perceptual difficulty associated with the cursive font and the impact of writing habits, we tested French adults (Experiment 1) and second-grade French children, the latter having exclusively learned to write in cursive (Experiment 2)...
June 13, 2018: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908286/il-6-deficiency-alters-spatial-memory-in-4-and-24-month-old-mice
#2
Izabela Bialuk, Andrzej Taranta, Maria Małgorzata Winnicka
Significance of interleukin 6 (IL-6) deficiency in cognitive processes was evaluated in 4- and 24-month-old C57BL/6J IL-6-deficient (IL-6 KO) and control (WT) mice in Morris water maze (MWM), holeboard test (HB) and elevated plus maze (EPM). During 3-day learning escape latency time (ELT) was longer in IL-6 KO than in WT mice, however their swimming was slower, floating longer, and path length did not differ. The comparison of ELT and the distance traveled between the first and the third learning day within each group revealed significant decrease of ELT in all groups with the highest difference in 4-month-old WT mice, and significant decrease of distance travelled only in both groups of WT mice...
June 13, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908234/agmatine-attenuates-methamphetamine-induced-passive-avoidance-learning-and-memory-and-camkii-%C3%AE-gene-expression-deteriorations-in-hippocampus-of-rat
#3
Maryam Noorbakhshnia, Arsham Rashidkaboli, Mahnaz Pakatchian, Siamak Beheshti
Methamphetamine (METH) abuse is one the most worldwide problems with wide-ranging effects on the central nervous system (CNS). Chronic METH abuse can associate with cognitive abnormalities and neurodegenerative changes in the brain. Agmatine, a cationic polyamine, has been proposed as a neuromodulator that modulates many effects of abused drugs. The aim of this study was to determine if agmatine can decrease the impairment effect of METH on memory and hippocampal CaMKII-α gene expression, a gene that plays a major role in memory...
June 13, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907854/improved-cognitive-functioning-in-obese-adolescents-after-a-30-week-inpatient-weight-loss-program
#4
Stijn Vantieghem, Ivan Bautmans, Ann De Guchtenaere, Ann Tanghe, Steven Provyn
INTRODUCTION: Studies linked obesity with a large number of medical conditions including decreased cognitive functioning. The relation between BMI and cognition was proven in adults, but in adolescents the results are conflicting. Further, limited data are available on the impact of weight loss on cognition. This study analyzed the impact of a 30-week lasting weight loss program on cognition and determined the impact of changes in body composition and self-perceived fatigue on changes in cognition...
June 15, 2018: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907503/real-time-management-of-incident-learning-reports-in-a-radiation-oncology-department
#5
REVIEW
Jean L Wright, Arti Parekh, Byung-Han Rhieu, Valentina Opris, Annette Souranis, Amanda Choflet, Akila N Viswanathan, Theodore L DeWeese, Todd McNutt, Stephanie A Terezakis
PURPOSE: The optimal approach to managing incident learning system (ILS) reports remains unclear. Here, we describe our experience with prospective coding of events reported to the ILS with comparisons of risk scores on the basis of event type and process map location. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Reported events were coded by type, origin, and method of discovery. Events were given a risk priority number (RPN) and near-miss risk index (NMRI) score. We compared workflow versus near-miss events with respect to origin and detection in the process map and by risk scores...
May 8, 2018: Practical Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907306/from-plant-metabolic-engineering-to-plant-synthetic-biology-the-evolution-of-the-design-build-test-learn-cycle
#6
REVIEW
Benjamin Pouvreau, Thomas Vanhercke, Surinder Singh
Genetic improvement of crops started since the dawn of agriculture and has continuously evolved in parallel with emerging technological innovations. The use of genome engineering in crop improvement has already revolutionised modern agriculture in less than thirty years. Plant metabolic engineering is still at a development stage and faces several challenges, in particular with the time necessary to develop plant based solutions to bio-industrial demands. However the recent success of several metabolic engineering approaches applied to major crops are encouraging and the emerging field of plant synthetic biology offers new opportunities...
August 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907204/a-simulation-model-of-nail-bed-suture-and-nail-fixation-description-and-preliminary-evaluation
#7
Ida Giurin, Jean Bréaud, Virginie Rampal, Olivier Rosello, Federico Solla
BACKGROUND: Wounds of the finger nail bed represent a frequent injury, especially in children. Residents often learn nail bed repair on patients without prior training. We aimed to develop and evaluate a "low-fidelity" simulation model of nail bed repair. METHODS: The model consists of a false nail on a plastic finger and a hydrocolloid dressing, which is pasted on the nail bed site and cut horizontally. This model allows nail bed suture and nail fixation...
August 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906778/developmental-assessment-of-preterm-infants-chronological-or-corrected-age
#8
Ayelet Harel-Gadassi, Edwa Friedlander, Maya Yaari, Benjamin Bar-Oz, Smadar Eventov-Friedman, David Mankuta, Nurit Yirmiya
The aim of this study is to examine the effect of age correction on the developmental assessment scores of preterm infants, using for the first time, the Mullen scales of early learning (MSEL) test. Participants included 110 preterm infants (born at a gestational age of ≤ 34 weeks) at ages 1, 4, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. The corrected age-based MSEL composite score and each of the five MSEL scale scores were significantly higher than chronological age-based scores at all ages. These corrected scores were significantly higher than the chronological scores regardless of gestational age whether weight was, or adequate or small for gestational age...
June 12, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906635/learning-of-goal-relevant-and-irrelevant-complex-visual-sequences-in-human-v1
#9
Clive R Rosenthal, Indira Mallik, Cesar Caballero-Gaudes, Martin I Sereno, David Soto
Learning and memory are supported by a network involving the medial temporal lobe and linked neocortical regions. Emerging evidence indicates that primary visual cortex (i.e., V1) may contribute to recognition memory, but this has been tested only with a single visuospatial sequence as the target memorandum. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate whether human V1 can support the learning of multiple, concurrent, and complex visual sequences involving discontinous (second-order) associations...
June 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906478/does-nicotine-impact-tramadol-abuse-insights-from-neurochemical-and-neurobehavioral-changes-in-mice
#10
Shimaa M Azmy, Mai A Abd El Fattah, Sahar S Abd El-Rahman, Somia A Nada, Omar M E Abdel Salam, Mohammed F El-Yamany, Noha N Nassar
Nicotine and tramadol concomitant drug dependence pose increasing social, economic as well as public threats. Accordingly, the present study investigated neurochemical, neurobehavioral and neuropathological changes in the brain subsequent to the interaction of nicotine and tramadol. To this end, tramadol (20 mg/kg, i.p) and nicotine (0.25 mg/kg, i.p) were administrated to male albino mice once daily for 30 days. Consequent to microglial activation, nicotine exacerbated oxidative/nitrosative stress induced by tramadol as manifest by the step-up in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and nitric oxide subsequent to the enhanced levels of neuronal and inducible nitric oxide synthases; paralleled by decreased non-protein sulfhydryls...
June 12, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905093/auditory-orthographic-integration-at-the-onset-of-l2-speech-acquisition
#11
Yasaman Rafat, Ryan A Stevenson
Recent studies have provided evidence for both a positive and a negative effect of orthography on second language speech learning. However, not much is known about whether orthography can trigger a McGurk-like effect (McGurk & MacDonald, 1976) in second language speech learning. This study examined whether exposure to auditory and orthographic input may lead to a McGurk-like effect in naïve English-speaking participants learning a second language with Spanish phonology and orthography. Specifically, it reports on (a) production of non-target-like combinations such as [lj] as in [poljo] for <pollo>-[pojo], where the auditory Spanish [j] and the first language English [l] that correspond to the shared digraph <ll> are integrated, and (b) fusion quantified in terms of [z] devoicing such as [z̥apito] for <zapito>-[zapito]...
June 1, 2018: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904654/a-high-density-scalp-eeg-dataset-acquired-during-brief-naps-after-a-visual-working-memory-task
#12
Ning Mei, Michael D Grossberg, Kenneth Ng, Karen T Navarro, Timothy M Ellmore
There is growing interest in understanding how specific neural events that occur during sleep, including characteristic spindle oscillations between 10 and 16 Hz (Hz), are related to learning and memory. Neural events can be recorded during sleep using the well-known method of scalp electroencephalography (EEG). While publicly available sleep EEG datasets exist, most consist of only a few channels collected in specific patient groups being evaluated overnight for sleep disorders in clinical settings. The dataset described in this Data in Brief includes 22 participants who each participated in EEG recordings on two separate days...
June 2018: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904591/predicting-ionizing-radiation-exposure-using-biochemically-inspired-genomic-machine-learning
#13
Jonathan Z L Zhao, Eliseos J Mucaki, Peter K Rogan
Background: Gene signatures derived from transcriptomic data using machine learning methods have shown promise for biodosimetry testing. These signatures may not be sufficiently robust for large scale testing, as their performance has not been adequately validated on external, independent datasets. The present study develops human and murine signatures with biochemically-inspired machine learning that are strictly validated using k-fold and traditional approaches. Methods: Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets of exposed human and murine lymphocytes were preprocessed via nearest neighbor imputation and expression of genes implicated in the literature to be responsive to radiation exposure (n=998) were then ranked by Minimum Redundancy Maximum Relevance (mRMR)...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904563/qr-code-lecture-activity-as-a-tool-for-increasing-nonmajors-biology-students-enjoyment-of-interaction-with-their-local-environment
#14
Margaret Smith, Miriam Segura-Totten, Kelly West
The impact of the Internet on education has been recognized for decades, and as technology advances, the ways in which students can access Internet content is ever increasing. Most students have some kind of portable smart device with which they access Internet content without the locational constraints of a desktop computer. This mobility has prompted abundant literature suggesting ways that Quick Response Codes (QR codes), a kind of two dimensional barcode, could be used to advance student learning. However, very few studies have tested the usefulness of QR codes in undergraduate science classes...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904551/curricular-activities-that-promote-metacognitive-skills-impact-lower-performing-students-in-an-introductory-biology-course
#15
Nathan V Dang, Jacob C Chiang, Heather M Brown, Kelly K McDonald
This study explores the impacts of repeated curricular activities designed to promote metacognitive skills development and academic achievement on students in an introductory biology course. Prior to this study, the course curriculum was enhanced with pre-assignments containing comprehension monitoring and self-evaluation questions, exam review assignments with reflective questions related to study habits, and an optional opportunity for students to explore metacognition and deep versus surface learning. We used a mixed-methods study design and collected data over two semesters...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904544/interventions-for-supporting-and-assessing-science-writing-communication-cases-of-asian-english-language-learners
#16
Beverly L Smith-Keiling, Lidia K Swanson, Joanne M Dehnbostel
In seeking to support diversity, one challenge lies in adequately supporting and assessing science cognitions in a writing-intensive Biochemistry laboratory course when highly engaged Asian English language learners (Asian ELLs) struggle to communicate and make novice errors in English. Because they may understand advanced science concepts, but are not being adequately assessed for their deeper scientific understanding, we sought and examined interventions. We hypothesized that inquiry strategies, scaffolded learning through peer evaluation, and individualized tools that build writing communication skills would increase confidence...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904527/first-year-course-based-undergraduate-research-experience-cure-using-the-crispr-cas9-genome-engineering-technology-in-zebrafish
#17
Jay M Bhatt, Anil Kumar Challa
Genetic analysis in model systems can provide a rich context for conceptual understanding of gene structure, regulation, and function. With an intent to create a rich learning experience in molecular genetics, we developed a semester-long course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) using the CRISPR-Cas9 gene editing system to disrupt specific genes in the zebrafish. The course was offered to freshman students; nine students worked in four groups (two to three members per group) to design, synthesize, and test the nuclease activity of the CRISPR (Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats)/sgRNAs for targeted disruption of specific genes in the zebrafish...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904147/dpubchem-a-web-tool-for-qsar-modeling-and-high-throughput-virtual-screening
#18
Othman Soufan, Wail Ba-Alawi, Arturo Magana-Mora, Magbubah Essack, Vladimir B Bajic
High-throughput screening (HTS) performs the experimental testing of a large number of chemical compounds aiming to identify those active in the considered assay. Alternatively, faster and cheaper methods of large-scale virtual screening are performed computationally through quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models. However, the vast amount of available HTS heterogeneous data and the imbalanced ratio of active to inactive compounds in an assay make this a challenging problem. Although different QSAR models have been proposed, they have certain limitations, e...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903691/with-great-data-comes-great-theoretical-opportunity
#19
Michael C Frank
Is there a 'critical period' for language? Using a viral online grammar test, Hartshorne, Tenenbaum, and Pinker (2018) collected a new massive dataset on the relationship between age and language learning. Their data highlight both the importance - and the challenges - of creating quantitative theories linking 'big data' to cognitive models.
June 11, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903625/magnifying-endoscopy-with-narrow-band-imaging-to-assist-the-linear-stapler-closure-of-the-pharynx-during-total-laryngectomy
#20
Hongbo Shan, Yunfei Gao, Liran Liu, Mingtian Li, Xiaoyan Gao, Yin Li, Xi Wang, Dian Ouyang, Zhuming Guo
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to present a novel technique for stapler-assisted laryngectomy under direct visualization using a videoendoscope with narrow-band imaging (NBI-endoscopy). METHODS: A case series of five consecutive patients were treated with stapler-assisted total laryngectomy from December 2014 to March 2016. The technique involved monitoring the stapler closure of laryngopharyngeal cavity under NBI-endoscopic vision, triple checking of neo-pharynx cavity by an endoscopic view inside and transillumination verification outside, air leakage test, and guiding the insertion of feeding tube under direct visualization...
May 28, 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
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