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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087940/the-memory-immune-response-to-tuberculosis
#1
Joanna R Kirman, Marcela I Henao-Tamayo, Else Marie Agger
Immunological memory is a central feature of the adaptive immune system and a prerequisite for generating effective vaccines. Understanding long-term memory responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis will thus provide us with valuable insights that can guide us in the search for a novel vaccine against tuberculosis (TB). For many years, triggering CD4 T cells and, in particular, those secreting interferon-γ has been the goal of most TB vaccine research, and numerous data from animals and humans support the key role of this subset in protective immunity...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087280/increased-homocysteine-levels-impair-reference-memory-and-reduce-cortical-levels-of-acetylcholine-in-a-mouse-model-of-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#2
Kevin Dam, Martina Füchtemeier, Tracy D Farr, Philipp Boehm-Sturm, Marco Foddis, Ulrich Dirnagl, Olga Malysheva, Marie A Caudill, Nafisa M Jadavji
Folates are B-vitamins that are vital for normal brain function. Deficiencies in folates either genetic (methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, MTHFR) or dietary intake of folic acid result in elevated levels of homocysteine. Clinical studies have shown that elevated levels of homocysteine (Hcy) may be associated with the development of dementia, however this link remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of increased Hcy levels on a mouse model of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) produced by chronic hypoperfusion...
January 11, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086812/person-centred-care-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-cross-sectional-study-of-patients-desires-for-self-management-support
#3
Kathryn Havas, Clint Douglas, Ann Bonner
BACKGROUND: People with chronic kidney disease (CKD) must self-manage their illness to assist with slowing disease-progression, but this is a complex task requiring support from healthcare professionals. Despite the established importance of person-centred care, people with CKD are rarely consulted regarding their desires for self-management support (SMS). METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted face-to-face in a Queensland primary care clinic and distributed Australia-wide via an online interface promoted by Kidney Health Australia during 2015...
January 13, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086747/microrna-based-pan-cancer-diagnosis-and-treatment-recommendation
#4
Nikhil Cheerla, Olivier Gevaert
BACKGROUND: The current state-of-the-art in cancer diagnosis and treatment is not ideal; diagnostic tests are accurate but invasive, and treatments are "one-size fits-all" instead of being personalized. Recently, miRNA's have garnered significant attention as cancer biomarkers, owing to their ease of access (circulating miRNA in the blood) and stability. There have been many studies showing the effectiveness of miRNA data in diagnosing specific cancer types, but few studies explore the role of miRNA in predicting treatment outcome...
January 13, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080119/the-role-of-episodic-context-in-retrieval-practice-effects
#5
Joshua W Whiffen, Jeffrey D Karpicke
The episodic context account of retrieval-based learning proposes that retrieval enhances subsequent retention because people must think back to and reinstate a prior learning context. Three experiments directly tested this central assumption of the context account. Subjects studied word lists and then either restudied the words under intentional learning conditions or made list discrimination judgments by indicating which list each word had occurred in originally. Subjects in both conditions experienced all items for the same amount of time, but subjects in the list discrimination condition were required to retrieve details about the original episodic context in which the words had occurred...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080075/cognitive-outcomes-in-early-treated-adults-with-phenylketonuria-pku-a-comprehensive-picture-across-domains
#6
Liana Palermo, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Anita MacDonald, Ellie Limback, S Kate Hall, Cristina Romani
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disease which affects cognitive functions due to an inability to metabolize phenylalanine which leads to the accumulation of toxic by-products (Phe) in the brain. PKU can be effectively treated with a low phenylalanine diet, but some cognitive deficits remain. Studies have reported impairments, especially for processing speed and executive functions, but there is a lack of comprehensive assessment across cognitive domains. Moreover, it is important to establish outcomes in early treated adults with PKU (AwPKU) who have better metabolic control than groups previously reported in the literature...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079723/toward-automating-hiv-identification-machine-learning-for-rapid-identification-of-hiv-related-social-media-data
#7
Sean D Young, Wenchao Yu, Wei Wang
INTRODUCTION: "Social big data" from technologies such as social media, wearable devices, and online searches continue to grow and can be used as tools for HIV research. Although researchers can uncover patterns and insights associated with HIV trends and transmission, the review process is time consuming and resource intensive. Machine learning methods derived from computer science might be used to assist HIV domain experts by learning how to rapidly and accurately identify patterns associated with HIV from a large set of social data...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079611/it-is-just-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder%C3%A2-or-is-it
#8
Dana C Won, Christian Guilleminault, Peter J Koltai, Stacey D Quo, Martin T Stein, Irene M Loe
Carly is a 5-year-old girl who presents for an interdisciplinary evaluation due to behaviors at school and home suggestive of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent report of preschool teacher concerns was consistent with ADHD. Psychological testing showed verbal, visual-spatial, and fluid reasoning IQ scores in the average range; processing speed and working memory were below average. Carly's behavior improved when her mother left the room, and she was attentive during testing with a psychologist...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079396/does-brain-creatine-content-rely-on-exogenous-creatine-in-healthy-youth-a-proof-of-principle-study
#9
Carlos Alberto Abujabra Merege-Filho, Maria Concepción Garcia Otaduy, Ana Lúcia de Sá-Pinto, Maira Okada de Oliveira, Lívia de Souza Gonçalves, Ana Paula Tanaka Hayashi, Hamilton Roschel, Rosa Maria Rodrigues Pereira, Clovis Artur Silva, Sonia Maria Dozzi Brucki, Claudia da Costa Leite, Bruno Gualano
It has been hypothesized that dietary creatine could influence cognitive performance by increasing brain creatine in developing individuals. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, proof-of-principle study aimed to investigate the effects of creatine supplementation on cognitive function and brain creatine content in healthy youth. The sample comprised 67 healthy participants aged 10 to 12 years. The participants were given creatine or placebo supplementation for 7 days. At baseline and after the intervention, participants undertook a battery of cognitive tests...
October 5, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079060/intranasal-lactoferrin-enhances-%C3%AE-secretase-dependent-amyloid-precursor-protein-processing-via-the-erk1-2-creb-and-hif-1%C3%AE-pathways-in-an-alzheimer-s-disease-mouse-model
#10
Chuang Guo, Zhao-Hui Yang, Shuai Zhang, Rui Chai, Han Xue, Yan-Hui Zhang, Jia-Yi Li, Zhan-You Wang
Growing evidence suggests that lactoferrin (Lf), an iron-binding glycoprotein, is a pleiotropic functional nutrient. Additionally, Lf was recently implicated as a neuroprotective agent. These properties make Lf a valuable therapeutic candidate for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the mechanisms regulating the physiological roles of Lf in the pathologic condition of AD remain unknown. In the present study, an APPswe/PS1DE9 transgenic mouse model of AD was used. We explored whether intranasal human Lf (hLf) administration could reduce β-amyloid (Aβ) deposition and ameliorate cognitive decline in this AD model...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078842/remission-effect-of-vitamin-c-on-isoflurane-induced-apoptosis-and-its-mechanism
#11
J Hu, B F Gao, H Q Li, Z Z Zhang, Y L Lei, G Q Sun, D M Guo
This study aims to discuss the remission effect of vitamin C on isoflurane-induced apoptosis of rats and its possible mechanism of action, to provide a theoretical basis for postoperative cognitive impairment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) test, MTT method and Morris water maze were applied for detection tests. For data statistics, double factor analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Bonferroni test were adopted. It was found that vitamin C could slow down the isoflurane-induced accumulation of ROS in H4-APP cells; moreover, it could relieve the activation of caspase-3 and increase cell survival rate to inhibit the occurrence of apoptosis, indicating that ROS was the source of cell toxicity...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078612/ameliorative-effect-of-ginsenoside-rg1-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-cognitive-impairment-role-of-cholinergic-system
#12
Yang Jin, Jian Peng, Xiaona Wang, Dong Zhang, Tianyin Wang
Bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) can induce systemic inflammation, and therefore disrupt learning and memory processes. Ginsenoside Rg1, a major bioactive component of ginseng, is shown to greatly improve cognitive function. The present study was designed to further investigate whether administration of ginsenoside Rg1 can ameliorate LPS-induced cognitive impairment in the Y-maze and Morris water maze (MWM) task, and to explore the underlying mechanisms. Results showed that exposure to LPS (500 μg/kg) significantly impaired working and spatial memory and that repeated treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (200 mg/kg/day, for 30 days) could effectively alleviate the LPS-induced cognitive decline as indicated by increased working and spatial memory in the Y-maze and MWM tests...
January 11, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078569/the-computer-based-symbol-digit-modalities-test-establishing-age-expected-performance-in-healthy-controls-and-evaluation-of-pediatric-ms-patients
#13
Sandra Bigi, R A Marrie, C Till, E A Yeh, N Akbar, A Feinstein, B L Banwell
Decreased information processing speed (IPS) is frequently reported in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The computerized version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (c-SDMT) measures IPS over eight consecutive trials per session and additionally captures changes in performance within the session. Here, we establish normative c-SDMT performance and test-retest reliability in healthy children (HC) and explore differences in the overall c-SDMT-performance between HC and MS patients. This cross-sectional study included 478 HC (237 female, 49...
January 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077906/how-to-improve-visibility-of-scientific-biomedical-sources
#14
REVIEW
Asim Kurjak
With the rapid development of information and communications technologies, industrial nations are transforming into societies in which knowledge is the most contested and valuable good. The increased speed at which we have to acquire new knowledge, insights, and abilities is forcing us to divide up learning into novel, shorter phases. The traditional choreography of learning with its long, rigid defined school, job, and university educational periods is already obsolete today. Self-organized, lifelong learning is becoming a must...
December 2016: Acta Informatica Medica: AIM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077716/the-attraction-effect-modulates-reward-prediction-errors-and-intertemporal-choices
#15
Sebastian Gluth, Jared M Hotaling, Jörg Rieskamp
: Classical economic theory contends that the utility of a choice option should be independent of other options. This view is challenged by the attraction effect, in which the relative preference between two options is altered by the addition of a third, asymmetrically dominated option. Here, we leveraged the attraction effect in the context of intertemporal choices to test whether both decisions and reward prediction errors (RPE) in the absence of choice violate the independence of irrelevant alternatives principle...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077535/the-impact-of-a-perceptual-and-adaptive-learning-module-on-transoesophageal-echocardiography-interpretation-by-anaesthesiology-residents
#16
B T Romito, S Krasne, P J Kellman, A Dhillon
BACKGROUND: The role of transoesophageal echocardiography (TOE) in anaesthetic practice is expanding. We evaluated the effect of a TOE perceptual and adaptive learning module (PALM) on first-yr anaesthesiology residents' performance, in diagnosing cardiac pathology by TOE. METHODS: First-yr residents were assigned to a group (n = 12) that used a TOE PALM or a control group that did not (n = 12). Both groups received a TOE pretest that measured their accuracy and response times...
October 2016: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077334/the-neuroprotective-compound-p7c3-a20-promotes-neurogenesis-and-improves-cognitive-function-after-ischemic-stroke
#17
Zachary B Loris, Andrew A Pieper, W Dalton Dietrich
Ischemic stroke is a devastating condition with few therapeutic interventions available. The neuroprotective compound P7C3-A20 inhibits mature neuronal cell death while also increasing the net magnitude of postnatal neurogenesis in models of neurodegeneration and acute injury. P7C3 compounds enhance flux of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in mammalian cells, a proposed therapeutic approach to treating cerebral ischemia. The effectiveness of P7C3-A20 treatment on chronic histopathological and behavioral outcomes and neurogenesis after ischemic stroke has not previously been established...
January 8, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077263/learning-in-mosquito-larvae-aedes-aegypti-habituation-to-a-visual-danger-signal
#18
Hugo Baglan, Claudio Lazzari, Fernando Guerrieri
In spite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti being a vector of several infectious diseases, a limited number of studies has been undertaken on learning in this species. Moreover, larval stages have been neglected as model organisms, although they are active, aquatic and perform stereotyped behavioural responses, e.g. the escape response when disturbed. To study the learning abilities of mosquito larvae, we focused on habituation, a form of non-associative learning widely studied in vertebrates and invertebrates. Habituation was defined as the progressive and reversible decrease in response to a reiterative stimulus...
January 7, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077004/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-modulation-as-a-target-for-ameliorating-effects-of-blast-induced-traumatic-brain-injury
#19
Brandon Peter Lucke-Wold, Aric Logsdon, Ryan C Turner, Jason D Huber, Charles L Rosen
Blast traumatic brain injury (bTBI) has been shown to contribute to progressive neurodegenerative disease. Recent evidence suggests that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a mechanistic link between acute neurotrauma and progressive tauopathy. We propose that ER stress contributes to extensive behavioral changes associated with a CTE-like phenotype. Targeting ER stress is a promising option for the treatment of neurotrauma related neurodegeneration warranting investigation. Utilizing our validated and clinically relevant Sprague-Dawley blast model, we investigated a time course of mechanistic changes that occur following bTBI (50 PSI) including: ER stress activation, iron mediated toxicity, and tauopathy via western blot and immunohistochemistry...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076921/classroom-nutrition-education-combined-with-fruit-and-vegetable-taste-testing-improves-children-s-dietary-intake
#20
Abby Gold, Mary Larson, Jared Tucker, Michelle Strang
BACKGROUND: We tested the effectiveness of the Go Wild With Fruits and Veggies! (GWWFV) Extension curriculum on increasing fruit and vegetable (FV) intake of third graders. METHODS: An intervention study was used testing self-reported FV intake pre/post GWWFV. Recruited schools were randomized to control (12 schools, N = 369, third grade children) or intervention (14 schools, N = 378, third grade children). Measures included items from a validated FV food frequency survey...
February 2017: Journal of School Health
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