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Prodromal AD

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435465/hypertension-cerebrovascular-impairment-and-cognitive-decline-in-aged-a%C3%AE-pp-ps1-mice
#1
Maximilian Wiesmann, Valerio Zerbi, Diane Jansen, Dieter Lütjohann, Andor Veltien, Arend Heerschap, Amanda J Kiliaan
Cardiovascular risk factors, especially hypertension, are also major risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD). To elucidate the underlying vascular origin of neurodegenerative processes in AD, we investigated the relation between systolic blood pressure (SBP) cerebral blood flow (CBF) and vasoreactivity with brain structure and function in a 16-18 months old double transgenic AβPPswe/PS1dE9 (AβPP/PS1) mouse model for AD. These aging AβPP/PS1 mice showed an increased SBP linked to a declined regional CBF...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428015/plasma-neurofilament-light-chain-levels-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Wenjun Zhou, Jie Zhang, Fanlong Ye, Guangzheng Xu, Hang Su, Yindan Su, Xiangyang Zhang
Plasma neurofilament light (NFL) levels may be a marker of neuronal injury. We examined whether plasma NFL might be a potential biomarker for the prodromal and dementia stages of AD. Participants included 193 cognitively normal (CN), 198 amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 187 Alzheimer's disease (AD) individuals enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Plasma NFL levels were examined by the Single Molecule array (Simoa) technique. Our results showed significantly increased plasma NFL levels in both AD (50...
April 18, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426384/a-2-year-old-boy-with-circulatory-failure-owing-to-streptococcal-toxic-shock-syndrome-case-report
#3
Werner Keenswijk, Johan Vande Walle
A 2-year-old boy presented with severe hypotension and acute kidney injury after a prodrome of non-bloody diarrhoea and fever in the preceding 3 days. He had a mild Ebstein cardiac anomaly but otherwise a normal past history and growth. On examination, he looked ill, his temperature was 37.5 °C, circulation was poor, and there were several purpuric lesions on the face, hands and scrotum. Haemoglobin was 7.8 g/dL (11-14), total white cell count 27 × 10(9)/L, platelets 62 × 10(9)/L, blood urea nitrogen 20...
April 20, 2017: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414186/a-review-on-neuroimaging-based-classification-studies-and-associated-feature-extraction-methods-for-alzheimer-s-disease-and-its-prodromal-stages
#4
REVIEW
Saima Rathore, Mohamad Habes, Muhammad Aksam Iftikhar, Amanda Shacklett, Christos Davatzikos
Neuroimaging has made it possible to measure pathological brain changes associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in vivo. Over the past decade, these measures have been increasingly integrated into imaging signatures of AD by means of classification frameworks, offering promising tools for individualized diagnosis and prognosis. We reviewed neuroimaging-based studies for AD classification and mild cognitive impairment, selected after online database searches in Google Scholar and PubMed (January, 1985 to June, 2016)...
April 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410856/regional-18f-fluorodeoxyglucose-hypometabolism-is-associated-with-higher-apathy-scores-over-time-in-early-alzheimer-disease
#5
Jennifer R Gatchel, Nancy J Donovan, Joseph J Locascio, J Alex Becker, Dorene M Rentz, Reisa A Sperling, Keith A Johnson, Gad A Marshall
OBJECTIVES: Apathy is among the earliest and most pervasive neuropsychiatric symptoms in prodromal and mild Alzheimer disease (AD) dementia that correlates with functional impairment and disease progression. We investigated the association of apathy with regional 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) metabolism in cognitively normal, mild cognitive impairment, and AD dementia subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. DESIGN: Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies...
January 4, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410658/the-role-of-neuroimaging-in-the-assessment-of-the-cognitively-impaired-elderly
#6
REVIEW
Sara Kollack-Walker, Collin Y Liu, Adam S Fleisher
This article reviews the current diagnostic tools that are available for structural, functional, and molecular imaging of the brain, summarizing some of the key findings that have been reported in individuals diagnosed with Alzheimer disease, mild cognitive impairment, prodromal AD, or other prevalent dementias. Given recent advances in the development of amyloid PET tracers, current guidelines for the use of amyloid PET imaging in patients with cognitive complaints are reviewed. In addition, data addressing the potential value of amyloid PET imaging in the clinical setting are highlighted...
May 2017: Neurologic Clinics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408865/tau-pathology-distribution-in-alzheimer-s-disease-corresponds-differentially-to-cognition-relevant-functional-brain-networks
#7
Oskar Hansson, Michel J Grothe, Tor Olof Strandberg, Tomas Ohlsson, Douglas Hägerström, Jonas Jögi, Ruben Smith, Michael Schöll
Neuropathological studies have shown that the typical neurofibrillary pathology of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in Alzheimer's disease (AD) preferentially affects specific brain regions whereas others remain relatively spared. It has been suggested that the distinct regional distribution profile of tau pathology in AD may be a consequence of the intrinsic network structure of the human brain. The spatially distributed brain regions that are most affected by the spread of tau pathology may hence reflect an interconnected neuronal system...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388490/hospital-treated-mental-and-behavioral-disorders-and-risk-of-alzheimer-s-disease-a-nationwide-nested-case-control-study
#8
V Tapiainen, S Hartikainen, H Taipale, J Tiihonen, A-M Tolppanen
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating psychiatric disorders as Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factors have yielded heterogeneous findings. Differences in time windows between the exposure and outcome could be one explanation. We examined whether (1) mental and behavioral disorders in general or (2) specific mental and behavioral disorder categories increase the risk of AD and (3) how the width of the time window between the exposure and outcome affects the results. METHODS: A nationwide nested case-control study of all Finnish clinically verified AD cases, alive in 2005 and their age, sex and region of residence matched controls (n of case-control pairs 27,948)...
March 9, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373857/alzheimer-s-disease-biomarkers-in-the-genome-blood-and-cerebrospinal-fluid
#9
REVIEW
Rose Ann Huynh, Chandra Mohan
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, resulting in behavioral changes. It is estimated that nearly 36 million are affected globally with numbers reaching 115 million by 2050. AD can only be definitively diagnosed at autopsy since its manifestations of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles throughout the brain cannot yet be fully captured with current imaging technologies. Current AD therapeutics have also been suboptimal. Besides identifying markers that distinguish AD from controls, there has been a recent drive to identify better biomarkers that can predict the rates of cognitive decline and neocortical amyloid burden in those who exhibit preclinical, prodromal, or clinical AD...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372331/biomarkers-and-functional-decline-in%C3%A2-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Catherine Robb, Chinedu Udeh-Momoh, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Jakob Schöpe, Panagiotis Alexopoulos, Robert Perneczky
BACKGROUND: Little is known of possible associations between Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) change over time. OBJECTIVE: The present study seeks to identify relationships between baseline imaging and fluid biomarker profiles, and decline in IADL utilizing data collated from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) cohort. METHODS: Generalized estimating equations analysis, adjusted for cognitive deterioration, was applied to a cohort of 509 individuals from all stages of ADNI, including 156 healthy controls, 189 early mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 164 MCI patients...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365005/neocortical-and-hippocampal-trem2-protein-levels-during-the-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Sylvia E Perez, Muhammad Nadeem, Bin He, Jennifer C Miguel, Michael H Malek-Ahmadi, Kewei Chen, Elliott J Mufson
Heterozygous triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM2) mutations are an Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk factor. Nonmutated TREM2 dysregulation occurs in AD brain. Whether TREM2 is altered in prodromal AD remains unknown. Western blotting was used to determine levels of TREM2 (∼25 kDa) and Iba1 in the frontal cortex and TREM2 in the hippocampus from people who died with an ante-mortem clinical diagnosis of non- and mild-cognitive impairment, mild/moderate AD, and severe AD (sAD). Immunohistochemistry defined the relationship between amyloid and Iba1 profiles...
June 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359566/increased-plasma-beta-secretase-1-may-predict-conversion-to-alzheimer-s-disease-dementia-in-individuals-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Yong Shen, Haibo Wang, Qiying Sun, Hailan Yao, Andrew P Keegan, Mike Mullan, Jeffrey Wilson, Simone Lista, Thomas Leyhe, Christoph Laske, Dan Rujescu, Allan Levey, Anders Wallin, Kaj Blennow, Rena Li, Harald Hampel
BACKGROUND: Increased beta-secretase 1 (BACE1) activity has consistently been detected in brain tissue and cerebrospinal fluid of subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with control subjects. The collection of cerebrospinal fluid by lumbar puncture is invasive. We sought to identify the presence of plasma BACE1 activity and determine potential alterations in subjects with MCI with clinical follow-up examinations for 3 years using patients with diagnosed probable AD dementia compared with healthy control subjects...
March 27, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356312/an-intranasally-delivered-peptide-drug-ameliorates-cognitive-decline-in-alzheimer-transgenic-mice
#13
Yu-Sung Cheng, Zih-Ten Chen, Tai-Yan Liao, Chen Lin, Howard C-H Shen, Ya-Han Wang, Chi-Wei Chang, Ren-Shyan Liu, Rita P-Y Chen, Pang-Hsien Tu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disease. Imbalance between the production and clearance of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides is considered to be the primary mechanism of AD pathogenesis. This amyloid hypothesis is supported by the recent success of the human anti-amyloid antibody aducanumab, in clearing plaque and slowing clinical impairment in prodromal or mild patients in a phase Ib trial. Here, a peptide combining polyarginines (polyR) (for charge repulsion) and a segment derived from the core region of Aβ amyloid (for sequence recognition) was designed...
March 29, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355927/permutation-disalignment-index-as-an-indirect-eeg-based-measure-of-brain-connectivity-in-mci-and-ad-patients
#14
Nadia Mammone, Lilla Bonanno, Simona De Salvo, Silvia Marino, Placido Bramanti, Alessia Bramanti, Francesco C Morabito
OBJECTIVE: In this work, we introduce Permutation Disalignment Index (PDI) as a novel nonlinear, amplitude independent, robust to noise metric of coupling strength between time series, with the aim of applying it to electroencephalographic (EEG) signals recorded longitudinally from Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Mild Cognitive Impaired (MCI) patients. The goal is to indirectly estimate the connectivity between the cortical areas, through the quantification of the coupling strength between the corresponding EEG signals, in order to find a possible matching with the disease's progression...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336337/mismatch-negativity-as-a-potential-neurobiological-marker-of-early-stage-alzheimer-disease-and-vascular-dementia
#15
Shixiang Jiang, Chang Yan, Zhengxue Qiao, Haiqian Yao, Shiquan Jiang, Xiaohui Qiu, Xiuxian Yang, Deyu Fang, Yanjie Yang, Limei Zhang, Lina Wang, Liming Zhang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VD) are serious, irreversible forms of cognitive impairment, which means that an early diagnosis is essential to slow down their progression. One potential neurophysiological biomarker of these diseases is the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potentials (ERP) component, which reflects an automatic detection mechanism at the pre-attentive stages of information processing. We evaluated the auditory MMN response in individuals from two patient groups: those in the prodromal stages of AD (P-AD) and those in the prodromal stages of VD (P-VD)...
March 20, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324341/beta-amyloid-deposition-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder-with-differing-levels-of-treatment-resistance-a-pilot-study
#16
Peng Li, Ing-Tsung Hsiao, Chia-Yih Liu, Chia-Hsiang Chen, She-Yao Huang, Tzu-Chen Yen, Kuan-Yi Wu, Kun-Ju Lin
BACKGROUND: Lack of treatment response in patients with late-life depression is common. The role of brain beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition in treatment outcome in subjects with late-life depression remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate brain Aβ deposition in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) with differing treatment outcomes in vivo using (18)F-florbetapir imaging. This study included 62 MDD patients and 18 healthy control subjects (HCs).We first employed the Maudsley staging method (MSM) to categorize MDD patients into two groups according to treatment response: mild treatment resistance (n = 29) and moderate-to-severe treatment resistance (n = 33)...
December 2017: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317649/clinical-validity-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-a%C3%AE-42-tau-and-phospho-tau-as-biomarkers-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development-framework
#17
REVIEW
Niklas Mattsson, Anders Lönneborg, Marina Boccardi, Kaj Blennow, Oskar Hansson
Novel diagnostic criteria for Alzheimer's disease (AD) incorporate biomarkers, but their maturity for implementation in clinical practice at the prodromal stage (mild cognitive impairment [MCI]) is unclear. Here, we evaluate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) β-amyloid42 (Aβ42), total tau, and phosphorylated tau in the light of a 5-phase framework for biomarker development. Ample evidence is available for phase 1 (identifying useful leads) and phase 2 (assessing the accuracy for AD dementia versus controls) for CSF biomarkers...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317648/clinical-validity-of-brain-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-as-a-biomarker-for-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-context-of-a-structured-5-phase-development-framework
#18
REVIEW
Valentina Garibotto, Karl Herholz, Marina Boccardi, Agnese Picco, Andrea Varrone, Agneta Nordberg, Flavio Nobili, Osman Ratib
The use of Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers is supported in diagnostic criteria, but their maturity for clinical routine is still debated. Here, we evaluate brain fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET), a measure of cerebral glucose metabolism, as a biomarker to identify clinical and prodromal AD according to the framework suggested for biomarkers in oncology, using homogenous criteria with other biomarkers addressed in parallel reviews. FDG PET has fully achieved phase 1 (rational for use) and most of phase 2 (ability to discriminate AD subjects from healthy controls or other forms of dementia) aims...
April 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290246/spatio-temporal-fluctuations-of-neural-dynamics-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Jesús Poza, Carlos Gómez, María García, Miguel A Tola-Arribas, Alicia Carreres, Mónica Cano, Roberto Hornero
An accurate characterization of neural dynamics in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is of paramount importance to gain further insights into the underlying neural mechanisms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Nevertheless, there has been relatively little research on brain dynamics in prodromal AD. As a consequence, its neural substrates remain unclear. In the present research, electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from patients with dementia due to AD, subjects with MCI due to AD and healthy controls (HC) were analyzed using relative power (RP) in conventional EEG frequency bands and a novel parameter useful to explore the spatio-temporal fluctuations of neural dynamics: the spectral flux (SF)...
March 9, 2017: Current Alzheimer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289920/the-early-presentation-of-dementia-in-people-with-down-syndrome-a-systematic-review-of-longitudinal-studies
#20
REVIEW
Bianca Alexandra Lautarescu, Anthony John Holland, Shahid H Zaman
Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are at a very high risk of developing early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD) due to trisomy of chromosome 21. AD is preceded by a prolonged prodromal "pre-clinical" phase presenting with clinical features that do not fulfil the diagnostic criteria for AD. It is important to clinically characterise this prodromal stage to help early detection of the disease as neuropathology of AD is almost universal by the fifth decade in DS. There is a lack of knowledge of the trajectory of decline associated with the onset of dementia in this population and early signs may be overlooked or misdiagnosed, negatively affecting the quality of life of those affected and the use of early pharmacological or psychosocial interventions...
March 2017: Neuropsychology Review
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