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Bitter taste

Antonella Di Pizio, Nitzan Shy, Maik Behrens, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Masha Y Niv
Chickens sense the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptors ( Gallus gallus taste 2 receptors, ggTas2rs), representing a minimal case of bitter perception. Some bitter compounds like quinine, diphenidol and chlorpheniramine, activate all three ggTas2rs, while others selectively activate one or two of the receptors. We focus on bitter compounds with different selectivity profiles toward the three receptors, to shed light on the molecular recognition complexity in bitter taste...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Chi Sang Hwang, Jin Won Kim, Salma Saud Al Sharhan, Jin Woong Kim, Hyung Ju Cho, Joo Heon Yoon, Chang Hoon Kim
PURPOSE: To obtain validated clinical values suitable for developing a gustatory function test, including umami taste, in a Korean population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The investigation involved 297 participants with self-reported normal sense of taste and smell. Liquid solutions were used for the assessment of gustatory function. The test consisted of 30 taste solutions [six concentrations of five tastants (sweet, bitter, salty, sour, and umami)]. For evaluation of overall gustatory function, the number of detected or correctly recognized taste thresholds was combined to form a "taste score...
March 2018: Yonsei Medical Journal
Zihan Qin, Mikael A Petersen, Wender L P Bredie
The aim of this study was to characterize the flavor profiles of 14 commercial apple ciders from the United Kingdom and Scandinavian region. The flavor properties were established by sensory profiling and analysis of volatile and non-volatile components, including titratable acidity, pH, residual sugars and organic acids. A total of 72 volatile compounds were identified in the 14 apple ciders using dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The main volatile compounds found in apple ciders were esters and higher alcohols, followed by aldehydes and fatty acids...
March 2018: Food Research International
Anneke Glabasnia, Andreas Dunkel, Oliver Frank, Thomas Hofmann
Activity-guided fractionation in combination with the taste dilution analysis, followed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance experiments, led to the identification of 10 polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs), 6 limonoid glucosides, and 2 limonoid aglycones as the key bitterns of orange juice. Quantitative studies and calculation of dose-over-threshold factors, followed by taste re-engineering, demonstrated for the first time 25 sensometabolites to be sufficient to reconstruct the typical taste profile of orange juices and indicated that not a single compound can be considered a suitable marker for juice bitterness...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Mariko Sakai, Hiroaki Kazui, Kazue Shigenobu, Kenjiro Komori, Manabu Ikeda, Takashi Nishikawa
Objective: To investigate the gustatory function in patients with semantic dementia (SD). Methods: Detection and recognition thresholds of the 4 basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, and bitter), taste discrimination, and taste identification were evaluated in 18 patients with SD, 18 patients with Alzheimer disease (AD), and 22 healthy controls. Results: Total detection and recognition threshold values were significantly higher in the SD and AD groups than in the control group...
September 2017: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders Extra
Ping Feng, Rui-Jian Luo
Among the five basic tastes (umami, sweet, bitter, salty and sour), the perception of bitterness is believed to protect animals from digesting toxic and harmful substances, thus it is vital for animal survival. The taste of bitterness is triggered by the interaction between bitter substances and bitter taste receptors, which are encoded by Tas2rs. The gene numbers vary largely across species to meet different demands. So far, several ligands of bitter receptors have been identified in primates. They also discovered that the selective pressure of certain bitter taste receptor genes vary across taxa, genes or even different functional regions of the gene...
February 20, 2018: Yi Chuan, Hereditas
Niamh M Murray, Dolores O'Riordan, Jean-Christophe Jacquier, Michael O'Sullivan, Thérèse A Holton, Kieran Wynne, Randall C Robinson, Daniela Barile, Søren D Nielsen, David C Dallas
Sodium caseinate hydrolysates (NaCaH) contain biologically active peptides that can positively influence human health. However, their intense bitterness hinders their inclusion in food products. To our knowledge, no studies have investigated whether a correlation between bitterness and bioactivity exists in NaCaH, so it is not yet known what effect selective removal of bitterness has on NaCaH bioactivity. A deeper understanding of the physicochemical characteristics affecting both bitterness and bioactivity is therefore needed...
February 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Elizabeth M Carney, Wendy M Stein, Nicole A Reigh, Felicia M Gater, Alyssa J Bakke, John E Hayes, Kathleen L Keller
American children do not meet the recommended daily servings of vegetables, and previous research suggests children who can taste the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) are more likely to have low vegetable intake. This study tested the hypothesis that adding multiple herb and spice blends to vegetables to increase flavor variety within a meal would increase vegetable intake in 3-5year-old children. Children attended two laboratory visits and consumed two test meals of common foods: macaroni and cheese, applesauce, carrots, milk, and water...
February 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Yumei Qin, Sunil K Sukumaran, Masafumi Jyotaki, Kevin Redding, Peihua Jiang, Robert F Margolskee
Mouse taste receptor cells survive from 3-24 days, necessitating their regeneration throughout adulthood. In anterior tongue, sonic hedgehog (SHH), released by a subpopulation of basal taste cells, regulates transcription factors Gli2 and Gli3 in stem cells to control taste cell regeneration. Using single-cell RNA-Seq we found that Gli3 is highly expressed in Tas1r3-expressing taste receptor cells and Lgr5+ taste stem cells in posterior tongue. By PCR and immunohistochemistry we found that Gli3 was expressed in taste buds in all taste fields...
February 7, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Tibor Casian, Cătălina Bogdan, Diana Tarta, Mirela Moldovan, Ioan Tomuta, Sonia Iurian
Orodispersible tablets (ODTs) emerged as dosage forms recommended for special groups of patients like pediatrics or geriatrics, due to their multiple advantages. Among their critical quality attributes, palatability determines patient acceptance, with high impact on treatment efficacy. The aim of this study was to develop an instrumental method to assess in vivo disintegration time and palatability of ODTs. The formulation factors that can influence palatability were refined through an experimental design. The most important ones were taken forward and a calibration set was prepared for multivariate calibration model development...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Eun Young Jung, Sang Keun Jin, Sun Jin Hur
The effects of biopolymer encapsulation and sodium replacement combination technology on quality characteristics (i.e., bitter taste) and inhibition of sodium absorption from pork sausage in mice were evaluated. The sausages were divided into three different sodium replacement groups (none, 40%, and 50%) and three different biopolymer encapsulation groups (none, cellulose, and chitosan) in combination. In groups with 50% sodium replacement by KCl and MgCl2, T8 (chitosan encapsulation) showed the highest inhibition of the sodium absorption rate...
June 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Martha Skinner, Sally Eldeghaidy, Rebecca Ford, Timo Giesbrecht, Anna Thomas, Susan Francis, Joanne Hort
Thermal tasters (TTs) perceive thermally induced taste (thermal taste) sensations when the tongue is stimulated with temperature in the absence of gustatory stimuli, while thermal non tasters (TnTs) only perceive temperature. This is the first study to explore detailed differences in thermal taste responses across TTs. Using thermal taster status phenotyping, 37 TTs were recruited, and the temporal characteristics of thermal taste responses collected during repeat exposure to temperature stimulation. Phenotyping found sweet most frequently reported during warming stimulation, and bitter and sour when cooling, but a range of other sensations were stated...
February 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
A Michael Rajesh, Kiritkumar Mangaldas Popat
The objective of this study was to carry out taste masking of ofloxacin (Ofl) by ion exchange resins (IERs) followed by sustained release of Ofl by forming interpenetrating polymer network (IPN) beads. Drug-resin complexes (DRCs) with three different ratios of Ofl to IERs (1:1, 1:2, 1:4) were prepared by batch method and investigated for in vivo and in vitro taste masking. DRC of methacrylic acid-divinyl benzene (MD) resin and Ofl prepared at a ratio of 1:4 was used to form IPN beads. IPN beads of MD 1:4 were prepared by following the ionic cross-linking method using sodium carboxymethyl xanthan gum (SCMXG) and SCMXG-sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (SCMXG-SCMC)...
August 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Sean D Schoville, Yolanda H Chen, Martin N Andersson, Joshua B Benoit, Anita Bhandari, Julia H Bowsher, Kristian Brevik, Kaat Cappelle, Mei-Ju M Chen, Anna K Childers, Christopher Childers, Olivier Christiaens, Justin Clements, Elise M Didion, Elena N Elpidina, Patamarerk Engsontia, Markus Friedrich, Inmaculada García-Robles, Richard A Gibbs, Chandan Goswami, Alessandro Grapputo, Kristina Gruden, Marcin Grynberg, Bernard Henrissat, Emily C Jennings, Jeffery W Jones, Megha Kalsi, Sher A Khan, Abhishek Kumar, Fei Li, Vincent Lombard, Xingzhou Ma, Alexander Martynov, Nicholas J Miller, Robert F Mitchell, Monica Munoz-Torres, Anna Muszewska, Brenda Oppert, Subba Reddy Palli, Kristen A Panfilio, Yannick Pauchet, Lindsey C Perkin, Marko Petek, Monica F Poelchau, Éric Record, Joseph P Rinehart, Hugh M Robertson, Andrew J Rosendale, Victor M Ruiz-Arroyo, Guy Smagghe, Zsofia Szendrei, Gregg W C Thomas, Alex S Torson, Iris M Vargas Jentzsch, Matthew T Weirauch, Ashley D Yates, George D Yocum, June-Sun Yoon, Stephen Richards
The Colorado potato beetle is one of the most challenging agricultural pests to manage. It has shown a spectacular ability to adapt to a variety of solanaceaeous plants and variable climates during its global invasion, and, notably, to rapidly evolve insecticide resistance. To examine evidence of rapid evolutionary change, and to understand the genetic basis of herbivory and insecticide resistance, we tested for structural and functional genomic changes relative to other arthropod species using genome sequencing, transcriptomics, and community annotation...
January 31, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elie Chamoun, Joy M Hutchinson, Owen Krystia, Julia A Mirotta, David M Mutch, Andrea C Buchholz, Alison M Duncan, Gerarda Darlington, Jess Haines, David W L Ma
Snacking is an integral component of eating habits in young children that is often overlooked in nutrition research. While snacking is a substantial source of calories in preschoolers' diets, there is limited knowledge about the factors that drive snacking patterns. The genetics of taste may help to better understand the snacking patterns of children. The rs1761667 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the CD36 gene has been linked to fat taste sensitivity, the rs35874116 SNP in the TAS1R2 gene has been related to sweet taste preference, and the rs713598 SNP in the TAS2R38 gene has been associated with aversion to bitter, green leafy vegetables...
January 30, 2018: Nutrients
Claudia Shu-Fen Leong, Ciarán G Forde, Siew Ling Tey, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Taste perception plays a key role in consumer acceptance and food choice, which has an important impact on human health. Our aim was to examine the relationship between taste intensities and preferences of sweet (sucrose), salty (sodium chloride and potassium chloride), sour (citric acid), and bitter (quinine and phenylthiocarbamide) in relation to dietary intake and dietary patterns in people of Chinese ancestry. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: This cross-sectional study included 100 adult Singaporean Chinese (50 women)...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Axel Wolf, Bertold Renner, Peter V Tomazic, Christian A Mueller
OBJECTIVES: Recent research has shown that taste receptors in airway epithelial cells are involved in defending against upper respiratory tract infection. The aim of the present study was to investigate gustatory function in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). METHODS: Taste function was assessed using the extended "taste strip" test in 37 patients with CRS (20 males, 17 females; mean age = 32.1 years; range, 20-82 years) and 135 healthy controls (70 males, 65 females; mean age = 29...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Preety Negi, Pamela-Alice Kingsley, Maria Thomas, Jaineet Sachdeva, Himanshu Srivastava, Babusha Kalra
Introduction: The majority of patients receiving concurrent chemoradiotherapy frequently complain of changes in their taste perception, and other distressing symptoms affecting their quality of life. This study was undertaken to determine the pattern of gustatory impairment and its recovery in irradiated head and neck cancer patients in India. Materials and Methods: Thirty patients undergoing radical head and neck irradiation were enrolled and assessed for the four basic taste quality (sweet, salt, sour and bitter) by a forced three-choice stimulus drop technique measuring their taste recognition thresholds at baseline, weekly during radiation therapy (RT) and every month for 6 months following completion of RT...
November 2017: Iranian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Jagadeesh Sundaramoorthy, Gyu Tae Park, Kyosuke Mukaiyama, Chigen Tsukamoto, Jeong Ho Chang, Jeong-Dong Lee, Jeong Hoe Kim, Hak Soo Seo, Jong Tae Song
In soybean, triterpenoid saponin is one of the major secondary metabolites and is further classified into group A and DDMP saponins. Although they have known health benefits for humans and animals, acetylation of group A saponins causes bitterness and gives an astringent taste to soy products. Therefore, several studies are being conducted to eliminate acetylated group A saponins. Previous studies have isolated and characterized the Sg-5 (Glyma.15g243300) gene, which encodes the cytochrome P450 72A69 enzyme and is responsible for soyasapogenol A biosynthesis...
2018: PloS One
Ya-Jing Tong, Hui-Xian Zhang, Yan-Xia Chen, Mei-Ling Dong, Kun Ma
In order to analyze Professor Ma Kun's medication in treating anovulatory infertility, her prescriptions for treating anovulatory infertility in 2012-2015 were collected. The medication features and the regularity of prescriptions were mined by using traditional Chinese medicine inheritance support system, association rules, complex system entropy clustering and other mining methods. Finally, a total of 684 prescriptions and 300 kinds of herbs were screened out, with a total frequency of 11 156 times; And 68 core combinations and 8 new prescriptions were mined...
December 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
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