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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886380/acceptability-and-preference-drivers-of-freshly-roasted-peanuts
#1
Shangci Wang, Koushik Adhikari, Yen-Con Hung
The objectives of this study were to determine and compare the sensory perceptions and aroma volatiles of 6 freshly roasted peanut samples and to explore the drivers of consumer acceptability. Normal-oleic Georgia 06G kernels (06G), high-oleic Georgia 13M kernels (13M), Georgia runner (mixed) in-shell (InR) & kernels (R), and Virginia (mixed) in-shell (InVA) & kernels (VA) were roasted to medium doneness for consumers, descriptive, and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) tests. For Virginia variety, InVA was preferred over VA...
November 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885676/effect%C3%A2-of%C3%A2-deamidation-induced%C3%A2-modification%C3%A2-on%C3%A2-umami%C3%A2-and%C3%A2-bitter%C3%A2-taste-of-wheat-gluten%C3%A2-hydrolysates
#2
Bo-Ye Liu, Ke-Xue Zhu, Xiao-Na Guo, Wei Peng, Hui-Ming Zhou
BACKGROUND: Bitter taste is the main limiting factor for various applications of protein hydrolysates. Frequently-used physicochemical methods for debittering protein hydrolysates came with some undesired side effects. Deamidation-induced modification method would be a very promising technique to improve the flavor of wheat gluten hydrolysates (WGHs). This study was designed to determine the effect of deamidation with certain enzymes or acid treatment on the chemical composition, bitterness and umami properties of WGHs...
November 25, 2016: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883233/intranasal-insulin-boosts-gustatory-sensitivity
#3
Rea Rodriguez-Raecke, Huan Yang, Yvonne F Brünner, Jessica Freiherr
Intranasal insulin had been in the spotlight not only for enhancing memory processes but also for its anorexic effects, as well as its effects on olfactory sensitivity. Here, the influence of intranasal insulin on gustatory sensitivity was investigated using intranasal applications of insulin or placebo in a double-blind manner alongside a control condition without any application. We hypothesized that intranasal insulin, as it mediates satiety, alters gustatory sensitivity whereas placebo application and control should not alter gustatory sensitivity...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882100/optimization-and-validation-of-the-protocol-used-to-analyze-the-taste-of-traditional-chinese-medicines-using-an-electronic-tongue
#4
Xuelin Li, Xiaojie Gao, Ruixin Liu, Junming Wang, Zidan Wu, Lu Zhang, Huiling Li, Xinjing Gui, Bingya Kang, Junhan Shi
Tools to define the active ingredients and flavors of Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCMs) are limited by long analysis times, complex sample preparation and a lack of multiplexed analysis. The aim of the present study was to optimize and validate an electronic tongue (E-tongue) methodology to analyze the bitterness of TCMs. To test the protocol, 35 different TCM concoctions were measured using an E-tongue, and seven replicate measurements of each sample were taken to evaluate reproducibility and precision...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880961/characterization-of-aspergillus-sojae-isolated-from-meju-korean-traditional-fermented-soybean-bricks
#5
Kyung Min Kim, Jaeho Lim, Jae Jung Lee, Byung-Serk Hurh, Inhyung Lee
Initially, we screened 18 A. sojae-like strains from Aspergillus spp. isolated from meju (Korean traditional fermented soybean bricks) according to their morphological characteristics. Because members of Aspergillus section Flavi are often incorrectly identified because of their phylogenetic similarity, we re-identified these strains at morphological and molecular genetic levels. Fourteen strains were finally identified as A. sojae. The isolates produced protease and α-amylase with ranges of 2.66-10.64 and 21...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873143/regulation-of-rac1-gtpase-activity-by-quinine-through-g-protein-and-bitter-taste-receptor-t2r4
#6
Crystal Sidhu, Appalaraju Jaggupilli, Prashen Chelikani, Rajinder P Bhullar
Rac1 belongs to the Rho family of small GTPases and regulates actin cytoskeleton reorganization. T2R4 is a bitter taste receptor belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor family of proteins. In addition to mediating bitter taste perception from the tongue, T2R4s are found in extra-oral tissues, e.g., nasal epithelium, airways, brain, testis suggesting a much broader physiological function for these receptors. Anti-malarial drug and a bitter tasting compound, quinine, is a known agonist for T2R4, whereas BCML (Nα,Nα-Bis(carboxymethyl)-L-lysine) acts as an inverse agonist...
November 22, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870442/contributory-role-of-sex-differences-in-the-variations-of-gustatory-function
#7
REVIEW
Louis J Martin, Suzanne I Sollars
Remarkable variability between males and females occurs for an array of taste-guided behaviors in both rodents and humans. Sex differences have been noted for taste preference, detection thresholds, and reactivity to taste stimuli. Manipulating sex hormones during early postnatal development or altering the amount of circulating estrogen in adulthood can dramatically alter the pattern of these behaviors. Receptors for sex hormones appear to be prominent in several nuclei associated with central gustatory pathways, indicating that steroid hormones may modulate central taste processing...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866985/identification-of-functional-bitter-taste-receptors-and-their-antagonist-in-chickens
#8
Bapon Dey, Fuminori Kawabata, Yuko Kawabata, Yuta Yoshida, Shotaro Nishimura, Shoji Tabata
Elucidation of the taste sense of chickens is important not only for the development of chicken feedstuffs for the chicken industry but also to help clarify the evolution of the taste sense among animals. There are three putative chicken bitter taste receptors, chicken T2R1 (cT2R1), cT2R2 and cT2R7, which were identified using genome information and cell-based assays. Previously, we have shown that cT2R1 is a functional bitter taste receptor through both cell-based assays and behavioral tests. In this study, therefore, we focused on the sensitivities of the other two bitter receptors, cT2R2 and cT2R7, by using their agonists in behavioral tests...
November 17, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865772/kissing-bugs-can-generalize-and-discriminate-between-different-bitter-compounds
#9
Yamila Asparch, Gina Pontes, Santiago Masagué, Sebastian Minoli, Romina B Barrozo
Animals make use of contact chemoreception structures to examine the quality of potential food sources. During this evaluation they can detect nutritious compounds that promote feeding and recognize toxins that trigger evasive behaviors. Although animals can easily distinguish between stimuli of different gustatory qualities (bitter, salty, sweet, etc.), their ability to discriminate between compounds of the same quality may be limited. Numerous plants produce alkaloids, compounds that elicit aversive behaviors in phytophagous insects and almost uniformly evoke a bitter taste for man...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Physiology, Paris
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863958/the-expression-of-bitter-taste-receptors-in-mesenteric-cerebral-and-omental-arteries
#10
Jing-Guo Chen, Na-Na Ping, Dong Liang, Meng-Yi Li, Yan-Ni Mi, Sen Li, Lei Cao, Yan Cai, Yong-Xiao Cao
AIM: Bitter taste is sensed by the bitter taste receptor (TAS2R), which is mainly expressed in the tongue as well as in extra-oral organs, such as the gastrointestinal tract, respiratory tract, brain, heart and testis. This study aimed to investigate whether TAS2R is expressed in the mesenteric, cerebral and omental arteries. MAIN METHODS: The expression levels of TAS2R mRNA and protein were determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting, respectively...
November 15, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863601/clinical-efficacy-of-turmeric-use-in-gingivitis-a-comprehensive-review
#11
REVIEW
Karissa A Stoyell, Jennifer L Mappus, Mona A Gandhi
INTRODUCTION: Gingivitis affects an estimated 80% of the population, and is characterized as the world's most predominant inflammatory periodontal disease. Without intervention, gingivitis can advance to alveolar bone loss. Therefore, the primary goal in patients suffering with gingivitis is to control plaque buildup and soft tissue inflammation. Current guidelines consider chlorhexidine as the gold standard in the prevention and treatment of gingivitis. However, negative side effects of chlorhexidine, including oral mucosal erosion, discoloration of teeth, and bitter taste, provide an opportunity for alternative medications...
November 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860472/-cellular-and-molecular-mechanisms-of-action-of-bitter-compounds-recent-knowledge-and-perspective
#12
Milan Nagy, Pavel Mučaji
This overview paper describes in its introductory part bitter-tasting herbal drugs in the context of their traditional use in the loss of appetite and digestive disorders. Then, it mentions current knowledge on signals origin in bitter taste receptors leading to different, unexpected physiological processes. Newly observed biological effects of bitter tastants are correlated with modern trends of their complex study with an aim to develop new drugs primarily acting on bitter taste receptors.Key words: T2R bitter taste receptors GPCR bitters glucose homeostasis asthma ghrelin GLP-1 solitary chemosensory cells...
2016: Ceská a Slovenská Farmacie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852126/traditional-chinese-medicine-food-therapy-and-hypertension-control-a-narrative-review-of-chinese-literature
#13
Ping Zou
Despite the lack of English literature about Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) food therapy, there is abundant Chinese literature about the application of food therapy for hypertension control. This paper summarizes basic concepts of TCM, the principles of food therapy and its application for hypertension control according to Chinese literature. In TCM, food is conceptualized according to both nutritional and functional aspects, and can be used to treat illnesses. Four principles of TCM food therapy including light eating, balancing the "hot" and "cold" nature of food, the harmony of the five flavors of food, and consistency between dietary intake and different health conditions, can be used to facilitate hypertension control...
November 16, 2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846263/nicotine-induced-effects-on-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptors-nachrs-ca2-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-bdnf-in-stc-1-cells
#14
Jie Qian, Shobha K Mummalaneni, Reem M Alkahtani, Sunila Mahavadi, Karnam S Murthy, John R Grider, Vijay Lyall
In addition to the T2R bitter taste receptors, neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have recently been shown to be involved in the bitter taste transduction of nicotine, acetylcholine and ethanol. However, at present it is not clear if nAChRs are expressed in enteroendocrine cells other than beta cells of the pancreas and enterochromaffin cells, and if they play a role in the synthesis and release of neurohumoral peptides. Accordingly, we investigated the expression and functional role of nAChRs in enteroendocrine STC-1 cells...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846033/brush-cells-the-newly-identified-gatekeepers-of-the-urinary-tract
#15
Wolfgang Kummer, Klaus Deckmann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: A specialized epithelial cell with chemosensory properties of taste cells known from the mouth has been newly identified in the urethra and linked to pathogen recognition. We here describe its properties and its link to defence mechanisms, showing parallels to similar sentinel cells in the respiratory and gastrointestinal tract. RECENT FINDINGS: In the urethra, slender epithelial cells with apical microvilli ('brush cells') express bitter and umami taste receptors and the downstream signalling cascade known from oropharyngeal gustation, utilizing it to monitor for bacterial products and bacterial growth facilitating conditions...
November 14, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829482/microencapsulated-bitter-compounds-from-gentiana-lutea-reduce-daily-energy-intakes-in-humans
#16
Ilario Mennella, Vincenzo Fogliano, Rosalia Ferracane, Marco Arlorio, Franco Pattarino, Paola Vitaglione
Mounting evidence showed that bitter-tasting compounds modulate eating behaviour through bitter taste receptors in the gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed at evaluating the influence of microencapsulated bitter compounds on human appetite and energy intakes. A microencapsulated bitter ingredient (EBI) with a core of bitter Gentiana lutea root extract and a coating of ethylcellulose-stearate was developed and included in a vanilla microencapsulated bitter ingredient-enriched pudding (EBIP). The coating masked bitterness in the mouth, allowing the release of bitter secoiridoids in the gastrointestinal tract...
November 10, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829423/relationship-between-traditional-chinese-medicine-constitutional-types-with-chemotherapy-induced-nausea-and-vomiting-in-patients-with-breast-cancer-an-observational-study
#17
Yi Liu, Ting Pan, Wenjing Zou, Ye Sun, Yun Cai, Rui Wang, Pingping Han, Zhe Zhang, Qunying He, Feng Ye
BACKGROUND: The theory of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) constitution involves genetic characteristics, psychological factors, organ functions, and many other aspects. Studies have shown that TCM constitution is associated with HLA polymorphisms and has a genetic basis. A large number of Chinese studies have suggested that the clinical evolution of breast cancer may differ among patients with different TCM constitutions. In addition, patients with breast cancer and different TCM constitutions may have different degrees of myelosuppression after chemotherapy...
November 9, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819057/taste-receptors-regulators-of-sinonasal-innate-immunity
#18
Ryan M Carey, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
Taste receptors in the oral cavity guide our preferences for foods, preventing toxic ingestions and encouraging proper nutrient consumption. More recently, expression of taste receptors has been demonstrated in other locations throughout the body, including the airway, gastrointestinal tract, pancreas, and brain. The extent and specific roles of "extraoral" taste receptors are largely unknown, but a growing body of evidence suggests that taste receptors in the airway serve a critical role in sensing bacteria and regulating innate immunity...
August 2016: Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816105/stevia-glycosides-chemical-and-enzymatic-modifications-of-their-carbohydrate-moieties-to-improve-the-sweet-tasting-quality
#19
Gerrit J Gerwig, Evelien M Te Poele, Lubbert Dijkhuizen, Johannis P Kamerling
Stevia glycosides, extracted from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, display an amazing high degree of sweetness. As processed plant products, they are considered as excellent bio-alternatives for sucrose and artificial sweeteners. Being noncaloric and having beneficial properties for human health, they are the subject of an increasing number of studies for applications in food and pharmacy. However, one of the main obstacles for the successful commercialization of Stevia sweeteners, especially in food, is their slight bitter aftertaste and astringency...
2016: Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805431/sensation-of-smell-and-taste-during-intravenous-injection-of-iodinated-contrast-media-in-ct-examinations
#20
Naoto Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro Fukushima, Aiko Yamaguchi, Naoki Nagasawa, Ayako Taketomi-Takahashi, Takayuki Suto, Yoshito Tsushima
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence and types of sensation of smell and taste during intravenous injection of five kinds of contrast media (CM) in computed tomography (CT) examinations. METHODS: 735 patients who underwent contrast enhanced (CE)-CT between 14 March 2016 and 5 April 2016 were enrolled. Medical staff asked patients whether they felt heat sensation and sensation of smell and taste during intravenous injection of CM (one of the following: Iopromide, Iomeprol, Iopamidol, Iohexol and Ioversol) after their CE-CT...
November 2, 2016: British Journal of Radiology
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