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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231139/evaluation-of-the-bitterness-masking-effect-of-powdered-roasted-soybeans
#1
Yoshimasa Makita, Tomoko Ishida, Noriko Kobayashi, Mai Fujio, Kyoko Fujimoto, Rina Moritomo, Jun-Ichi Fujita, Shin-Ichi Fujiwara
The masking of bitterness is considered important because many pharmaceutical compounds have a bitter taste. The bitterness-masking effect of powdered roasted soybeans (PRS) was investigated using a bitter taste sensor. PRS was revealed to significantly suppress the bitterness of quinine hydrochloride and denatonium benzoate. Furthermore, the bitterness-masking mechanism of PRS extracts was evaluated using dynamic light scattering. These results showed that the extracted suspension consisted of particles that were several hundreds of nanometers in size...
June 18, 2016: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231047/original-research-paper-characterization-and-taste-masking-evaluation-of-microparticles-with-cetirizine-dihydrochloride-and-methacrylate-based-copolymer-obtained-by-spray-drying
#2
Aleksandra Amelian, Marta Szekalska, Patrycja Ciosek, Anna Basa, Katarzyna Winnicka
Taste of a pharmaceutical formulation is an important parameter for the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy. Cetirizine dihydrochloride (CET) is a second-generation antihistamine that is commonly administered in allergy treatment. CET is characterized by extremely bitter taste and it is a great challenge to successfully mask its taste; therefore the goal of this work was to formulate and characterize the microparticles obtained by the spray drying method with CET and poly(butyl methacrylate-co-(2-dimethylaminoethyl) methacrylate-co-methyl methacrylate 1:2:1 copolymer (Eudragit E PO) as a barrier coating...
March 1, 2017: Acta Pharmaceutica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218655/taste-receptors-mediate-sinonasal-immunity-and-respiratory-disease
#3
REVIEW
Jennifer E Douglas, Noam A Cohen
The bitter taste receptor T2R38 has been shown to play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), where the receptor functions to enhance upper respiratory innate immunity through a triad of beneficial immune responses. Individuals with a functional version of T2R38 are tasters for the bitter compound phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and exhibit an anti-microbial response in the upper airway to certain invading pathogens, while those individuals with a non-functional version of the receptor are PTC non-tasters and lack this beneficial response...
February 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214914/the-impact-of-bitter-taste-receptor-genetics-on-culturable-bacteria-in-chronic-rhinosinusitis
#4
D I Rom, J M Christensen, R Alvarado, R Sacks, R J Harvey
BACKGROUND: Extra-oral bitter taste receptors have been associated with innate bacterial defence mechanisms. Genetic variation in T2R38 functionality has been shown to be associated with susceptibility to upper respiratory tract infections and chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We sought to independently assess the influence of bitter taste receptor genotype on the presence of culturable bacteria in the sinuses. METHODOLOGY: A cross-sectional analysis of patients with CRS undergoing surgery was performed...
February 19, 2017: Rhinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213324/qing-hua-granule-induces-glp-1-secretion-via-bitter-taste-receptor-in-db-db-mice
#5
Junyan Li, Jie Xu, Ruifang Hou, Xin Jin, Jingyi Wang, Na Yang, Li Yang, Li Liu, Feng Tao, Hao Lu
Qing-Hua Granule (QHG), the modified formulation of a classical Chinese prescription named Gegen Qinlian Decoction, was clinically employed to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) through regulation of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). However, the potential mechanism is unknown. We investigate whether QHG induces GLP-1 secretion via activation of bitter taste receptor (TAS2R) pathway in the gastrointestinal tract of db/db mice. The db/db mice were intragastrically (i.g.) administered QHG (low/medium/high dose) once daily for 8 weeks...
February 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187302/a-kinetic-study-of-bitter-taste-receptor-sensing-using-immobilized-porcine-taste-bud-tissues
#6
Lihui Wei, Lixin Qiao, Guangchang Pang, Junbo Xie
At present, developing an efficient assay method for truly reflecting the real feelings of gustatory tissues is of great importance. In this study, a novel biosensor was fabricated to investigate the kinetic characteristics of the receptors in taste bud tissues sensing bitter substances for the first time. Porcine taste bud tissues were used as the sensing elements, and the sandwich-type sensing membrane was fixed onto a glassy carbon electrode for assembling the biosensor. With the developed sensor, the response currents induced by sucrose octaacetate, denatonium benzoate, and quercetin stimulating corresponding receptors were determined...
February 2, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181242/sensory-profile-and-consumer-acceptability-of-prebiotic-white-chocolate-with-sucrose-substitutes-and-the-addition-of-goji-berry-lycium-barbarum
#7
Janaína Madruga Morais Ferreira, Bruna Marcacini Azevedo, Valdecir Luccas, Helena Maria André Bolini
Functional food is a product containing nutrients that provide health benefits beyond basic nutrition. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the descriptive sensory profile and consumers' acceptance of functional (prebiotic) white chocolates with and without the addition of an antioxidant source (goji berry [GB]) and sucrose replacement. The descriptive sensory profile was determined by quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) with trained assessors (n = 12), and the acceptance test was performed with 120 consumers...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167233/taste-and-smell-gpcrs-in-the-lung-evidence-for-a-previously-unrecognized-widespread-chemosensory-system
#8
REVIEW
Steven S An, Stephen B Liggett
Taste and smell receptor expression has been traditionally limited to the tongue and nose. We have identified bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) and olfactory receptors (ORs) on human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells. TAS2Rs signal to PLCβ evoking an increase in [Ca(2+)]i causing membrane hyperpolarization and marked HASM relaxation ascertained by single cell, ex vivo, and in vivo methods. The presence of TAS2Rs in the lung was unexpected, as was the bronchodilatory function which has been shown to be due to signaling within specific microdomains of the cell...
February 4, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166631/the-cyclic-diarylheptanoid-asadanin-as-the-main-contributor-to-the-bitter-off-taste-in-hazelnuts-corylus-avellana-l
#9
Barbara Singldinger, Andreas Dunkel, Thomas Hofmann
Activity-guided fractionation and taste dilution analysis (TDA), followed by LC-MS/MS, LC-TOF-MS, and 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy, led to the identification of the cyclic diarylheptanoid asadanin exhibiting a human bitter recognition threshold of 13 μmol/kg, as the major inducer of the sporadic bitter off-taste of hazelnut kernels (Corylus avellana L.). Sensory analysis of hazelnut samples from two origins (Ordu/2013 and Akçakoca/2014) and from Cimiciato-infected hazelnut kernels, followed by LC-MS/MS quantitation of 1 and calculation of dose-over-threshold (DoT) factors, showed established evidence for the Cimiciato infection as the major inductor of asadanin biosynthesis in hazelnut kernels and, as a consequence, as the reason for bitter off-taste development...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164781/long-range-projection-neurons-in-the-taste-circuit-of-drosophila
#10
Heesoo Kim, Colleen Kirkhart, Kristin Scott
Taste compounds elicit innate feeding behaviors and act as rewards or punishments to entrain other cues. The neural pathways by which taste compounds influence innate and learned behaviors have not been resolved. Here, we identify three classes of taste projection neurons (TPNs) in Drosophila melanogaster distinguished by their morphology and taste selectivity. TPNs receive input from gustatory receptor neurons and respond selectively to sweet or bitter stimuli, demonstrating segregated processing of different taste modalities...
February 6, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164195/a-potential-sex-dimorphism-in-the-relationship-between-bitter-taste-and-alcohol-consumption
#11
Emma Louise Beckett, Konsta Duesing, Lyndell Boyd, Zoe Yates, Martin Veysey, Mark Lucock
BACKGROUND: Bitterness is an innate aversive taste important in detecting potentially toxic substances, including alcohol. However, bitter compounds exist in many foods and beverages, and can be desirable, such as in beer. TAS2R38 is a well-studied bitter taste receptor with common polymorphisms. Some have reported relationships between TAS2R38 genotypes, bitter taste phenotype and alcohol intake, however results have been mixed. These mixed results may be explained by the varying taste properties of different alcoholic beverages or a sex dimorphism in responses...
February 6, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154330/analgesic-effects-and-side-effects-of-ephedra-herb-extract-and-ephedrine-alkaloids-free-ephedra-herb-extract
#12
Yoshinori Kobayashi
 Ephedra Herb is classified "pungent, slightly bitter, and warm" in tastes and natures, and is used to provide warmth to the body, dispel coldness, remove dampness, and reduce pain. Similar herbs are "pungent and hot" chili peppers, "pungent and hot" evodia fruit," "pungent and warm" ginger, "pungent and hot" processed ginger, "pungent and hot" Zanthoxylum fruit, etc. These herbs are prescribed to provide heat to the outer or inner body. Some pungent components such as capsaicin, evodiamine, gingerol, and shogaol are known to be activators of transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1)...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154308/suppression-in-bitterness-intensity-of-bitter-basic-drug-by-chlorogenic-acid
#13
Sayuko Shiraishi, Tamami Haraguchi, Saki Nakamura, Honami Kojima, Ikuo Kawasaki, Miyako Yoshida, Takahiro Uchida
The purpose of the study was to evaluate suppression of the bitterness intensity of bitter basic drugs by chlorogenic acid (CGA) using the artificial taste sensor and human gustatory sensation testing and to investigate the mechanism underlying bitterness suppression using (1)H-NMR. Diphenhydramine hydrocholoride (DPH) was the bitter basic drug used in the study. Quinic acid (QNA) and caffeic acid (CFA) together form CGA. Although all three acids suppressed the bitterness intensity of DPH in a dose-dependent manner as determined by the taste sensor and in gustatory sensation tests, CFA was less effective than either CGA or QNA...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154306/taste-masking-effect-of-chlorogenic-acid-cga-on-bitter-drugs-evaluated-by-taste-sensor-and-surface-plasmon-resonance-on-the-basis-of-cga-drug-interactions
#14
Sayuko Shiraishi, Tamami Haraguchi, Saki Nakamura, Dahong Li, Honami Kojima, Miyako Yoshida, Takahiro Uchida
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the taste-masking effects of chlorogenic acid (CGA) on bitter drugs using taste sensor measurements and surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis of CGA-drug interactions. Six different bitter drugs were used: amlodipine besylate (AMD), diphenhydramine hydrochloride (DPH), donepezil hydrochloride (DNP), rebamipide (RBM), diclofenac sodium (DCF) and etodolac (ETD). Taste sensor outputs were significantly inhibited by the addition of CGA to all drugs. The inhibition ratio of the taste sensor output decreased in the following order DPH>DNP>AMD≈DCF≈RBM≈ETD...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154195/a-bitter-taste-of-the-sun-makes-egg-laying-flies-run
#15
Anupama Dahanukar, Chun Han
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148502/intragastric-infusion-of-denatonium-benzoate-attenuates-interdigestive-gastric-motility-and-hunger-scores-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#16
Eveline Deloose, Pieter Janssen, Maura Corsetti, Jessica Biesiekierski, Imke Masuy, Alessandra Rotondo, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Inge Depoortere, Jan Tack
BACKGROUND: Denatonium benzoate (DB) has been shown to influence ongoing ingestive behavior and gut peptide secretion. OBJECTIVE: We studied how the intragastric administration of DB affects interdigestive motility, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, hunger and satiety ratings, and food intake in healthy volunteers. DESIGN: Lingual bitter taste sensitivity was tested with the use of 6 concentrations of DB in 65 subjects. A placebo or 1 μmol DB/kg was given intragastrically to assess its effect on fasting gastrointestinal motility and hunger ratings, motilin and ghrelin plasma concentrations, satiety, and caloric intake...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145731/coupling-of-airway-smooth-muscle-tas2rs-to-intracellular-signaling-and-relaxation-is-via-g%C3%AE-i1-2-3
#17
Donghwa Kim, Jung A Woo, Ezekiel Geffken, Steven S An, Stephen B Liggett
Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are expressed on human airway smooth muscle (HASM) and evoke marked relaxation. Agonist interaction with TAS2Rs activates PLC and increases compartmentalized [Ca(2+)]i via IP3. In taste cells, the G-protein gustducin couples TAS2R to PLC, however we find very low levels of Gαgust mRNA or protein in HASM. We hypothesized that another G-protein in HASM transmits TAS2R function. TAS2R signaling to [Ca(2+)]i, ERK1/2, and physiologic relaxation was sensitive to pertussis toxin confirming a role for a member of the Gi-family...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140464/asians-facial-responsiveness-to-basic-tastes-by-automated-facial-expression-analysis-system
#18
Ruicong Zhi, Lianyu Cao, Gang Cao
Growing evidence shows that consumer choices in real life are mostly driven by unconscious mechanisms rather than conscious. The unconscious process could be measured by behavioral measurements. This study aims to apply automatic facial expression analysis technique for consumers' emotion representation, and explore the relationships between sensory perception and facial responses. Basic taste solutions (sourness, sweetness, bitterness, umami, and saltiness) with 6 levels plus water were used, which could cover most of the tastes found in food and drink...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140463/binding-of-caffeine-and-quinine-by-whey-protein-and-the-effect-on-bitterness
#19
Kelsey Tenney, John Hayes, Stephen Euston, Ryan Elias, John Coupland
Many drugs and phytochemicals are bitter, leading to noncompliance with prescriptions and avoidance of healthy foods and a need to suppress their taste. The goal of this study was to investigate the binding of bitterants (quinine and caffeine) by whey protein isolate (WPI) and the effect on perceived bitterness. Caffeine interacted minimally with WPI, while the proportion of unbound quinine decreased exponentially with protein concentration. Molecular modeling was used to show the energy of the quinine-Β-lactoglubulin interaction was an order of magnitude greater than the caffeine-Β-lactoglobulin interaction...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131837/acute-improvement-of-endothelial-functions-after-oral-ingestion-of-isohumulones-bitter-components-of-beer
#20
Junko Tomita, Seiichi Mochizuki, Sohachi Fujimoto, Naoki Kashihara, Takashi Akasaka, Mitsune Tanimoto, Kiyoshi Yoshida
Isohumulones, principal components of the bitter taste of beers, have antioxidant capacity. We studied i) the effects of oral ingestion of isomerized hop extract (IHE) on the endothelial functions in smokers as well as non-smokers and ii) the effects of IHE on cultured endothelial cells in high oxidative stress state. Twelve cigarette smokers and eleven non-smokers ingested IHE and placebo in a randomized crossover design. Flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD) was measured using ultrasonography. We also studied the effects of isohumulones on i) the cell viability under hypoxia and ii) the levels of angiotensin II (AT-II)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs)...
January 26, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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