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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222887/relationship-between-umami-taste-acuity-with-sweet-or-bitter-taste-acuity-and-food-selection-in-japanese-women-university-students
#1
Masaru Kubota, Chikako Toda, Ayako Nagai-Moriyama
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Although there are many studies on the umami receptor and its signaling pathway, literature on the effect of umami taste acuity on dietary choices in healthy subjects is limited. The current study aims to clarify the relationship between umami taste acuity with sweet or bitter taste acuity, food preference and intake. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: Forty-two healthy Japanese female university students were enrolled. The acuity for umami, sweet, and bitter tastes was evaluated using the filter-paper disc method...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218733/a-gene-driven-recovery-mechanism-drosophila-larvae-increase-feeding-activity-for-post-stress-weight-recovery
#2
Masasuke Ryuda, Miku Tabuchi, Hitoshi Matsumoto, Takashi Matsumura, Masanori Ochiai, Yoichi Hayakawa
Recovery from weight loss after stress is important for all organisms, although the recovery mechanisms are not fully understood. We are working to clarify these mechanisms. Here, we recorded enhanced feeding activity of Drosophila melanogaster larvae from 2 to 4 h after heat stress at 35°C for 1 h. During the post-stress period, expression levels of sweet taste gustatory receptor genes (Grs), Gr5a, Gr43a, Gr64a, and Gr64f, were elevated, whereas bitter taste Grs, Gr66a, and Gr33a, were decreased in expression and expression of a non-typical taste receptor Gr, Gr68a, was unchanged...
December 8, 2017: Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216297/skn-1a-pou2f3-functions-as-a-master-regulator-to-generate-trpm5-expressing-chemosensory-cells-in-mice
#3
Junpei Yamashita, Makoto Ohmoto, Tatsuya Yamaguchi, Ichiro Matsumoto, Junji Hirota
Transient receptor potential channel M5 (Trpm5)-expressing cells, such as sweet, umami, and bitter taste cells in the oropharyngeal epithelium, solitary chemosensory cells in the nasal respiratory epithelium, and tuft cells in the small intestine, that express taste-related genes function as chemosensory cells. Previous studies demonstrated that Skn-1a/Pou2f3, a POU homeodomain transcription factor is expressed in these Trpm5-expressing chemosensory cells, and is necessary for their generation. Trpm5-expressing cells have recently been found in trachea, auditory tube, urethra, thymus, pancreatic duct, stomach, and large intestine...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214200/data-on-the-sensory-evaluation-of-potatoes-solanum-tuberosum-from-different-areas-of-hokkaido-japan-performed-by-untrained-young-adults
#4
Hiroaki Sato, Ryosuke Koizumi, Yozo Nakazawa, Masao Yamazaki, Ryuichi Itoyama, Megumi Ichisawa, Junko Negishi, Rui Sakuma, Tadasu Furusho, Yoshimasa Sagane, Katsumi Takano
This data article describes a sensory evaluation of potatoes used in food processing from the Tokachi, Kamikawa, and Abashiri geographic areas of Hokkaido, Japan, performed by untrained young adults. We gathered sensory data on potatoes from the four cultivars 'Toyoshiro,' 'Kitahime,' 'Snowden,' and 'Poroshiri.' The sensory evaluation was performed on steamed potatoes from each cultivar; these potatoes were harvested from each of the three geographic areas. Table 1 provides the data from the evaluation of the five basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami), as well as the evaluation of the egumi taste, which is a Japanese term indicating a taste that is acrid, astringent, and slightly bitter...
December 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191065/physiological-responses-of-the-drosophila-labellum-to-amino-acids
#5
Joori Park, John R Carlson
We have systematically studied the physiological responses elicited by amino acids from the principal taste organ of the Drosophila head. Although the detection and coding of sugars and bitter compounds have been examined extensively in this organism, little attention has been paid to the physiology of amino acid taste. We find that one class of sensilla, the S sensilla, yield the strongest responses to amino acids, although these responses were much weaker than the most robust responses to sugar or bitter compounds...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188655/-taste-signal-transduction-and-the-role-of-taste-receptors-in-the-regulation-of-microbial-infection
#6
Lu Yangyu, Xi Ranhui, Zheng Xin, He Jinzhi, Xu Xin
Taste receptors guide individuals to consume nutrients while avoiding potentially noxious substances. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that taste receptors are also expressed beyond the taste buds, including brain, respiratory system, and digestive system, etc. These extragustatory taste receptors play important roles in microbial infection, nutrient uptake and host homeostasis. Mang extragustatory taste receptors have been proposed to sense microorganisms and regulate host innate defense. More importantly, polymorphisms of genes encoding taste receptor, particularly bitter taste receptor, are linked to different innate defensive responses...
October 1, 2017: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185232/impaired-taste-sensation-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-without-chronic-complications-a-case-control-study
#7
L De Carli, R Gambino, C Lubrano, R Rosato, D Bongiovanni, F Lanfranco, F Broglio, E Ghigo, S Bo
PURPOSE: Few and contradictory data suggest changes in taste perception in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), potentially altering food choices. We, therefore, analyzed taste recognition thresholds in T2DM patients with good metabolic control and free of conditions potentially impacting on taste, compared with age-, body mass index-, and sex-matched normoglycemic controls. METHODS: An ascending-concentration method was used, employing sucrose (sweet), sodium chloride (salty), citric acid (sour), and quinine hydrochloride (bitter), diluted in increasing concentration solutions...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178505/expression-levels-of-taste-related-genes-in-palate-and-tongue-tip-and-involvement-of-transient-receptor-potential-subfamily-m-member-5-trpm5-in-taste-sense-in-chickens
#8
Yuta Yoshida, Fuminori Kawabata, Yuko Kawabata, Shotaro Nishimura, Shoji Tabata
The elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the taste sense of chickens will contribute to improvements in poultry feeding, because the molecular mechanism of chickens' taste sense defines the feeding behavior of chickens. Here we focused on the gene expressions in two different oral tissues of chickens - the palate, which contains many taste buds, and the tongue tip, which contains few taste buds. Using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction method, we found that the molecular markers for taste buds of chickens, that is α-gustducin and vimentin, were expressed significantly highly in the palate compared to the tongue tip...
November 27, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29174862/clinical-implications-of-taste-thresholds-in-patients-with-odontogenic-maxillary-sinusitis
#9
T Tsuji, S Tanaka, Y Nishide, M Kogo, T Yamamoto
Patients with odontogenic maxillary sinusitis (OMS) often complain of reduced taste sensitivity as well as nasal obstruction. The filter paper disc method (the conventional gustatory test) was applied to nine patients who underwent sinus surgery to open the inferior nasal meatus and sinus drainage, on three different days: 1day prior to surgery, 7days postoperative, and 28days postoperative. The same test was applied to nine non-clinical participants with or without clipping the nose to interfere with smooth nasal airflow on two different days...
November 23, 2017: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168731/factors-influencing-the-phenotypic-characterization-of-the-oral-marker-prop
#10
REVIEW
Beverly J Tepper, Melania Melis, Yvonne Koelliker, Paolo Gasparini, Karen L Ahijevych, Iole Tomassini Barbarossa
In the last several decades, the genetic ability to taste the bitter compound, 6-n-propyltiouracil (PROP) has attracted considerable attention as a model for understanding individual differences in taste perception, and as an oral marker for food preferences and eating behavior that ultimately impacts nutritional status and health. However, some studies do not support this role. This review describes common factors that can influence the characterization of this phenotype including: (1) changes in taste sensitivity with increasing age; (2) gender differences in taste perception; and (3) effects of smoking and obesity...
November 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168616/lineage-specific-evolution-of-bitter-taste-receptor-genes-in-the-giant-and-red-pandas-implies-dietary-adaptation
#11
Lei Shan, Qi Wu, Le Wang, Lei Zhang, Fuwen Wei
Bitter taste receptor genes (TAS2Rs) mediate bitterness perception in mammals. It is believed that these genes evolved in response to species-specific diets. The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and red panda (Ailurus fulgens styani) in the order Carnivora are specialized herbivores with an almost exclusive bamboo diet (>90% bamboo). Because bamboo is full of bitter tasting compounds, we hypothesized that adaptive evolution have occurred at TAS2R genes in giant and red pandas throughout the course of their dietary shift...
November 23, 2017: Integrative Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163209/the-role-of-cholecystokinin-in-peripheral-taste-signaling-in-mice
#12
Ryusuke Yoshida, Misa Shin, Keiko Yasumatsu, Shingo Takai, Mayuko Inoue, Noriatsu Shigemura, Soichi Takiguchi, Seiji Nakamura, Yuzo Ninomiya
Cholecystokinin (CCK) is a gut hormone released from enteroendocrine cells. CCK functions as an anorexigenic factor by acting on CCK receptors expressed on the vagal afferent nerve and hypothalamus with a synergistic interaction between leptin. In the gut, tastants such as amino acids and bitter compounds stimulate CCK release from enteroendocrine cells via activation of taste transduction pathways. CCK is also expressed in taste buds, suggesting potential roles of CCK in taste signaling in the peripheral taste organ...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163195/members-of-bitter-taste-receptor-cluster-tas2r143-tas2r135-tas2r126-are-expressed-in-the-epithelium-of-murine-airways-and-other-non-gustatory-tissues
#13
Shuya Liu, Shun Lu, Rui Xu, Ann Atzberger, Stefan Günther, Nina Wettschureck, Stefan Offermanns
The mouse bitter taste receptors Tas2r143, Tas2r135, and Tas2r126 are encoded by genes that cluster on chromosome 6 and have been suggested to be expressed under common regulatory elements. Previous studies indicated that the Tas2r143/Tas2r135/Tas2r126 cluster is expressed in the heart, but other organs had not been systematically analyzed. In order to investigate the expression of this bitter taste receptor gene cluster in non-gustatory tissues, we generated a BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome) based transgenic mouse line, expressing CreERT2 under the control of the Tas2r143 promoter...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158720/propafenone-hcl-fast-dissolving-tablets-containing-subliming-agent-prepared-by-direct-compression-method
#14
Saleh Abd El Rasoul, Gamal A Shazly
Propafenone HCl (PPH), an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects. Thus, the purpose of this work is to develop orally fast dissolving tablets (OFDTs) containing PPH to provide a rapid drug dissolution and subsequently give rapid onset of action of PPH as an antiarrhythmic drug. Moreover, OFDTs of PPH reduce its side effects and improve its bioavailability. Propafenone HCl (PPH), an antiarrhythmic drug, has a bitter taste, short half-life, delayed drug dissolution and side effects...
November 2017: Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal: SPJ: the Official Publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142478/chronic-opioids-in-gastroparesis-relationship-with-gastrointestinal-symptoms-healthcare-utilization-and-employment
#15
Asad Jehangir, Henry P Parkman
AIM: To examine the relationship of chronic scheduled opioid use on symptoms, healthcare utilization and employment in gastroparesis (Gp) patients. METHODS: Patients referred to our tertiary care academic center from May 2016 to July 2017, with established diagnosis or symptoms suggestive of Gp filled out the Patient Assessment of Upper GI Symptoms, abdominal pain and demographics questionnaires, and underwent gastric emptying and blood tests. They were asked about taking pain medicines and the types, doses, and duration...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141534/characterization-methods-for-solid-lipid-nanoparticles-sln-and-nanostructured-lipid-carriers-nlc
#16
Velichka Andonova, Petya Peneva
BACKGROUND: Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and the next generation of nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) seem to be a very promising alternative to other colloidal carriers such as liposomes, microemulsions, and polymeric nanoparticles. These combine the advantages of the cited nanocarriers and can improve the dissolution rate in biological fluids, increase the drug absorption, improve the tissue distribution in the target organ, enhance the drug bioavailability and ensure controlled drug release...
November 14, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140491/validation-and-application-of-the-md-anderson-symptom-inventory-for-traditional-chinese-medicine-mdasi-tcm
#17
Zhandong Li, Qiuling Shi, Meng Liu, Liqun Jia, Bin He, Yufei Yang, Jie Liu, Hongsheng Lin, Huei-Kai Lin, Pingping Li, Xin Shelley Wang
Background: The MD Anderson Symptom Inventory (MDASI) is a brief, yet thorough, patient-reported outcomes measure for assessing the severity of common cancer-related symptoms and their interference with daily functioning. We report the development of an MDASI version tailored for use with Traditional Chinese Medicine in China (the MDASI-TCM). Methods: Chinese-speaking patients with mixed cancer types (n = 317) participated in the study. The development and validation process included four steps: 1) identify candidate TCM-specific items, with input from patients, oncologists, and TCM specialists; 2) eliminate candidate TCM items lacking relevance, based on patient report; 3) psychometrically examine the MDASI-TCM's validity and reliability in cancer patients receiving TCM-based care; and 4) cognitively debrief patients to assess the MDASI-TCM's relevance, understandability, and acceptability...
November 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute. Monographs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136162/differences-in-taste-perception-and-spicy-preference-a-thai-japanese-cross-cultural-study
#18
Dunyaporn Trachootham, Shizuko Sato-Kuriwada, Aroonwan Lam-Ubol, Chadamas Promkam, Nattida Chotechuang, Takashi Sasano, Noriaki Shoji
Taste perception is influenced by several factors. However, the relation between taste perception and food culture is unclear. This study compared taste thresholds between populations with different food culture, i.e. Thai and Japanese. A matched case-control study was conducted in 168 adults (84 for each; aged between 50-90 years). The age, sex, systemic disease, medication, smoking, xerostomia and oral hygiene of both groups were not different. Recognition thresholds of sweet, salty, sour, bitter and umami were measured using filter paper disc (FPD)...
November 9, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133786/heterogeneity-in-the-drosophila-gustatory-receptor-complexes-that-detect-aversive-compounds
#19
Ha Yeon Sung, Yong Taek Jeong, Ji Yeon Lim, Hyeyon Kim, Soo Min Oh, Sun Wook Hwang, Jae Young Kwon, Seok Jun Moon
Animals must detect aversive compounds to survive. Bitter taste neurons express heterogeneous combinations of bitter receptors that diversify their response profiles, but this remains poorly understood. Here we describe groups of taste neurons in Drosophila that detect the same bitter compounds using unique combinations of gustatory receptors (GRs). These distinct complexes also confer responsiveness to non-overlapping sets of additional compounds. While either GR32a/GR59c/GR66a or GR22e/GR32a/GR66a heteromultimers are sufficient for lobeline, berberine, and denatonium detection, only GR22e/GR32a/GR66a responds to strychnine...
November 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130618/the-taste-of-toxicity-a-quantitative-analysis-of-bitter-and-toxic-molecules
#20
Ido Nissim, Ayana Dagan-Wiener, Masha Y Niv
The role of bitter taste-one of the few basic taste modalities-is commonly assumed to signal toxicity and alert animals against consuming harmful compounds. However, it is known that some toxic compounds are not bitter and that many bitter compounds have negligible toxicity while having important health benefits. Here we apply a quantitative analysis of the chemical space to shed light on the bitterness-toxicity relationship. Using the BitterDB dataset of bitter molecules, The BitterPredict prediction tool, and datasets of toxic compounds, we quantify the identity and similarity between bitter and toxic compounds...
November 11, 2017: IUBMB Life
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