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Bitter taste

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530574/sensory-profile-of-ethyl-%C3%AE-d-glucopyranoside-and-its-contribution-to-quality-of-sea-buckthorn-hippopha%C3%A3-rhamnoides-l
#1
Xueying Ma, Oskar Laaksonen, Jari Heinonen, Tuomo Sainio, Heikki Kallio, Baoru Yang
The contribution of ethyl β-d-glucopyranoside (EG) to sensory profile of sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides ssp. rhamnoides) was studied. The content of natural existing EG varied between 0.6 and 19.8g/L in the sea buckthorn studied. The taste threshold of pure EG was estimated in water solution as 1.1±1.3g/L, and the suprathreshold aqueous EG solution (5.0g/L) was perceived mainly as bitter. In aqueous sugar-acid mixtures, acids were the major contributors to sourness and astringency, whereas the added EG or sugars showed little impact on the overall sensory profile...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530573/identification-of-a-key-umami-active-fraction-in-modernized-korean-soy-sauce-and-the-impact-thereof-on-bitter-masking
#2
Yiseul Kim, Eun-Young Kim, Hee Jin Son, Jai-Jung Lee, Yong-Ho Choi, Mee-Ra Rhyu
Food protein hydrolysates created by natural fermentation have been used for centuries as food flavorings. The aim of this study was to define the key umami-active fraction of modernized Korean soy sauce (mJGN) and the impact thereof on bitter-masking of human sensory and bitter-taste receptor-expressing cells. We found strong correlations between taste profiles of mJGN and a contained fraction (F05). The latter contained compounds of less than 500Da, and elicits a distinct umami taste. Both free amino acids and Glu-enriched oligopeptides are suggested to be crucial in terms of the effects of F05 on taste...
October 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525714/characterization-of-bitter-compounds-via-modulation-of-proton-secretion-in-human-gastric-parietal-cells-in-culture
#3
Kathrin I Liszt, Joachim Hans, Jakob P Ley, Elke Köck, Veronika Somoza
Humans perceive bitterness via around 25 different bitter receptors. Therefore, the identification of antagonists remains a complex challenge. We previously demonstrated several bitter tasting compounds such as caffeine to induce acid secretion in the stomach and in a human gastric tumor cell line (HGT-1). Here, the results of a fluorescent-based in vitro assay using HGT-1 cells and a human sensory panel testing nine selected potential bitter modulators with or without the bitter compounds caffeine or theobromine, were compared...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521994/double-coated-enrofloxacin-microparticles-with-chitosan-and-alginate-preparation-characterization-and-taste-masking-effect-study
#4
Mengxi Liu, Daiping Yin, Hualin Fu, Fengying Deng, Guangneng Peng, Gang Shu, Zhixiang Yuan, Fei Shi, Juchun Lin, Ling Zhao, Lizi Yin, Guoqing Fan
Enrofloxacin (ENRO) is widely used as an antimicrobial drug for treatment of uncomplicated and complicated infections in veterinary medicine. Its bitter taste limits its clinical applications in veterinary. To mask the bitter taste of this drug, double-coated taste-masking microparticles of ENRO (DTME) were prepared through stearic acid solid dispersion and chitosan-alginate microparticle coating technologies. The taste-masking effect was evaluated by pig feeding experiment. Results showed that DTME exhibited a spherical-like shape (170490μm)...
August 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513558/from-cell-to-beak-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-characterization-of-chicken-bitter-taste-thresholds
#5
Shira Cheled-Shoval, Maik Behrens, Ayelet Korb, Antonella Di Pizio, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Zehava Uni, Masha Y Niv
Bitter taste elicits an aversive reaction, and is believed to protect against consuming poisons. Bitter molecules are detected by the Tas2r family of G-protein-coupled receptors, with a species-dependent number of subtypes. Chickens demonstrate bitter taste sensitivity despite having only three bitter taste receptors-ggTas2r1, ggTas2r2 and ggTas2r7. This minimalistic bitter taste system in chickens was used to determine relationships between in-vitro (measured in heterologous systems) and in-vivo (behavioral) detection thresholds...
May 17, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499932/dietary-customs-and-food-availability-shape-the-preferences-for-basic-tastes-a-cross-cultural-study-among-polish-tsimane-and-hadza-societies
#6
Agnieszka Sorokowska, Robert Pellegrino, Marina Butovskaya, Michalina Marczak, Agnieszka Niemczyk, Tomas Huanca, Piotr Sorokowski
Biological significance of food components suggests that preferences for basic tastes should be similar across cultures. On the other hand, cultural factors play an important role in diet and can consequently influence individual preference for food. To date, very few studies have compared basic tastes preferences among populations of very diverse environmental and cultural conditions, and research rather did not involve traditional populations for whom the biological significance of different food components might be the most pronounced...
May 9, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493294/commercial-mineral-enhanced-dairy-by-products-as-sodium-replacers-antioxidants-and-calcium-fortifiers-in-sausages
#7
Anne Maren Engeloug, Gu Yi, Bjørg Egelandsdal, Anna Haug, Berit Nordvi
Sausages are perceived as high in Na and with a too high Na:K ratio. Frankfurter type sausages are regarded as important contributors of sodium in the diet and thereby of health risks. Surplus products from the dairy industry are various mineral powders enriched in either potassium, calcium, or phosphate and include various amounts of lactose. Sausages were produced at 3 sodium levels (equivalent to 13, 15, and 17 g NaCl/kg sausage) using 4 different milk ingredients (a dried skimmed milk powder, a calcium enriched milk powder, a potassium enriched powder, and a lactose enriched powder)...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490641/fetal-alcohol-exposure-reduces-responsiveness-of-taste-nerves-and-trigeminal-chemosensory-neurons-to-ethanol-and-its-flavor-components
#8
John I Glendinning, Joyce Tang, Ana Paula Morales Allende, Bruce P Bryant, Lisa Youngentob, Steven L Youngentob
Fetal alcohol exposure (FAE) leads to increased intake of ethanol in adolescent rats and humans. We asked whether these behavioral changes may be mediated in part by changes in responsiveness of the peripheral taste and oral trigeminal systems. We exposed the experimental rats to ethanol in utero by administering ethanol to dams through a liquid diet; we exposed the control rats to an isocaloric and isonutritive liquid diet. To assess taste responsiveness, we recorded responses of the chorda tympani (CT) and glossopharyngeal (GL) nerves to lingual stimulation with ethanol, quinine, sucrose and NaCl...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487220/variant-in-a-common-odorant-binding-protein-gene-is-associated-with-bitter-sensitivity-in-people
#9
Iole Tomassini Barbarossa, M Hakan Ozdener, Melania, Latisha Love-Gregory, Makedonka Mitreva, Nada A Abumrad, M Yanina Pepino
Deeper understanding of signaling mechanisms underlying bitterness perception in people is essential for designing novel and effective bitter blockers, which could enhance nutrition and compliance with orally administered bitter-tasting drugs. Here we show that variability in a human odorant-binding protein gene, OBPIIa, associates with individual differences in bitterness perception of fat (oleic acid) and of a prototypical bitter stimulus, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), suggesting a novel olfactory role in the modulation of bitterness sensitivity...
May 6, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486601/the-face-of-distaste-a-preliminary-study
#10
Hanah A Chapman, Daniel H Lee, Joshua M Susskind, Marni S Bartlett, Adam K Anderson
Distaste is a primitive rejection impulse triggered by the ingestion of unpleasant tasting substances, many of which are toxic. Theoretical work has suggested that distaste may be the evolutionary precursor for both physical disgust, which serves to defend against disease and other threats to biological fitness, and moral disgust, which defends against threats to the social order. Consistent with this proposal, recent work has found that the facial expression of distaste may be similar to that of disgust. Specifically, raising of the upper lip has been reported in distaste, physical disgust, and moral disgust...
May 9, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486419/impact-of-a-microbial-cocktail-used-as-a-starter-culture-on-cocoa-fermentation-and-chocolate-flavor
#11
Igor Magalhães da Veiga Moreira, Leonardo de Figueiredo Vilela, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedroso Miguel, Cledir Santos, Nelson Lima, Rosane Freitas Schwan
Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the "witches' broom" disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization...
May 9, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28478689/micropellets-coated-with-kollicoat%C3%A2-smartseal-30d-for-taste-masking-in-liquid-oral-dosage-forms
#12
Andriy Dashevskiy, Valentyn Mohylyuk, Abid Riaz Ahmed, Karl Kolter, Felicitas Guth, Roland Bodmeier
The objective of this study was to develop delivery systems for taste masking based on multiparticulates coated with Kollicoat(®) Smartseal 30 D formulated as liquid oral suspensions. Coating of particles containing bitter drugs with Kollicoat(®) Smartseal reduced drug leaching into aqueous medium, especially when increasing pH, therefore can be used for the formulation of liquid dosage forms. Application of an intermediate layer of ion exchange resins between drug layer and coating can further decrease drug leaching into aqueous vehicle that is beneficial in terms of taste masking...
May 8, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467517/anti-cancer-stemness-and-anti-invasive-activity-of-bitter-taste-receptors-tas2r8-and-tas2r10-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells
#13
Yoona Seo, Yoo-Sun Kim, Kyung Eun Lee, Tai Hyun Park, Yuri Kim
Neuroblastoma (NB) originates from immature neuronal cells and currently has a poor clinical outcome. NB cells possess cancer stem cells (CSCs) characteristics that facilitate the initiation of a tumor, as well as its metastasis. Human bitter taste receptors, referred to as TAS2Rs, are one of five types of basic taste receptors and they belong to a family of G-protein coupled receptors. The recent finding that taste receptors are expressed in non-gustatory tissues suggest that they mediate additional functions distinct from taste perception...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460929/formation-of-taste-active-amino-acids-amino-acid-derivatives-and-peptides-in-food-fermentations-a-review
#14
REVIEW
Cindy J Zhao, Andreas Schieber, Michael G Gänzle
Fermented foods are valued for their rich and complex odour and taste. The metabolic activity of food-fermenting microorganisms determines food quality and generates odour and taste compounds. This communication reviews the formation of taste-active amino acids, amino acid derivatives and peptides in food fermentations. Pathways of the generation of taste compounds are presented for soy sauce, cheese, fermented meats, and bread. Proteolysis or autolysis during food fermentations generates taste-active amino acids and peptides; peptides derived from proteolysis particularly impart umami taste (e...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460914/food-protein-originating-peptides-as-tastants-physiological-technological-sensory-and-bioinformatic-approaches
#15
REVIEW
Anna Iwaniak, Piotr Minkiewicz, Małgorzata Darewicz, Monika Hrynkiewicz
Taste is one of the factors based on which the organism makes the selection of what to ingest. It also protects humans from ingesting toxic compounds and is one of the main attributes when thinking about food quality. Five basic taste sensations are recognized by humans: bitter, salty, sour, sweet, and umami. The taste of foods is affected by some molecules of some specific chemical nature. One of them are peptides derived from food proteins. Although they are not the major natural compounds originating from food sources that are responsible for the taste, they are in the area of scientific research due to the specific composition of amino acids which are well-known for their sensory properties...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455260/tas2r38-and-ca6-genetic-polymorphisms-frequency-of-bitter-food-intake-and-blood-biomarkers-among-elderly-woman
#16
Joanna Mikołajczyk-Stecyna, Anna M Malinowska, Agata Chmurzynska
OBJECTIVE: Taste sensitivity is one of the most important biological determinants of food choice. Three SNPs of the TAS2R38 gene (rs713598, rs1726866, and rs10246939) give rise to two common haplotypes: PAV and AVI. These haplotypes, as well as an SNP within the CA6 gene (rs2274333) that encodes carbonic anhydrase VI (CA6), correlate with bitterness perception. The extent of consumption of bitter food may influence some health outcomes. The aim of this study is thus to investigate the impact of the TAS2R38 and CA6 genetic polymorphisms on the choice of bitter food, BMI, blood lipoprotein, and glucose concentrations as well as systemic inflammation in elderly women...
April 25, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452704/nitric-oxide-production-is-stimulated-by-bitter-taste-receptors-ubiquitously-expressed-in-the-sinonasal-cavity
#17
Carol H Yan, Samuel Hahn, Derek McMahon, David Bonislawski, David W Kennedy, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, Peihua Jiang, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Bitter taste receptors (T2R) have recently been demonstrated to contribute to sinonasal innate immunity. One T2R, T2R38, regulates mucosal defense against gram-negative organisms through nitric oxide (NO) production, which enhances mucociliary clearance and directly kills bacteria. To determine whether additional T2Rs contribute to this innate defense, we evaluated two other sinonasal T2Rs (T2R4 and T2R16) for regulation of NO production and expression within the human sinonasal cavity...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450286/bitter-taste-receptor-agonists-alter-mitochondrial-function-and-induce-autophagy-in-airway-smooth-muscle-cells
#18
Shi Pan, Pawan Sharma, Sushrut D Shah, Deepak A Deshpande
Airway remodeling including increased airway smooth muscle (ASM) mass is a hallmark feature of asthma and COPD. We previously identified the expression of bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) on human ASM cells, and demonstrated that known TAS2R agonists could promote ASM relaxation and bronchodilation, and inhibit mitogen-induced ASM growth. In this study we explored cellular mechanisms mediating the anti-mitogenic effect of TAS2R agonists on human ASM cells. Pre-treatment of ASM cells with TAS2R agonists, chloroquine and quinine, resulted in inhibition of cell survival, which was largely reversed by bafilomycin A1, an autophagy inhibitor...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446037/caffeine-coffee-and-appetite-control-a-review
#19
Matthew M Schubert, Christopher Irwin, Rebekah F Seay, Holly E Clarke, Deanne Allegro, Ben Desbrow
Coffee and caffeine consumption has global popularity. However, evidence for the potential of these dietary constituents to influence energy intake, gut physiology, and appetite perceptions remains unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine the evidence regarding coffee and caffeine's influence on energy intake and appetite control. The literature was examined for studies that assessed the effects of caffeine and coffee on energy intake, gastric emptying, appetite-related hormones, and perceptual measures of appetite...
April 27, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433466/orosensory-responsiveness-and-alcohol-behaviour
#20
Margaret Thibodeau, Martha Bajec, Gary Pickering
Consumption of alcoholic beverages is widespread through much of the world, and significantly impacts human health and well-being. We sought to determine the contribution of orosensation ('taste') to several alcohol intake measures by examining general responsiveness to taste and somatosensory stimuli in a convenience sample of 435 adults recruited from six cohorts. Each cohort was divided into quantiles based on their responsiveness to sweet, sour, bitter, salty, umami, metallic, and astringent stimuli, and the resulting quantiles pooled for analysis (Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA)...
April 20, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
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