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Bitter taste

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821180/infant-acceptance-of-primary-tastes-and-fat-emulsion-developmental-changes-and-links-with-maternal-and-infant-characteristics
#1
Camille Schwartz, Claire Chabanet, Emilie Szleper, Valérie Feyen, Sylvie Issanchou, Sophie Nicklaus
Previous studies on taste acceptance have been conducted taste-by-taste and with a cross-sectional design. The aim of this study was to longitudinally evaluate the acceptance of sweet, salty, bitter, sour and umami solutions, and a fat emulsion comparatively in a birth cohort from 3 to 20 months old. The acceptance of each taste relative to water was defined using proportional variables that are based on ingestion (IR) or liking evaluated by the experimenter (LR). These data were analyzed with mixed models that accounted for age and subject effects (minimum 152 observations/age/taste; maximum 216)...
September 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811937/association-between-salivary-leptin-levels-and-taste-perception-in-children
#2
Lénia Rodrigues, Rosa Espanca, Ana Rodrigues Costa, Célia Miguel Antunes, Clarinda Pomar, Fernando Capela-Silva, Cristina Conceição Pinheiro, Francisco Amado, Elsa Lamy
The satiety inducing hormone leptin acts not only at central nervous system but also at peripheral level. Leptin receptors are found in several sense related organs, including the mouth. A role of leptin in sweet taste response has been suggested but, until now, studies have been based on in vitro experiments, or in assessing the levels of the hormone in circulation. The present study investigated whether the levels of leptin in saliva are related to taste perception in children and whether Body Mass Index (BMI) affects such relationship...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811549/diagnosing-peri-implant-disease-using-the-tongue-as-a-24-7-detector
#3
J Ritzer, T Lühmann, C Rode, M Pein-Hackelbusch, I Immohr, U Schedler, T Thiele, S Stübinger, B V Rechenberg, J Waser-Althaus, F Schlottig, M Merli, H Dawe, M Karpíšek, R Wyrwa, M Schnabelrauch, L Meinel
Our ability of screening broad communities for clinically asymptomatic diseases critically drives population health. Sensory chewing gums are presented targeting the tongue as 24/7 detector allowing diagnosis by "anyone, anywhere, anytime". The chewing gum contains peptide sensors consisting of a protease cleavable linker in between a bitter substance and a microparticle. Matrix metalloproteinases in the oral cavity, as upregulated in peri-implant disease, specifically target the protease cleavable linker while chewing the gum, thereby generating bitterness for detection by the tongue...
August 15, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811548/ligand-binding-modes-from-low-resolution-gpcr-models-and-mutagenesis-chicken-bitter-taste-receptor-as-a-test-case
#4
Antonella Di Pizio, Louisa-Marie Kruetzfeldt, Shira Cheled-Shoval, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Maik Behrens, Masha Y Niv
Bitter taste is one of the basic taste modalities, warning against consuming potential poisons. Bitter compounds activate members of the bitter taste receptor (Tas2r) subfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The number of functional Tas2rs is species-dependent. Chickens represent an intriguing minimalistic model, because they detect the bitter taste of structurally different molecules with merely three bitter taste receptor subtypes. We investigated the binding modes of several known agonists of a representative chicken bitter taste receptor, ggTas2r1...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805091/a-comparison-of-two-low-calorie-sweeteners-and-sugar-in-dark-chocolate-on-sensory-attributes-and-emotional-conceptualisations
#5
Sofie Lagast, Hans De Steur, Joachim J Schouteten, Xavier Gellynck
Reducing sugar consumption is an important aspect in the prevention of and fight against obesity. A broader understanding of consumers' perceptions of low-calorie sweeteners is needed. This study examined two low-calorie sweeteners, tagatose and stevia, in comparison to sugar in dark chocolate. A total of 219 consumers participated in this study and rated overall liking and sensory attributes. Participants also listed their emotional conceptualisations upon consumption and were assessed on emotional eating behaviour and health and taste attitudes...
August 14, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804439/association-between-the-number-of-fungiform-papillae-on-the-tip-of-the-tongue-and-sensory-taste-perception-in-children
#6
Hannah Jilani, Wohlfgang Ahrens, Kirsten Buchecker, Paola Russo, Antje Hebestreit
Background: To measure sensory taste perception in children with an accurate and reproducible method is challenging and objective measurement methods are scarce. Objective: Aim was to characterize sensory taste perception, by measuring the number of fungiform papillae (FP) and to investigate whether the number of FP is associated with sensitivity for bitter taste and with taste preferences for sweet, salty, fatty or umami in children between 8 and 11 years of age. Design: Number of FP was measured with a digital camera in 83 children in a German subsample of the IDEFICS study...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802932/anosmia-and-ageusia-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
Arjun Tarakad, Joseph Jankovic
Anosmia, the loss of sense of smell, is a common nonmotor feature of Parkinson's disease (PD). Ageusia, the loss of sense of taste, is additionally an underappreciated nonmotor feature of PD. The olfactory tract is involved early in PD as indicated by frequent occurrence of hyposmia or anosmia years or decades before motor symptoms and by autopsy studies showing early synuclein pathology in the olfactory tract and anterior olfactory nucleus even in the early stages of PD. Testing for olfaction consists of evaluation of olfactory thresholds, smell identification and discrimination, and olfactory memory...
2017: International Review of Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802795/atomic-layer-deposition-a-novel-method-for-the-ultrathin-coating-of-minitablets
#8
Jaana Hautala, Tommi Kääriäinen, Pekka Hoppu, Marianna Kemell, Jyrki Heinämäki, David Cameron, Steven George, Anne Mari Juppo
We introduce atomic layer deposition (ALD) as a novel method for the ultrathin coating (nanolayering) of minitablets. The effects of ALD coating on the tablet characteristics and taste masking were investigated and compared with the established coating method. Minitablets containing bitter tasting denatonium benzoate were coated by ALD using three different TiO2 nanolayer thicknesses (number of deposition cycles). The established coating of minitablets was performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed apparatus using four concentration levels of aqueous Eudragit(®) E coating polymer...
August 9, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801754/expression-profiling-of-tas2r-genes-reveals-a-complex-pattern-along-the-mouse-gi-tract-and-the-presence-of-tas2r131-in-a-subset-of-intestinal-paneth-cells
#9
Simone Prandi, Anja Voigt, Wolfgang Meyerhof, Maik Behrens
The chemical variability of the intestinal lumen requires the presence of molecular receptors detecting the various substances naturally occurring in the diet and as a result of the activity of the microbiota. Despite their early discovery, intestinal bitter taste receptors (Tas2r) have not yet been assigned an unambiguous physiological function. Recently, using a CRE-recombinant approach we showed that the Tas2r131 gene is expressed in a subset of mucin-producing goblet cells in the colon of mice. Moreover, we also demonstrated that the expression of the Tas2r131 locus is not restricted to this region...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798468/the-bitter-taste-receptor-tas2r16-achieves-high-specificity-and-accommodates-diverse-glycoside-ligands-by-using-a-two-faced-binding-pocket
#10
Anu Thomas, Chidananda Sulli, Edgar Davidson, Eli Berdougo, Morganne Phillips, Bridget A Puffer, Cheryl Paes, Benjamin J Doranz, Joseph B Rucker
Although bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) are important for human health, little is known of the determinants of ligand specificity. TAS2Rs such as TAS2R16 help define gustatory perception and dietary preferences that ultimately influence human health and disease. Each TAS2R must accommodate a broad diversity of chemical structures while simultaneously achieving high specificity so that diverse bitter toxins can be detected without all foods tasting bitter. However, how these G protein-coupled receptors achieve this balance is poorly understood...
August 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792937/rewiring-the-taste-system
#11
Hojoon Lee, Lindsey J Macpherson, Camilo A Parada, Charles S Zuker, Nicholas J P Ryba
In mammals, taste buds typically contain 50-100 tightly packed taste-receptor cells (TRCs), representing all five basic qualities: sweet, sour, bitter, salty and umami. Notably, mature taste cells have life spans of only 5-20 days and, consequently, are constantly replenished by differentiation of taste stem cells. Given the importance of establishing and maintaining appropriate connectivity between TRCs and their partner ganglion neurons (that is, ensuring that a labelled line from sweet TRCs connects to sweet neurons, bitter TRCs to bitter neurons, sour to sour, and so on), we examined how new connections are specified to retain fidelity of signal transmission...
August 9, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790322/genomic-signatures-of-adaptive-introgression-from-european-mouflon-into-domestic-sheep
#12
Mario Barbato, Frank Hailer, Pablo Orozco-terWengel, James Kijas, Paolo Mereu, Pierangela Cabras, Raffaele Mazza, Monica Pirastru, Michael W Bruford
Mouflon (Ovis aries musimon) became extinct from mainland Europe after the Neolithic, but remnant populations from the Mediterranean islands of Corsica and Sardinia have been used for reintroductions across Europe since the 19(th)-century. Mouflon x sheep hybrids are larger-bodied than mouflon, potentially showing increased male reproductive success, but little is known about genomic levels of admixture, or about the adaptive significance of introgression between resident mouflon and local sheep breeds. Here we analysed Ovine medium-density SNP array genotypes of 92 mouflon from six geographic regions, along with data from 330 individuals of 16 domestic sheep breeds...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789886/an-advanced-technique-using-an-electronic-taste-sensing-system-to-evaluate-the-bitterness-of-orally-disintegrating-films-and-the-evaluation-of-model-films
#13
Yoshiko Takeuchi, Rina Usui, Hidekazu Ikezaki, Kohei Tahara, Hirofumi Takeuchi
Taste detection systems using electronic sensors are needed in the field of pharmaceutical design. The aim of this study was to propose an advanced technique using a taste-sensing system to evaluate the bitterness of an orally disintegrating film (ODF) samples. In this system, a solid film sample is kept in the test medium with stirring, and the sensor output is recorded. Model films were prepared using a solution-casting method with a water-soluble polymer such as pullulan, HPMC, HPC or PVP as film formers, and donepezil hydrochloride and quinine hydrochloride as model bitter-tasting active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs)...
August 5, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776826/intragastric-infusion-of-the-bitter-tastant-quinine-suppresses-hormone-release-and-antral-motility-during-the-fasting-state-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#14
E Deloose, M Corsetti, L Van Oudenhove, I Depoortere, J Tack
BACKGROUND: Intragastric administration of the bitter tastant denatonium benzoate inhibits the increase of motilin plasma levels and antral contractility. While these findings suggest that gastrointestinal bitter taste receptors could be new targets to modulate gastrointestinal motility and hormone release, they need confirmation with other bitter receptor agonists. The primary aim was to evaluate the effect of intragastric administration of the bitter tastant quinine-hydrochloride (QHCl) on motilin and ghrelin plasma levels...
August 4, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764073/an-improved-process-for-the-production-of-highly-purified-recombinant-thaumatin-tagged-variants
#15
Robert D Healey, Helene Lebhar, Simon Hornung, Pall Thordarson, Christopher P Marquis
The sweetest tasting molecule known is the protein thaumatin, first isolated from the katemfe fruit, Thaumatococcus daniellii. Thaumatin is used in the food and beverage industry as a low-calorie sugar substitute. Thaumatin interacts with taste receptors in the oral cavity eliciting a persistent sweet taste and a bitter, liquorice flavor. Recombinant thaumatin was expressed in Pichia pastoris and through a co-expression strategy with a molecular chaperone, yields of one engineered thaumatin variant increased by greater than two-fold...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763971/impact-of-trehalose-on-the-activity-of-sodium-and-potassium-chloride-in-aqueous-solutions-why-trehalose-is-worth-its-salt
#16
Michal Poplinger, Ilan Shumilin, Daniel Harries
Trehalose is revered for its multiple unique impacts on solution properties, including the ability to modulate the salty and bitter tastes of sodium and potassium salts. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying trehalose's effect on taste perception are unknown. Here we focus on the physico-chemical effect of trehalose to alter the activity of monovalent salts in aqueous solution. Using a modified isopiestic methodology that relies on contemporary vapor pressure osmometry, we elucidate how trehalose modifies the thermodynamic chemical activity of sodium and potassium chloride, as well as the effect of the salts on the sugar's activity...
December 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763216/glucose-and-mannose-a-link-between-hydration-and-sweetness
#17
Natasha Hazel Rhys, Fabio Bruni, Silvia Imberti, Sylvia E McLain, Maria Antonietta Ricci
Glucose and mannose have a different degree of sweetness, implying different affinity to the sweet taste receptor. While the receptor structure is still undefined, there are several geometrical models for its binding mechanism. A detailed study of the hydration structure of sugars with known degree of sweetness is bound to provide information on the accuracy of such models. Our neutron dffraction study on the hydration of glucose and mannose show that both α- and β-glucose form strong hydrogen bonds with water, and that the steric hindrance of their first hydration shell matches the receptor geometrical model...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761982/occlusal-chewing-and-tasting-characteristics-associated-with-orofacial-dysfunctions-in-children-with-unilateral-cleft-lip-and-palate-a-case-control-study
#18
Ana Bheatriz Marangoni Montes, Thais Marchini de Oliveira, Maria Beatriz Duarte Gavião, Taís de Souza Barbosa
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the associations between orofacial dysfunctions with malocclusion, masticatory performance, and taste in children with and without unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: A patient-based, matched, case-control study was conducted involving 108 8- to 10-year-old children divided in UCLP and control groups. Orofacial dysfunctions were evaluated using the Nordic Orofacial Test-Screening (NOT-S)...
July 31, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757530/perceived-6-n-propylthiouracil-prop-bitterness-is-associated-with-dietary-sodium-intake-in-female-japanese-college-students
#19
Hiroko Inoue, Toshiko Kuwano, Kimiko Yamakawa-Kobayashi, Toshiharu Waguri, Teruyo Nakano, Yuichi Suzuki
Despite the negative health consequences of a high sodium consumption, humans consume well above the recommended levels. This study examines whether or not the dietary intake of sodium was affected by individual variation of the perceived bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP), and examines the relationship between the perceived bitterness of PROP and the preferred NaCl concentration of broth. Female students (20-22 y old) were recruited from the university community. Genotypes of A49P and I296V polymorphism of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor were determined for each subject...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science and Vitaminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750893/early-pediatric-formulation-development-with-new-chemical-entities-opportunities-of-e-tongue-besides-human-taste-assessment
#20
Laura Isabell Immohr, Angela Dischinger, Peter Kühl, Heidemarie Kletzl, Stefan Sturm, Andreas Günther, Miriam Pein-Hackelbusch
The palatability of a pediatric drug formulation is one of the key prerequisites for therapeutic success. Liquid formulations are often chosen for pediatric drug products, and they require special attention regarding their taste, as they have direct contact to the taste buds and a relatively long residence time in the oral cavity. For ethical reasons, the role of electronic tongues in the development of oral drug formulations with new chemical entities (NCEs) for pediatric use is growing, however, little is known about the strategies how this instrumental taste assessment can be performed...
July 24, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
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