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Bitter taste

Zhongming Ma, Akiyuki Taruno, Makoto Ohmoto, Masafumi Jyotaki, Jason C Lim, Hiroaki Miyazaki, Naomi Niisato, Yoshinori Marunaka, Robert J Lee, Henry Hoff, Riley Payne, Angelo Demuro, Ian Parker, Claire H Mitchell, Jorge Henao-Mejia, Jessica E Tanis, Ichiro Matsumoto, Michael G Tordoff, J Kevin Foskett
Binding of sweet, umami, and bitter tastants to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in apical membranes of type II taste bud cells (TBCs) triggers action potentials that activate a voltage-gated nonselective ion channel to release ATP to gustatory nerves mediating taste perception. Although calcium homeostasis modulator 1 (CALHM1) is necessary for ATP release, the molecular identification of the channel complex that provides the conductive ATP-release mechanism suitable for action potential-dependent neurotransmission remains to be determined...
April 13, 2018: Neuron
Antonella Di Pizio, Yaron Ben Shoshan-Galeczki, John E Hayes, Masha Y Niv
"Bitter" and "sweet" are frequently framed in opposition, both functionally and metaphorically, in regard to affective responses, emotion, and nutrition. This oppositional relationship is complicated by the fact that some molecules are simultaneously bitter and sweet. In some cases, a small chemical modification, or a chirality switch, flips the taste from sweet to bitter. Molecules humans describe as bitter are recognized by a 25 member subfamily of class A G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) known as TAS2Rs...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Pu Feng, Jinghua Chai, Huilan Yi, Kevin Redding, Robert F Margolskee, Liquan Huang, Hong Wang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a debilitating immune-related condition that affects over 1.4 million Americans. Recent studies indicate that taste receptor signaling is involved in much more than sensing food flavor, and taste receptors have been localized in a variety of extra-oral tissues. One of the newly revealed functions of taste receptors and downstream signaling proteins is modulation of immune responses to microbes and parasites. We previously found that components of the taste receptor signaling pathway are expressed in subsets of the intestinal epithelial cells...
April 17, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Haiyan Yu, Yan Zhang, Jie Zhao, Huaixiang Tian
To evaluate the taste characteristics of Chinese bayberry juice, four types of bayberry juice sourced from different origins and varieties were analysed using sensory evaluation, chromatography, spectroscopy analysis and an electronic tongue (E-tongue). Nine organic acids and three sugars were assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Total polyphenols were measured by spectrophotometry. The overall taste profile was collected using the E-tongue. The four types of bayberry juice differed in the sensory attributes of sour, sweet, bitter, and astringent...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Muhammet Zopun, Kathrin I Liszt, Verena Stoeger, Maik Behrens, Ulrike Redel, Jakob P Ley, Joachim Hans, Veronika Somoza
The non-caloric sweeteners (NCS) cyclamate (Cycl) and acesulfame K (AceK) are widely added to foods and beverages. Little is known about their impact on gastric acid secretion (GAS), which is stimulated by dietary protein and bitter-tasting compounds. Since Cycl and AceK have a bitter off-taste in addition to their sweet-taste, we hypothesized they modulate mechanisms of GAS in human gastric parietal cells (HGT-1). HGT-1 cells were exposed to sweet tastants (50 mM of glucose, D-threonine, Cycl or AceK), and analyzed for their intracellular pH index (IPX), as indicator of proton secretion by means of a pH-sensitive dye, and for mRNA-levels of GAS-associated genes by RT-qPCR...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Jana Pexová Kalinová, Naděžda Vrchotová, Jan Tříska
Tartary buckwheat achenes are rich in rutin. However, its utilisation as a food is low due to the bitter taste of the products because of the transformation of rutin to quercetin. The aim of this study was to determine the stability of rutin and selected flavonoids, which are influenced by the different sample preparations exposing the achenes to higher temperatures (60 °C, 100 °C, and 140 °C), and also to determine the specificity of the rutin degrading enzymes in Tartary buckwheat. The achenes were directly extracted with methanol pre-extracted with hexane, or lyophilised before extraction...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yong-Quan Xu, Ying-Na Zhang, Jian-Xin Chen, Fang Wang, Qi-Zhen Du, Jun-Feng Yin
Bitterness and astringency are two important quality attributes of green tea infusion, and catechins are the main contributor to the bitterness and astringency. The aim of this work was to quantitatively analyse the bitterness and astringency of green tea infusion according to the concentrations of catechins. The concentration-taste curves of catechins showed a pattern that fit the cubic functions, and their R2 values were higher than 0.956. The bitterness of green tea was highly correlated with the concentrations of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate and (-)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) (R2  = 0...
August 30, 2018: Food Chemistry
Shizuko Satoh-Kuriwada, Noriaki Shoji, Hiroyuki Miyake, Chiyo Watanabe, Takashi Sasano
The effects and mechanisms of tastes on labial minor salivary gland (LMSG) secretion were investigated in 59 healthy individuals. Stimulation with each of the five basic tastes (i.e., sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami) onto the tongue induced LMSG secretion in a dose-dependent manner. Umami and sour tastes evoked greater secretion than did the other tastes. A synergistic effect of umami on LMSG secretion was recognized: a much greater increase in secretion was observed by a mixed solution of monosodium glutamate and inosine 5'-monophosphate than by each separate stimulation...
2018: BioMed Research International
Barbara Singldinger, Andreas Dunkel, Dominic Bahmann, Claudia Bahmann, Daniel Kadow, Bernward Bisping, Thomas Hofmann
Activity-guided fractionation in combination with sensory analytics, LC-TOF-MS, and 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopy enabled the identification of the bitter tasting diarylheptanoids asadanin, giffonin P and the previously not reported (E)-7,9,10,13-tetrahydroxy-1,7-bis(2-hydroxyphenyl)hept-9-en-11-one and 4,12,16-trihydroxy-2-oxatricyclo[,7]-nonadeca-1(18),3,5,7(20),8,15,17-heptaen as well as the yet unknown astringent compounds 2-(3-hydroxy-2-oxoindolin-3-yl) acetic acid 3-O-6´-galactopyranosyl-2"-(2"oxoindolin-3"yl) acetate and 3-(O-β-D-glycosyl) dioxindole-3-acetic acid in Cimiciato-infected hazelnuts exhibiting a bitter off-taste...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Alan D Workman, Ivy W Maina, Steven G Brooks, Michael A Kohanski, Beverly J Cowart, Corrine Mansfield, David W Kennedy, James N Palmer, Nithin D Adappa, Danielle R Reed, Robert J Lee, Noam A Cohen
Background: Bitter (T2R) and sweet (T1R) taste receptors in the airway are important in innate immune defense, and variations in taste receptor functionality in one T2R (T2R38) correlate with disease status and disease severity in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Quinine is a bitter compound that is an agonist for several T2Rs also expressed on sinonasal cells, but not for T2R38. Because of this property, quinine may stimulate innate immune defense mechanisms in the airway, and functional differences in quinine perception may be reflective of disease status in CRS...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mayu Kasubuchi, Fumika Shii, Kana Tsuneto, Takayuki Yamagishi, Satomi Adegawa, Haruka Endo, Ryoichi Sato
The taste sensing system is crucial for food recognition in insects and other animals. It is commonly believed that insect gustatory receptors (Grs) expressed in gustatory organs are indispensable for host plant selection. Many behavioral studies have shown that mono- or oligo-phagous lepidopteran insects use the balance between feeding attractants and feeding deterrents in host plants and that these are sensed by taste organs for host plant recognition. However, the molecular mechanism underlying taste recognition, especially of feeding deterrents, remains to be elucidated...
April 7, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Carmen Barba, Noelle Beno, Elisabeth Guichard, Thierry Thomas-Danguin
Gas chromatography/olfactometry-associated taste (GC/O-AT) analysis combined with mass spectrometry allowed identification of odorant compounds associated with taste attributes (sweet, salty, bitter and sour) in a multi-fruit juice. Nine compounds were selected for their odor-associated sweetness enhancement in a multi-fruit juice odor context using Olfactoscan and for their odor-induced sweet taste enhancement in sucrose solution and sugar-reduced fruit juice through sensory tests. Sweetness of the fruit juice odor was significantly enhanced by methyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate and linalool; sweet perception was significantly enhanced in 7% sucrose solution by ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, furaneol and γ-decalactone, and in 32% sugar-reduced fruit juice by ethyl 2-methylbutanoate...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Yu Fu, Jing Liu, Erik T Hansen, Wender L P Bredie, René Lametsch
The aim of this study was to use different enzyme mixtures to investigate the influence of peptide characteristics and taste of protein hydrolysates from bovine muscle and porcine plasma. Minced beef and porcine plasma were hydrolysed using 10 food-grade enzymes, including Protease A, Protease P, ProteAX, Flavourzyme, Alcalase, Papain, Bromelain, Protamex, Neutrase and Sumizyme BNP-L. The relationship between degree of hydrolysis (DH), molecular weight (MW) distribution, enzyme specificity, and sensory characteristics of hydrolysates were investigated...
August 15, 2018: Food Chemistry
Alyssa J Bakke, Cody A Stubbs, Elliott H McDowell, Kameron J Moding, Susan L Johnson, John E Hayes
Only a quarter of adults and 7% of children consume recommended amounts of vegetables each day. Often vegetables are not initially palatable due to bitterness, which may lead children and adults to refuse to taste or eat them. The objective of this research was to determine if very small amounts of sugar or salt (common household ingredients) could lead to significant reductions in bitterness intensity and increased hedonic ratings of green vegetable purees. For Experiment 1, three different green vegetable purees (broccoli, spinach, and kale) were prepared with different levels of sugar (0%, 0...
March 29, 2018: Appetite
Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Sigfredo Fuentes, Damir D Torrico, Kate Howell, Frank R Dunshea
Sensory attributes of beer are directly linked to perceived foam-related parameters and beer color. The aim of this study was to develop an objective predictive model using machine learning modeling to assess the intensity levels of sensory descriptors in beer using the physical measurements of color and foam-related parameters. A robotic pourer (RoboBEER), was used to obtain 15 color and foam-related parameters from 22 different commercial beer samples. A sensory session using quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA® ) with trained panelists was conducted to assess the intensity of 10 beer descriptors...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Yuta Yoshida, Fuminori Kawabata, Yuko Kawabata, Shotaro Nishimura, Shoji Tabata
Umami taste is one of the five basic tastes (sweet, umami, bitter, sour, and salty), and is elicited by l-glutamate salts and 5'-ribonucleotides. In chickens, the elucidation of the umami taste sense is an important step in the production of new feedstuff for the animal industry. Although previous studies found that chickens show a preference for umami compounds in long-term behavioral tests, there are limitations to our understanding of the role of the umami taste sense in chicken oral tissues because the long-term tests partly reflected post-ingestive effects...
March 24, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Luana L Ferrão, Marcus Vinícius S Ferreira, Rodrigo N Cavalcanti, Ana Flávia A Carvalho, Tatiana C Pimentel, Hugo L A Silva, Ramon Silva, Erick A Esmerino, Roberto P C Neto, Maria Inês B Tavares, Mônica Q Freitas, Jaqueline C V Menezes, Lúcio M Cabral, Jeremias Moraes, Márcia C Silva, Simone P Mathias, Renata S L Raices, Gláucia M Pastore, Adriano G Cruz
The addition of xylooligosaccharide (XOS), sodium reduction and flavor enhancers (arginine and yeast extract) on the manufacture of requeijão cremoso processed cheese was investigated. The addition of XOS resulted in a denser and compact structure, with increased apparent viscosity, elasticity (G') and firmness (G*). The addition of XOS and yeast extract improved the rheological and physicochemical properties (decrease in viscosity and particle size and increase in melting rate) and sensory characteristics (improvement in salty and acid taste, greater homogeneity, and lower bitter taste)...
May 2018: Food Research International
Chen Yang, Zhengyan Hu, Meiling Lu, Pengliang Li, Junfeng Tan, Mei Chen, Haipeng Lv, Yin Zhu, Yue Zhang, Li Guo, Qunhua Peng, Weidong Dai, Zhi Lin
Three subtypes of white tea, Silver Needle (SN), White Peony (WP), and Shou Mei (SM), differ in their taste, aroma, bioactivity, and commercial value. Here, a metabolomics investigation on the chemical compositions combining taste equivalent-quantification and dose-over-threshold (DoT) determination on the taste qualities were applied to comprehensively characterize the white tea subtypes for the first time. Significant differences in the contents of catechins, dimeric catechins, amino acids, phenolic acids, flavonol/flavone glycosides, and aroma precursors were observed among these 3 white teas...
April 2018: Food Research International
Xianli Gao, Junke Zhang, Joe M Regenstein, Yiyun Yin, Cunshan Zhou
Taste and aroma compounds in Tianyou were determined using HPLC and GC-MS/GC-olfactometry. By comparison with light soy sauce (control), the contents of salt, sugar, total nitrogen and total acid in Tianyou were higher, while the contents of umami, sweet and bitter free amino acids, and the percentage of 1-5kDa peptides in Tianyou were lower. Thirty-one aroma-active compounds were identified in both Tianyou and the control (30 compounds in common). Aroma extraction dilution analysis indicated that most flavor dilution factors of aroma-active compounds were lower in Tianyou than the control...
April 2018: Food Research International
Luke Bell, Omobolanle O Oloyede, Stella Lignou, Carol Wagstaff, Lisa Methven
Brassicaceae plants are renowned for their taste, aroma and trigeminal characteristics; predominantly bitter taste, sulfurous aroma and pungency. Compounds responsible for these sensations include the glucosinolates (GSLs) and their hydrolysis products, particularly isothiocyanates (ITCs), but also sulfur-containing volatile compounds. This article reviews the relative importance of taste and flavour perceptions resulting from such compounds; collating evidence from papers where findings are based on sensory analytical correlations, and those that have extracted specific compounds prior to sensory evaluation...
March 26, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
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