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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034835/taste-masking-approaches-for-medicines
#1
Waleed Faisal, Fatma Farag, Ahmed A H Abdellatif, Abdelhamid Abbas
Undesirable taste is an important problem for patient compliance. Several oral pharmaceuticals and bulking agents have disagreeable and bitter-tasting components. The Bitter taste characteristics found in such systems have been eliminated or minimized by the development of numerous formulations with improved performance and acceptability especially in children and elderly patient. This review is mainly concerned with the bitter-masking techniques published in peer-reviewed journals and will shed the light on different methods of masking undesirable taste of the drugs, and their pharmaceutical applications...
October 13, 2017: Current Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034240/dark-chocolate-opportunity-for-an-alliance-between-medical-science-and-the-food-industry
#2
Ivan M Petyaev, Yuriy K Bashmakov
Dark chocolate (DC) was originally introduced in human nutrition as a medicinal product consumable in a liquid form. Century-long efforts of food industry transformed this hardly appealing product into a valuable modern culinary delight with clear predominance of confectionery brands of DC on the market. However, current epidemiological data as well as multiple experimental and clinical observations reveal that DC consumption may have a profound effect on cardiovascular, central nervous systems, hemostasis, and lipid metabolism...
2017: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019405/chemical-constituents-of-bryophytes-structures-and-biological-activity
#3
Yoshinori Asakawa, Agnieszka Ludwiczuk
Comparatively little attention has been paid to the bryophytes for use in the human diet or medicine in spite of the presence of 23 000 species globally. Several hundred new compounds have been isolated from the liverworts (Marchantiophyta), and more than 40 new carbon skeletons of terpenoids and aromatic compounds were found. Most of the liverworts studied elaborate characteristic odiferous, pungent, and bitter-tasting compounds, of which many show antimicrobial, antifungal, antiviral, allergic contact dermatitis, cytotoxic, insecticidal, anti-HIV, plant growth regulatory, neurotrophic, NO production and superoxide anion radical release inhibitory, muscle relaxing, antiobesity, piscicidal, and nematocidal activities...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Natural Products
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981826/differences-in-the-density-of-fungiform-papillae-and-composition-of-saliva-in-patients-with-taste-disorders-compared-to-healthy-controls
#4
Ute Walliczek-Dworschak, Franz Schöps, Gilles Feron, Helene Brignot, Antje Hähner, Thomas Hummel
This study investigated the relation of the fungiform taste papillae density and saliva composition with the taste perception of patients suffering from diagnosed taste disorders. For this purpose, 81 patients and 40 healthy subjects were included. Taste was measured by means of regional and whole mouth chemosensory tests, and electrogustometry. Olfaction was assessed using the Sniffin Sticks. Fungiform papillae were quantified using the "Denver Papillae Protocol for Objective Analysis of Fungiform Papillae"...
October 1, 2017: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981142/relating-sensory-profiles-of-canned-amaranth-amaranthus-cruentus-cleome-cleome-gynandra-cowpea-vigna-unguiculata-and-swiss-chard-beta-vulgaris-leaves-to-consumer-acceptance
#5
Isiguzoro O Onyeoziri, Marise Kinnear, Henriëtta L de Kock
BACKGROUND: The younger generation of South Africans generally do not consume traditional meals prepared using African green leafy vegetables, primarily because they are regarded as bitter, "poverty" foods. Canning of these vegetables could create, value-added products that can be sold in the commercial market. Descriptive sensory evaluation and consumer acceptance testing with young females were used to assess the potential of such products. RESULTS: The sensory attributes of amaranth, cleome and cowpea leaves canned in brine and in a cream sauce were described using 21 attributes grouped by aroma, taste, texture/mouthfeel and aftertaste...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980828/the-role-of-taste-in-alcohol-preference-consumption-and-risk-behavior
#6
Margaret Thibodeau, Gary J Pickering
1. Abstract: Alcohol consumption is widespread, and high levels of use are associated with increased risk of developing an alcohol use disorder. Thus, understanding the factors that influence alcohol intake is important for disease prevention and management. Additionally, elucidating the factors that associate with alcohol preference and intake in non-clinical populations allows for product development and optimisation opportunities for the alcoholic beverage industry. The literature on how taste (orosensation) influences alcohol behavior is critically appraised in this review...
October 5, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28979076/development-and-optimization-of-dispersible-tablet-of-bacopa-monnieri-with-improved-functionality-for-memory-enhancement
#7
Vaishali Tejas Thakkar, Amol Deshmukh, Lal Hingorani, Payal Juneja, Lalji Baldaniya, Asha Patel, Tosha Pandya, Mukesh Gohel
INTRODUCTION: The Bacopa monnieri is traditional Ayurvedic medicine, and reported for memory-enhancing effects. The Bacoside is poorly soluble, bitter in taste and responsible for the memory enhancement action. Memory enhancer is commonly prescribed for children or elder people. OBJECTIVE: Poor solubility, patient compliance and bitterness were a major driving force to develop taste masked β-cyclodextrin complex and dispersible tablets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The inclusion complex of Bacopa monnieri and β-cyclodextrin was prepared in different molar ratios of Bacopa monnieri by Co-precipitation method...
July 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977729/is-the-profile-of-fatty-acids-tocopherols-and-amino-acids-suitable-to-differentiate-pinus-armandii-suspicious-to-be-responsible-for-the-pine-nut-syndrome-pns-from-other-pinus-species
#8
Bertrand Matthäus, Peiwu Li, Fei Ma, Haiyan Zhou, Jun Jiang, Mehmet Musa Özcan
Pinus armandii is suspicious to be responsible for the Pine Nut Syndrome, a long lasting bitter and metallic taste after the consumption of pine nuts. To find chemical characteristic features for the differentiation of P. armandii from other Pinus species 41 seed samples of the genus Pinus from 22 plant species were investigated regarding the content and the composition of fatty acids, tocopherols and amino acids. The predominant fatty acids in the seed oils were linoleic acid (35.2 - 58.2 g/100 g), oleic acid (14...
October 4, 2017: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965785/bioactive-compounds-from-extra-virgin-olive-oils-correlation-between-phenolic-content-and-oxidative-stress-cell-protection
#9
G Presti, V Guarrasi, E Gulotta, F Provenzano, A Provenzano, S Giuliano, M Monfreda, M R Mangione, R Passantino, P L San Biagio, M A Costa, D Giacomazza
When compared with other edible vegetable oils, the extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) exhibits excellent nutritional properties due to the presence of biophenolic compounds. Although they constitute only a very small amount of the unsaponifiable fraction of EVOO, biophenols strongly contribute to the sensorial properties of this precious food conferring it, for example, the bitter or pungent taste. Furthermore, it has been found that biophenols possess beneficial effects against many human pathologies such as oxidative stress, inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, cancer and aging-related illness...
November 2017: Biophysical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964331/characterization-of-gpcrs-in-extracellular-vesicle-ev
#10
Manoj R Medapati, Anula Singh, Ranjit R Korupally, Dana Henderson, Thomas Klonisch, Sasidhar V Manda, Prashen Chelikani
Extracellular vesicle (EV) are tiny membranous vesicles usually <500nm in size that recently emerged as a new paradigm in human intercellular signaling. EVs have shown a promising role in development of diagnostic markers in many pathophysiological disorders. The presence of chemosensory and therapeutically relevant G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) on EV membranes is poorly characterized. Here, we compare different methods including ultracentrifugation and polymer-charge-based separation to isolate EVs from cell culture media and human saliva...
2017: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959829/-research-progress-on-pharmacological-action-and-clinical-application-of-stephania-tetrandrae-radix
#11
REVIEW
Rong Wang, Teng-Mao Ma, Fei Liu, Hui-Qin Gao
Stephania Tetrandrae Radix is one of the common traditional Chinese medicines, which has bitter and pungent taste as well as cold properties. It can subside edema, get rid of rheumatism and relieve pain. Therefore, it is mainly used for the treatment of rheumatism arthralgia, edema, dysuria, athlete's foot, swollen wet sores and other diseases in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). Stephania Tetrandrae Radix is mainly composed of dual-benzyl isoquinoline alkaloids, including tetrandrine, fangchinoline and so on...
February 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950151/processing-of-visual-food-cues-during-bitter-taste-perception-in-female-patients-with-binge-eating-symptoms-a-cross-modal-erp-study
#12
Anne Schienle, Wilfried Scharmüller, Daniela Schwab
OBJECTIVE: In healthy individuals, the perception of an intense bitter taste decreased the reward value of visual food cues, as reflected by the reduction of a specific event-related brain potential (ERP), frontal late positivity. The current cross-modal ERP study investigated responses of female patients with binge-eating symptoms (BES) to this type of visual-gustatory stimulation. METHODS: Women with BES (n=36) and female control participants (n=38) viewed food images after they rinsed their mouth with either bitter wormwood tea or water...
September 8, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28946432/effects-of-ultrasonic-pretreatments-on-quality-energy-consumption-and-sterilization-of-barley-grass-in-freeze-drying
#13
Xiaohuang Cao, Min Zhang, Arun S Mujumdar, Qifeng Zhong, Zhushang Wang
Barley grass is a plant resource for rehabilitation therapy. Its processing requires retaining nutrition well for rehabilitation cure of consumers. To meet the aim as well as low energy consumption and microbiological safety of products, ultrasonic treatments (UT) were applied to bathing materials at different power levels (10, 30, 45, 60W/L) for 10mins. After treatments, the bathed barley grass (100g) was freeze-dried under vacuum -0.09MPa with fixed power of 2W/g. Parameters of color, microbial colony, energy consumption, glass transition temperature, moisture content, water activity, taste substances, contents of flavonoid and chlorophyll were determined after drying...
January 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939897/identification-of-a-specific-agonist-of-human-tas2r14-from-radix-bupleuri-through-virtual-screening-functional-evaluation-and-binding-studies
#14
Yuxin Zhang, Xing Wang, Xi Li, Sha Peng, Shifeng Wang, Christopher Z Huang, Corine Z Huang, Qiao Zhang, Dai Li, Jun Jiang, Qin Ouyang, Yanling Zhang, Shiyou Li, Yanjiang Qiao
Bitter taste receptors (TAS2Rs) have attracted a great deal of interest because of their recently described bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to identify natural direct TAS2R14 agonists from Radix Bupleuri that can inhibit mast cell degranulation. A ligand-based virtual screening was conducted on a library of chemicals contained in compositions of Radix Bupleuri, and these analyses were followed by cell-based functional validation through a HEK293-TAS2R14-G16gust44 cell line and IgE-induced mast cell degranulation assays, respectively...
September 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935887/bitter-or-not-bitterpredict-a-tool-for-predicting-taste-from-chemical-structure
#15
Ayana Dagan-Wiener, Ido Nissim, Natalie Ben Abu, Gigliola Borgonovo, Angela Bassoli, Masha Y Niv
Bitter taste is an innately aversive taste modality that is considered to protect animals from consuming toxic compounds. Yet, bitterness is not always noxious and some bitter compounds have beneficial effects on health. Hundreds of bitter compounds were reported (and are accessible via the BitterDB http://bitterdb.agri.huji.ac.il/dbbitter.php ), but numerous additional bitter molecules are still unknown. The dramatic chemical diversity of bitterants makes bitterness prediction a difficult task. Here we present a machine learning classifier, BitterPredict, which predicts whether a compound is bitter or not, based on its chemical structure...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932739/agonist-binding-to-chemosensory-receptors-a-systematic-bioinformatics-analysis
#16
Fabrizio Fierro, Eda Suku, Mercedes Alfonso-Prieto, Alejandro Giorgetti, Sven Cichon, Paolo Carloni
Human G-protein coupled receptors (hGPCRs) constitute a large and highly pharmaceutically relevant membrane receptor superfamily. About half of the hGPCRs' family members are chemosensory receptors, involved in bitter taste and olfaction, along with a variety of other physiological processes. Hence these receptors constitute promising targets for pharmaceutical intervention. Molecular modeling has been so far the most important tool to get insights on agonist binding and receptor activation. Here we investigate both aspects by bioinformatics-based predictions across all bitter taste and odorant receptors for which site-directed mutagenesis data are available...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931063/plant-flavones-enhance-antimicrobial-activity-of-respiratory-epithelial-cell-secretions-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#17
Benjamin M Hariri, Derek B McMahon, Bei Chen, Nithin D Adappa, James N Palmer, David W Kennedy, Robert J Lee
Flavones are a class of natural plant secondary metabolites that have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial effects. Some flavones also activate the T2R14 bitter taste receptor, which is expressed in motile cilia of the sinonasal epithelium and activates innate immune nitric oxide (NO) production. Flavones may thus be potential therapeutics for respiratory infections. Our objective was to examine the anti-microbial effects of flavones on the common sinonasal pathogens Candida albicans, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, evaluating both planktonic and biofilm growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923290/use-of-adult-sensory-panel-to-study-individual-differences-in-the-palatability-of-a-pediatric-hiv-treatment-drug
#18
Julie A Mennella, Phoebe S Mathew, Elizabeth D Lowenthal
PURPOSE: The recommended first-line treatment for young children infected with HIV includes the liquid formulation of the co-formulated protease inhibitors lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra(®) [Abbott Laboratories, Chicago, Illinois]). Clinical reports indicate that some children readily accept the taste of Kaletra, whereas others strongly reject it, which can deter therapeutic adherence and outcomes. METHODS: As a proof-of-concept approach, a sensory panel of genotyped adults was used to document the range of individual differences in the taste and palatability (hedonics) of the liquid formulation of Kaletra and other taste stimuli, including common excipients...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919036/blends-of-non-caloric-sweeteners-saccharin-and-cyclamate-show-reduced-off-taste-due-to-tas2r-bitter-receptor-inhibition
#19
Maik Behrens, Kristina Blank, Wolfgang Meyerhof
Non-caloric sweeteners are widely used for the formulation of calorie-reduced beverages for health-conscious consumers. However, disadvantages such as undesired off-tastes limit the use of non-nutritive sweeteners. Therefore, the food industry is constantly searching for novel sweeteners and frequently resorts to using blends combining non-caloric sweeteners in a single formulation. The earliest blend allowing higher sweetness levels with reduced bitter off-taste combined saccharin with cyclamate. However, the mechanism by which sweetener blends become superior to single compounds remained obscure...
August 23, 2017: Cell Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915899/association-between-polymorphisms-of-tas2r16-and-susceptibility-to-colorectal-cancer
#20
Jonathan Barontini, Marco Antinucci, Sergio Tofanelli, Maurizio Cammalleri, Massimo Dal Monte, Federica Gemignani, Pavel Vodicka, Roberto Marangoni, Ludmila Vodickova, Juozas Kupcinskas, Veronika Vymetalkova, Asta Forsti, Federico Canzian, Angelika Stein, Victor Moreno, Nicola Mastrodonato, Francesca Tavano, Anna Panza, Roberto Barale, Stefano Landi, Daniele Campa
BACKGROUND: Genetics plays an important role in the susceptibility to sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). In the last 10 years genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified over 40 independent low penetrance polymorphic variants. However, these loci only explain around 1‑4% of CRC heritability, highlighting the dire need of identifying novel risk loci. In this study, we focused our attention on the genetic variability of the TAS2R16 gene, encoding for one of the bitter taste receptors that selectively binds to salicin, a natural antipyretic that resembles aspirin...
September 15, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
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