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nicotine dependence and psychological problems

Gilberto Gerra, Matteo Manfredini, Lorenzo Somaini, Giulia Milano, Roberto Ciccocioppo, Claudia Donnini
Studies evidenced the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and tobacco smoking in adulthood. An appropriate parenting style has been found to be associated with children's less frequent tobacco consumption. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyperactivity could represent the potential link between ACEs, mood disorders and smoking susceptibility. We studied a sample of 50 male smokers, affected by nicotine dependence and 50 controls who never smoked. Self-reported retrospective perception of neglect (Child Experience of Care and Abuse: CECA-Q questionnaire), age of smoking onset, number of cigarette/day, psychiatric symptoms (Symptoms Check List 90 scale: SCL 90) and basal level of ACTH and cortisol have been evaluated...
November 30, 2016: Psychiatry Research
Felipe Gil, Arthur Guerra de Andrade, João Maurício Castaldelli-Maia
The consumption of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs has become a concern in high-performance athletes. Professional athletes are more exposed to drugs than the general population. Although some drugs are unquestionably detrimental to performance, several studies have nevertheless shown evidence of increased consumption of these substances within this sub-population. This review aimed to elucidate alcohol, tobacco, cocaine, cannabis, and opioid use among high-performance athletes, discussing the prevalence of substance use, its impacts, and alternatives to treatment in this special population...
August 18, 2016: International Review of Psychiatry
Susanne Kuhnt, Elmar Brähler, Hermann Faller, Martin Härter, Monika Keller, Holger Schulz, Karl Wegscheider, Joachim Weis, Anna Boehncke, Bianca Hund, Katrin Reuter, Matthias Richard, Susanne Sehner, Hans-Ulrich Wittchen, Uwe Koch, Anja Mehnert
BACKGROUND: Psychological problems are common in cancer patients. For the purpose of planning psycho-oncological interventions and services tailored to the specific needs of different cancer patient populations, it is necessary to know to what extent psychological problems meet the criteria of mental disorders. The purpose of this study was to estimate the 12-month and lifetime prevalence rates of mental disorders in cancer patients. METHODS: A representative sample of patients with different tumour entities and tumour stages (n = 2,141) in outpatient, inpatient and rehabilitation settings underwent the standardized computer-assisted Composite International Diagnostic Interview for mental disorders adapted for cancer patients (CIDI-O)...
2016: Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics
Nida Liaquat, Abdul Majeed Jaffar, Muhammad Zeeshan Haroon, Muhammad Bilal Khan, Hammad Habib
BACKGROUND: According to World Health Organization (WHO), six million deaths are attributable to tobacco use globally, of which nearly 1.2 million occur in South-East Asia. Use of smokeless tobacco is highly prevalent in subcontinent and is home to over 250 million smokeless tobacco (ST) users. ST is a major public health problem. It cause localized oral lesions and poses risk for developing oral cancers owing to it containing more than 30 cancer causing substances, in addition to nicotine which is a highly addictive...
January 2016: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
Claudio Lucchiari, Marianna Masiero, Giulia Veronesi, Patrick Maisonneuve, Stefania Spina, Costantino Jemos, Emanuela Omodeo Salè, Gabriella Pravettoni
BACKGROUND: Smoking is a global public health problem. For this reason, experts have called smoking dependence a global epidemic. Over the past 5 years, sales of electronic cigarettes, or e-cigarettes, have been growing strongly in many countries. Yet there is only partial evidence that e-cigarettes are beneficial for smoking cessation. In particular, although it has been proven that nicotine replacement devices may help individuals stop smoking and tolerate withdrawal symptoms, e-cigarettes' power to increase the quitting success rate is still limited, ranging from 5% to 20% dependent on smokers' baseline conditions as shown by a recent Cochrane review...
2016: JMIR Research Protocols
Rowan P Ogeil, James G Phillips
BACKGROUND: Caffeine and nicotine are commonly used stimulants that enhance alertness and mood. Discontinuation of both stimulants is associated with withdrawal symptoms including sleep and mood disturbances, which may differ in males and females. The present study examines changes in sleep quality, daytime sleepiness and psychological distress associated with use and dependence on caffeine and nicotine. METHODS: An online survey comprising validated tools to assess sleep quality, excessive daytime sleepiness and psychological distress was completed by 166 participants (74 males, 96 females) with a mean age of 28 years...
August 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Nicki A Dowling, Sean Cowlishaw, Alun C Jackson, Stephanie S Merkouris, Kate L Francis, Darren R Christensen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to systematically review and meta-analyse the prevalence of co-morbid psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV Axis I disorders) among treatment-seeking problem gamblers. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted for peer-reviewed studies that provided prevalence estimates of Axis I psychiatric disorders in individuals seeking psychological or pharmacological treatment for problem gambling (including pathological gambling). Meta-analytic techniques were performed to estimate the weighted mean effect size and heterogeneity across studies...
June 2015: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Adrianna Mendrek
Drug use and drug addiction have been traditionally considered to be a male problem, however the gender gap has been decreasing over the past few decades. Thus, while the prevalence of alcohol, cannabis and nicotine dependence is still overall greater among men than among women, sex/gender differences in the abuse of stimulants and opiates seem to have disappeared. Moreover, women appear to be more prone to develop drug dependence, suffer more severe physical and psychological consequences of drug abuse, and have more difficulties quitting the habit...
2014: Santé Mentale Au Québec
Dawn W Foster, Nicholas P Allan, Michael J Zvolensky, Norman B Schmidt
OBJECTIVES: The present study evaluated the effects of cannabis motives on multi-substance use in an effort to examine the incremental validity of cannabis motives with respect to substance use outcomes. METHODS: Participants were 167 treatment-seeking smokers (41.92% female; Mage=28.74; SD=11.88) who reported smoking an average of 10 or more cigarettes daily for at least one year. RESULTS: Structural equation modeling was used to examine the association between cannabis motives and two dependent variables each for alcohol (drinking frequency and alcohol problems), cannabis (cannabis use frequency and cannabis problems), and tobacco (average cigarettes per day and nicotine dependence)...
January 1, 2015: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
María Dolores Braquehais, Pilar Lusilla, Miquel Jordi Bel, María Cecilia Navarro, Viviana Nasillo, Albert Díaz, Sergi Valero, Jaume Padrós, Eugeni Bruguera, Miquel Casas
Co-occurrence of mental disorders and substance use disorders (dual diagnosis) among doctors is a cause of serious concern due to its negative personal, professional, and social consequences. This work provides an overview of the prevalence of dual diagnosis among physicians, suggests a clinical etiological model to explain the development of dual diagnosis in doctors, and recommends some treatment strategies specifically for doctors. The most common presentation of dual diagnosis among doctors is the combination of alcohol use disorders and affective disorders...
2014: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
Samantha G Farris, Michael J Zvolensky, Jean C Beckham, Anka A Vujanovic, Norman B Schmidt
Cognitive-affective mechanisms related to the maintenance of smoking among trauma-exposed individuals are largely unknown. Cross-sectional data from trauma-exposed treatment-seeking smokers (n = 283) were utilized to test a series of multiple mediator models of trauma exposure and smoking, as mediated by the sequential effects of negative affect and affect-modulation smoking motives. The sequential effects of both mediators indirectly predicted the effect of greater trauma exposure types on nicotine dependence, a biochemical index of smoking, perceived barriers to smoking cessation, and greater withdrawal-related problems during past quit attempts...
2014: Journal of Addictive Diseases
Coumaravelou Saravanan, Imran Heidhy
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smokers have their own motivation and justification to smoke. For example, smoking reduces their stress or enhances their pleasure. This study aimed to identify the (a) prevalence of cigarette smokers among undergraduates in Malaysia, (b) gender differences in nicotine dependence among current smokers, (c) differences in psychological problems (depression, anxiety and stress) based on the status of smoking cigarettes (current, former and non-smokers) and (d) extent to which precipitating factors (tension reduction, addiction, automatism, handling, social interaction, pleasure, and stimulation) predict the smoking behavior among current smokers...
2014: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Julia D Buckner, Michael J Zvolensky, Emily R Jeffries, Norman B Schmidt
Although social anxiety is related to smoking and nicotine dependence, few researchers have sought to identify factors that contribute to these relations. The current study examined whether social anxiety was associated with cognitive vulnerability factors related to smoking: perceived barriers for quitting, cessation-related problems, negative-affect-reduction-outcome expectancies, and negative-affect-reduction motives. Further, we tested whether social anxiety was robustly related to these factors after controlling for cigarettes smoked per day, gender, alcohol-use frequency, lifetime cannabis-use status, panic attack frequency, anxiety sensitivity, and negative affectivity...
August 2014: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
Sudie E Back, Daniel F Gros, Jenna L McCauley, Julianne C Flanagan, Elizabeth Cox, Kelly S Barth, Kathleen T Brady
Prescription opioid (PO) dependence is a critical health problem. Although examination of drug cue reactivity paradigms has advanced the understanding of risk factors for relapse for a variety of substances (e.g., cocaine, alcohol, nicotine), no PO specific drug cue paradigm has been developed. The current study addressed this gap in the literature and evaluated the ability of a newly developed PO drug cue paradigm to elicit subjective, physiological, and neuroendocrine changes among PO-dependent participants (n = 20) as compared to controls (n = 17)...
August 2014: Addictive Behaviors
Kyoung Hag Lee, Lisa D Hines
This study explored the racial disparity of substance dependency and psychological health among White, African American, and Hispanic Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) recipients as well as the relationship between substance dependency and psychological health. It analyzed 1,286 TANF recipients from the 2006 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data. Analysis of variance indicated that Whites were experiencing more nicotine and alcohol dependency and psychological distress than others, but African Americans and Hispanics were experiencing more cocaine dependency than Whites...
2014: Social Work in Public Health
Samantha G Farris, Michael J Zvolensky, Janice A Blalock, Norman B Schmidt
INTRODUCTION: Empirical work has documented a robust and consistent relation between panic attacks and smoking behavior. Theoretical models posit smokers with panic attacks may rely on smoking to help them manage chronically elevated negative affect due to uncomfortable bodily states, which may explain higher levels of nicotine dependence and quit problems. METHODS: The current study examined the effects of panic attack history on nicotine dependence, perceived barriers for quitting, smoking inflexibility when emotionally distressed, and expired carbon monoxide among 461 treatment-seeking smokers...
May 2014: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Isabelle Varescon, Shirley Leignel, Caroline Gérard, Frédérique Aubourg, Michel Detilleux
The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale...
December 2013: Psychological Reports
Jon E Grant, Brian L Odlaug, Samuel R Chamberlain, Marc N Potenza, Liana R N Schreiber, Christopher B Donahue, Suck Won Kim
OBJECTIVE: Pathological gambling is associated with elevated proportions of nicotine dependence, and tobacco smoking in pathological gamblers has been associated with increased problem-gambling severity. This study examined the addition of N-acetylcysteine to imaginal desensitization in adults with co-occurring nicotine dependence and pathological gambling. METHOD: Twenty-eight individuals with co-occurring DSM-IV nicotine dependence and pathological gambling who were receiving behavioral therapy were recruited from December 2009 to February 2012 and randomized to augmentation with N-acetylcysteine or placebo in an 12-week, double-blind trial...
January 2014: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Nancy K Mello, Peter A Fivel, Stephen J Kohut, F Ivy Carroll
Nicotine dependence and cocaine abuse are major public health problems, and most cocaine abusers also smoke cigarettes. An ideal treatment medication would reduce both cigarette smoking and cocaine abuse. Varenicline is a clinically available, partial agonist at α4β2* and α6β2* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) and a full agonist at α7 nAChRs. Varenicline facilitates smoking cessation in clinical studies and reduced nicotine self-administration, and substituted for the nicotine-discriminative stimulus in preclinical studies...
April 2014: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Katrin Skala, Lukas Reichl, Wilfried Ilias, Rudolf Likar, Gabriele Grogl-Aringer, Christina Wallner, Golda Schlaff, Peter Herrmann, Otto Lesch, Henriette Walter
BACKGROUND: The use of opioid analgesics in the treatment of chronic pain conditions has long been controversial. They have been reported to be relatively safe when prescribed with caution, but a brief and valid instrument to estimate a person's risk of addiction is still missing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate a self-rating questionnaire allowing an estimation of a person's risk of addiction to opioid analgesics. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review...
November 2013: Pain Physician
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