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amphetamine versus alcohol

Xavier Castells, Ruth Cunill, Clara Pérez-Mañá, Xavier Vidal, Dolors Capellà
BACKGROUND: Cocaine dependence is a severe disorder for which no medication has been approved. Like opioids for heroin dependence, replacement therapy with psychostimulants could be an effective therapy for treatment. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of psychostimulants for cocaine abuse and dependence. Specific outcomes include sustained cocaine abstinence and retention in treatment. We also studied the influence of type of drug and comorbid disorders on psychostimulant efficacy...
September 27, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Charles H Bombardier, Trynke Hoekstra, Sureyya Dikmen, Jesse R Fann
Major depression is prevalent after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and associated with poor outcomes. Little is known about the course of depression after TBI. Participants were 559 consecutively admitted patients with mild to severe TBI recruited from inpatient units at Harborview Medical Center, a Level I trauma center in Seattle, WA. Participants were assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression measure at months 1-6, 8, 10, and 12 post-injury. We used linear latent class growth mixture modeling (LCGMM) of PHQ-9 total scores to identify homogeneous subgroups with distinct longitudinal trajectories...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Anna M Hogendorf, Wojciech Fendler, Janusz Sieroslawski, Katarzyna Bobeff, Krzysztof Wegrewicz, Kamila I Malewska, Maciej W Przudzik, Malgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko, Beata Sztangierska, Malgorzata Mysliwiec, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Wojciech Mlynarski
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of illicit drug use in a group of Polish adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1) in comparison with a national cohort of their healthy peers. METHODS: Two hundred and nine adolescents with DM1, aged 15-18 years, were studied in 2013 with an anonymous questionnaire prepared for the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). The control group was a representative sample of 12114 students at the same age who took part in ESPAD in 2011...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
M Ćwiklińska, G Teresiński, G Buszewicz
INTRODUCTION: The available legal regulations in Poland do not define the concentration thresholds enabling to differentiate between the states of "after-use" versus "under the influence" of a drug, as it is in the case of alcohol. The aim of the study was to analyse jurisdiction in cases regarding the evaluation of the effects of intoxicating agents and ethanol-like intoxicants and to identify ambiguities and gaps in the applicable regulations leading to problems in preparing expert opinions...
2015: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
Nicolas Simon, Benjamin Rolland, Laurent Karila
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopment disorder occurring during childhood. However, ADHD persists into adulthood in 45.7% of cases. The global prevalence of adult ADHD is estimated to 5.3%, with no difference between Europe and North America. ADHD is often comorbid with substance use disorder (SUD), with Odds Ratio ranges from 1.5 to 7.9, depending on the substance and the dependence level. Conversely, the prevalence of ADHD among patients with SUD is 10.8%, versus 3.8% for patients without SUD...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Asbjørg S Christophersen, Hallvard Gjerde
OBJECTIVES: To examine the prevalence of alcohol and drugs in blood samples collected from car and van drivers killed in traffic accidents in Norway during the time period from 2001 to 2010. METHODS: Blood samples (n = 676, 63% of all killed drivers) were analyzed for alcohol, psychoactive medications, and illicit drugs. The cutoff limits for positive results were set according to the new legislative limits under the Norwegian Road Traffic Act. The results were assessed in relation to sex and age, time of day and day of week, and single- versus multiple-vehicle and all investigated vehicle accidents...
2014: Traffic Injury Prevention
B C Ginsburg, R J Lamb
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Drugs that more potently or effectively reduce ethanol-maintained behaviour versus an alternative are considered selective and are considered promising pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. Such results are often obtained using separate groups or multiple schedules where ethanol and the alternative are available alone or sequentially. Recently, we observed that when ethanol and food were available sequentially under a multiple schedule, fluvoxamine and varenicline were selective; yet this selectivity disappeared when ethanol and food were concurrently available...
July 2014: British Journal of Pharmacology
Rasmon Kalayasiri, Viroj Verachai, Joel Gelernter, Apiwat Mutirangura, Robert T Malison
AIMS: To explore the clinical features of methamphetamine-induced paranoia (MIP) and associations between MIP and a genetic polymorphism in dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH-1021C→T). DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of clinical presentation and genetic association by χ(2) test and logistic regression analysis. SETTING: A Thai substance abuse treatment center. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 727 methamphetamine-dependent (MD) individuals...
June 2014: Addiction
Lisa C Obermeit, Jordan E Cattie, Khalima A Bolden, Maria J Marquine, Erin E Morgan, Donald R Franklin, J Hampton Atkinson, Igor Grant, Steven Paul Woods
AIMS: Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is widely regarded as a common comorbidity of methamphetamine (MA) dependence, but the frequency, persistence, and real-world impact of ADHD among MA users are not known. METHODS: Four hundred individuals with MA use disorders within 18months of evaluation and 355 non-MA using comparison subjects completed a comprehensive neuropsychiatric research battery, including self-report measures of everyday functioning...
December 2013: Addictive Behaviors
Jennifer F Buckman, Samantha G Farris, David A Yusko
BACKGROUND: Reports of illicit substance use by college athletes have become commonplace in recent years, yet comparatively little effort has been put forth by the research community to understand these behaviors. METHODS: Data for this study came from a large, national dataset collected by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). This study compared substance use behaviors of male undergraduate student athletes who reported using ergogenic performance enhancing substances (e...
July 1, 2013: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Robert J Tait, Amanda George, Sarah Olesen
AIMS: Animal models show that a single dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamhetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') can result in long-term disruption of sleep. We evaluated the relationship between ecstasy consumption and the use of sleep medications in humans after controlling for key factors. DESIGN: The Personality and Total Health Through Life project uses a longitudinal cohort with follow-up every 4 years. This study reports data from waves 2 and 3. SETTING: Participants were recruited from the electoral roll in the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan, New South Wales, Australia...
September 2013: Addiction
Jazmin Camchong, Victor Andrew Stenger, George Fein
BACKGROUND: We previously reported that when long-term abstinent alcoholics (LTAA; with no drug comorbidity) are compared to controls, they show increased resting state synchrony (RSS) in the executive control network and reduced RSS in the appetitive drive network suggestive of compensatory mechanisms that may facilitate abstinence. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether long-term abstinent alcoholics with comorbid stimulants dependence (LTAAS) show similar RSS mechanisms...
July 1, 2013: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Hildi J Hagedorn, Siamak Noorbaloochi, Alisha Baines Simon, Ann Bangerter, Maxine L Stitzer, Cheryl B Stetler, Daniel Kivlahan
This study investigates the addition of a contingency management (CM) intervention to Veterans Health Administration substance use disorders treatment on during- and post-treatment outcomes for Veterans diagnosed with alcohol dependence only (n=191) or stimulant dependence (n=139). Participants were randomly assigned to 8weeks of usual care or usual care plus CM. Follow-up assessments occurred at 2, 6 and 12months. In the alcohol dependent subgroup, CM participants submitted significantly more negative samples (13 versus 11 samples, Cohen's d=0...
July 2013: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
C Lejeune, L Genest, E Miossec, A-M Simonpoli, L Simmat-Durand
OBJECTIVES: To analyze neonatal morbidity in a single-center retrospective cohort (1999-2008) according to the mothers' polydrug use and to the social and demographic context. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred and seventy newborns were identified whose mothers used two or more substances (such as heroin, cocaine, opioid maintenance treatment, tobacco, alcohol, hashish, amphetamines, benzodiazepines, or other psychotropics) at the beginning of their pregnancies. The database included 168 sociodemographic variables describing mothers' living conditions and their drug-abuse characteristics; perinatal variables such as gestational age, weight, neonatal abstinence syndrome, and modalities of discharge; and correlations with the main neonatal morbidities...
February 2013: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
Teresa L Kramer, Tyrone F Borders, Shanti Tripathi, Christian Lynch, Carl Leukefeld, Russel S Falck, Robert G Carlson, Brenda M Booth
Substance use and physical violence often coincide, but little has been published on the correlates associated with receipt of partner versus nonpartner physical violence for rural users of methamphetamine and/or cocaine. In this study, participants' substance use, depression and past-year physical victimization were assessed. In separate logistic regression models, received partner violence in females was associated with age; alcohol, cocaine, and methamphetamine abuse/dependence; and number of drugs used in the past 6 months...
2012: Violence and Victims
Bertin Dufaux, Ronald Agius, Thomas Nadulski, Hans-Gerhard Kahl
The purpose of the study was to compare the detection rate of illicit drugs in urine and hair specimens. The samples were taken from subjects trying to regain their revoked driver's license after a drug- or alcohol-related traffic offence. In 2010, we screened 14 000 urine and 3900 hair samples for amphetamines, methamphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, methadone, and benzodiazepines as well as for ethylglucuronide. We used the low threshold values of the new German guidelines for Medical Psychological Assessment (MPA)...
June 2012: Drug Testing and Analysis
Lawrence Herman, Oren Shtayermman, Brittany Aksnes, Michelle Anzalone, Andre Cormerais, Christina Liodice
PURPOSE: Prescription stimulant use as academic performance enhancers is increasingly widespread among college students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of prescription stimulant use among health care students attending a university in the northeastern United States. The study investigated the specific stimulants being used and the frequency of usage. It also examined the rates of nicotine, alcohol, and drug abuse versus dependence. METHODS: A web-based survey was administered to medical and health profession students regarding prescription stimulant use for nonprescribed purposes...
2011: Journal of Physician Assistant Education
Nina B L Urban, Mark Slifstein, Judy L Thompson, Xiaoyan Xu, Ragy R Girgis, Sonia Raheja, Margaret Haney, Anissa Abi-Dargham
BACKGROUND: Low striatal dopamine 2/3 receptor (D(2/3)) availability and low ventrostriatal dopamine (DA) release have been observed in alcoholism and cocaine and heroin dependence. Less is known about the dopaminergic system in cannabis dependence. We assessed D(2/3) availability and DA release in abstinent cannabis users compared with control subjects and explored relationships to cannabis use history using [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography and an amphetamine challenge paradigm...
April 15, 2012: Biological Psychiatry
Ahmed Elkashef, Roberta Kahn, Elmer Yu, Erin Iturriaga, Shou-Hua Li, Ann Anderson, Nora Chiang, Nassima Ait-Daoud, David Weiss, Frances McSherry, Tracey Serpi, Richard Rawson, Mark Hrymoc, Dennis Weis, Michael McCann, Tony Pham, Christopher Stock, Ruth Dickinson, Jan Campbell, Charles Gorodetzky, William Haning, Barry Carlton, Joseph Mawhinney, Ming D Li, Bankole A Johnson
AIMS:   Topiramate has shown efficacy at facilitating abstinence from alcohol and cocaine abuse. This double-blind, placebo-controlled out-patient trial tested topiramate for treating methamphetamine addiction. DESIGN:   Participants (n = 140) were randomized to receive topiramate or placebo (13 weeks) in escalating doses from 25 mg/day [DOSAGE ERROR CORRECTED] to the target maintenance of 200 mg/day in weeks 6-12 (tapered in week 13). Medication was combined with weekly brief behavioral compliance enhancement treatment...
July 2012: Addiction
Desey Tziortzis, James J Mahoney, Ari D Kalechstein, Thomas F Newton, Richard De La Garza
Impulsivity and craving have been independently hypothesized to contribute to sustained drug use and relapse in addiction. The primary focus of this project was to determine the relationship between impulsivity and craving in 85 cocaine-dependent and 73 methamphetamine-dependent, non-treatment-seeking volunteers. Drug use was assessed with a 14-item, self-report drug and alcohol use questionnaire. Self report instruments utilized included the Barratt Impulsivity Scale (BIS) and the Visual Analog Scale (VAS), which probed "just before your last use of cocaine (for cocaine-dependent participants) or methamphetamine (for methamphetamine-dependent participants), how much craving did you experience?" The groups were similar with respect to recent use of cocaine or methamphetamine, alcohol, nicotine, and marijuana...
April 2011: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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