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amphetamine versus cannabis

Andreas G Franke, Patrik Roser, Klaus Lieb, Jochen Vollmann, Jan Schildmann
BACKGROUND: Cognitive Enhancement (CE) is often discussed in relation to stimulant drugs, such as amphetamines (AMPH). However, there is some evidence that cannabis (CAN) can be used for CE. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the knowledge, prevalence, and perceived effects of and factors associated with the knowledge of or use of CAN versus AMPH for CE among undergraduate students at four German universities. METHODS: A survey was taken of 1,538 students at four German universities...
December 5, 2016: Substance Use & Misuse
Anna M Hogendorf, Wojciech Fendler, Janusz Sieroslawski, Katarzyna Bobeff, Krzysztof Wegrewicz, Kamila I Malewska, Maciej W Przudzik, Malgorzata Szmigiero-Kawko, Beata Sztangierska, Malgorzata Mysliwiec, Agnieszka Szadkowska, Wojciech Mlynarski
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the prevalence of illicit drug use in a group of Polish adolescents with type 1 diabetes (DM1) in comparison with a national cohort of their healthy peers. METHODS: Two hundred and nine adolescents with DM1, aged 15-18 years, were studied in 2013 with an anonymous questionnaire prepared for the European School Survey Project on Alcohol and Other Drugs (ESPAD). The control group was a representative sample of 12114 students at the same age who took part in ESPAD in 2011...
2016: Journal of Diabetes Research
Nicolas Simon, Benjamin Rolland, Laurent Karila
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopment disorder occurring during childhood. However, ADHD persists into adulthood in 45.7% of cases. The global prevalence of adult ADHD is estimated to 5.3%, with no difference between Europe and North America. ADHD is often comorbid with substance use disorder (SUD), with Odds Ratio ranges from 1.5 to 7.9, depending on the substance and the dependence level. Conversely, the prevalence of ADHD among patients with SUD is 10.8%, versus 3.8% for patients without SUD...
2015: Current Pharmaceutical Design
T Van der Linden, S M R Wille, M Ramírez-Fernandez, A G Verstraete, N Samyn
BACKGROUND: Internationally, urine on-site testing has been used for detecting drivers under the influence of drugs (DUID) but more and more countries, such as Belgium, are switching to oral fluid screening. OBJECTIVE: To compare the previous (published in 1999) and current (published 2009) enforcement procedures of DUID in Belgium. The two evaluated procedures differ in the way the drivers are screened by the police (signs of impairment versus signs of recent drug use), the matrix for screening (urine versus oral fluid) and the analytical cut-off concentrations in plasma...
April 2015: Forensic Science International
Robert J Tait, Amanda George, Sarah Olesen
AIMS: Animal models show that a single dose of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamhetamine (MDMA; 'ecstasy') can result in long-term disruption of sleep. We evaluated the relationship between ecstasy consumption and the use of sleep medications in humans after controlling for key factors. DESIGN: The Personality and Total Health Through Life project uses a longitudinal cohort with follow-up every 4 years. This study reports data from waves 2 and 3. SETTING: Participants were recruited from the electoral roll in the Australian Capital Territory and Queanbeyan, New South Wales, Australia...
September 2013: Addiction
Nina B L Urban, Mark Slifstein, Judy L Thompson, Xiaoyan Xu, Ragy R Girgis, Sonia Raheja, Margaret Haney, Anissa Abi-Dargham
BACKGROUND: Low striatal dopamine 2/3 receptor (D(2/3)) availability and low ventrostriatal dopamine (DA) release have been observed in alcoholism and cocaine and heroin dependence. Less is known about the dopaminergic system in cannabis dependence. We assessed D(2/3) availability and DA release in abstinent cannabis users compared with control subjects and explored relationships to cannabis use history using [(11)C]raclopride positron emission tomography and an amphetamine challenge paradigm...
April 15, 2012: Biological Psychiatry
Kristiina Kivimies, Eila Repo-Tiihonen, Jari Tiihonen
OBJECTIVES: The primary goal of this study was to examine the relative differences in the use of illegal substances (i.e., amphetamine, cannabis, opiates) among forensic patients who have committed a violent crime compared with the general population. The aim was also to find out if there were differences in substance use among forensic versus nonforensic patients with psychosis diagnosis. METHODS: The study population consisted of 190 persons, who were involuntarily ordered to hospital treatment as forensic patients in Finland...
July 2012: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
Einat Peles, Shaul Schreiber, Miki Bloch, Shaul Dollberg, Miriam Adelson
OBJECTIVES: Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) is the standard treatment of choice for pregnant opiate addicts; however, data on newborn outcomes are contradictory. We studied the effect of the timing of starting MMT and of MMT related drug abstinence on the outcome of newborns of former and current opiate-addicted pregnant women. METHODS: All babies (excluding repeated deliveries) of all pregnant women who were admitted to 1 MMT clinic between 1993 and 2008 were studied...
March 2012: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Amador Calafat, Nicole T Blay, Karen Hughes, Mark Bellis, Montse Juan, Mariàngels Duch, Anna Kokkevi
BACKGROUND: Mediterranean lifestyle has long been hailed as protective against certain risk behaviours and diseases. Mediterranean drinking patterns of moderate alcohol consumption as part of daily life have often been assumed to protect young people from harmful alcohol consumption, in contrast to Northern European drinking patterns. Nightlife environments are strong related to alcohol and drugs use, and other health risk behaviours but few cross-national studies have been undertaken amongst young Europeans frequenting bars and nightclubs...
June 2011: European Journal of Public Health
M R Díaz-Contreras, F Guerrero-López, L Herrera-Para, F Pino-Sánchez, R Lara-Rosales, O López-Guarnido, A Pla, E Fernández-Mondejar
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence of the detection of abuse drugs in severe trauma patients DESIGN: Prospective observational study conducted from July 2004 to January 2006. SETTING: Neurotrauma intensive care unit of a reference tertiary university hospital. PATIENTS: Trauma patients who require admission to ICU during the study period. INTERVENTIONS: Determination of alcohol in blood and of toxics (cocaine, cannabis, amphetamines and other substances) in urine...
June 2008: Medicina Intensiva
Mahdi S AbuMadini, Sheikh I A Rahim, Mohamed A Al-Zahrani, Abbdalla O Al-Johi
BACKGROUND: Treatment provision and treatment seeking for substance use disorders is a relatively new phenomenon in the Middle East. The present study aims to study these trends among first admissions to the specialized addiction treatment Amal Hospital of Dammam over its first two decades (1986-2006). The main outcome measures were: annual inception number (AIN), relative frequency of substances (RFS), relative frequency of drug combinations (RFDC), mean number of substances (MNS), and sociodemographic changes...
October 1, 2008: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Ronald L Cowan, Nicolas R Bolo, Mary Dietrich, Erica Haga, Scott E Lukas, Perry F Renshaw
The recreational drug MDMA (3,4, methylenedioxymethamphetamine; sold under the street name of Ecstasy) is toxic to serotonergic axons in some animal models of MDMA administration. In humans, MDMA use is associated with alterations in markers of brain function that are pronounced in occipital cortex. Among neuroimaging methods, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies of brain metabolites N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and myoinositol (MI) at a field strength of 1.5 Tesla (T) reveal inconsistent results in MDMA users...
August 15, 2007: Psychiatry Research
P Mura, C Chatelain, V Dumestre, J M Gaulier, M H Ghysel, C Lacroix, M F Kergueris, M Lhermitte, M Moulsma, G Pépin, F Vincent, P Kintz
A collaborative study was conducted in France in order to determine the prevalence of cannabinoids, opiates, cocaine metabolites and amphetamines in blood samples from drivers killed in road accidents in 2003 and 2004 and to compare these values with those of a previous study performed during the period 2000-2001 involving 900 drivers. Blood samples were provided from 2003 under 30-year-old drivers, killed in a traffic accident. Drugs of abuse were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using the same analytical procedures in all the 12 laboratories...
July 13, 2006: Forensic Science International
R Pacifici, P Zuccaro, M Farré, S Pichini, S Di Carlo, P N Roset, I Palmi, J Ortuño, E Menoyo, J Segura, R de la Torre
Acute administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") produces time-dependent immune dysfunction in humans. Recreational use of MDMA generally includes repeated drug consumption, often in association with other drugs, such as alcohol and cannabis. In the laboratory setting, repeated MDMA administration to healthy MDMA consumers produced a time-dependent immune dysfunction similar to that observed with the ingestion of a single dose, and the first of the two administrations paralleled the time-course of MDMA-induced cortisol stimulation kinetics and MDMA plasma concentrations...
June 2002: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
José Martínez-Raga, E Jane Marshall, Francis Keaney, David Ball, John Strang
Failure to complete treatment during alcohol detoxification is a major complication of effective clinical management. We determined the socio-demographic characteristics, the pattern of alcohol and drug use, the hepatitis C status and the psychiatric state of these patients, using retrospective data on 470 first admissions to a specialist alcohol in-patient unit. The 316 patients (67.2%) who had a planned discharge (PD group) were compared with the 154 patients (32.8%) who had unplanned discharges (UPD group)...
May 2002: Alcohol and Alcoholism: International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism
S M Mirin, L M Shapiro, R E Meyer, R C Pillard, S Fisher
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 1971: American Journal of Psychiatry
S J Heishman, M L Stitzer
The effects of oral d-amphetamine and secobarbital and smoked marijuana on human social conversation and preference for socializing were studied in three separate experiments. During experimental sessions, active drug or placebo was administered using an acute or divided dosing procedure. Subjects who received drug then engaged in a discrete-trial choice procedure in which they made a series of mutually exclusive choices between a social (talking with their nondrugged partner) and nonsocial (sitting quietly alone) option...
1989: Psychopharmacology
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